•   The people involved in the operation of the plant must be sufficiently sensitive to the various aspects of cyber attacks.

•   Traditional methods of security for a computer system do not work in environments that have periodic updates and antivirus software; one cannot run intrusion detection programs because of the very limited processing power. One has to build a weatherproof, robust and hardened system. This is difficult to do and is a major area of concern. Solutions exist, but there is a lot that needs to be done in this area in particular.

•   The unknown and unused features of commercial off-the-shelf products can lead to significant vulnerabilities. More work should be done on this.

An Indian Perspective on Cybersecurity

R.M. Suresh Babu began by indicating that he would speak about cybersecurity in nuclear facilities in general, which is a broader area, a bigger picture, than speaking specifically about cybersecurity in civilian nuclear facilities. Indian facilities have a large number of computers distributed across the plants, which perform functions from protection of reactor safety to control functions to information collection from displays, and so on. When these computer systems are attacked or hacked by malicious elements, at a minimum certain functionalities of the plant are affected to some extent, and such attacks can lead to serious accident conditions. Cybersecurity refers to how to tackle such problems and how to protect computer bases against malicious attacks by external elements.

Cybersecurity for a nuclear facility can be divided into two parts: instrument and control security (ICS), and facility network security (FNS). There are several differences between these parts of security, including different methodologies, mechanisms, and the effect of failure in each domain. For example, ICS secures safety and control systems such as the reactor protection system, reactor trip system, and power regulation system. While FNS secures the monitoring network, which basically has administrative and managment functions. ICS is applied right from the intial stages of computer-system development and the control-system development. It goes through design development and operation phases, while FNS is most commonly applied during the operation phase of the plant or the facility.

Cybersecurity is commonly understood to have three attributes: confidentiality, availability, and integrity. The impact of a cybersecurity failure or security breach can range from mild to severe to catastrophic if the safety system is affected by a malicious attack. An FNS security failure can lead from mild to severe effects during which data may be lost or transmitted to external persons. With ICS, the most important attribute is integrity. In other words, if the security function is compromised then a serious situation will result. Integrity of the computer system and the software system is the most important aspect of cybersecurity. The availability of safety functions are the next priority.

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