•   There are several training and licensing issues, particularly for the protective forces, still to be addressed or improved.

•   A pathway to success in cooperation is training, and there are many opportunities for cooperation between India and the United States on multiple issues associated with the human aspects of nuclear security.

The Important People: An Indian Perspective

Ranajit Kumar began his remarks by stating that it is important to train personnel on security procedures. Physical protection security (PPS) technologies—hardware, detection, access control, assessment, surveillance and other technologies—must be backed by appropriate security policies and procedures (see Figure 5-1). Training is vital for effective implementation of nuclear security. In most cases, training is neglected. In fact, the time has come to be very stringent on the aspect of training qualification and licensing issues, he said.

There are certain guidelines and there are many efforts by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to take this training aspect of nuclear security to all member states, but the member states also have a significant role to play. During the course of the presentation, Kumar highlighted some of the activities that have been carried out in India and to which India is committed, including participation in the IAEA effort to take nuclear security training to different member states and to make it really global. It is important that nuclear security concerns are addressed globally. One state cannot address this problem and consider itself out of danger from nuclear terrorism or other nuclear security concerns. Kumar reiterated that nuclear security issues have the potential to have effects beyond the border of the originating state. Nuclear security concerns are not limited by any geographical or political borders, therefore, they should be taken seriously and much more effort needs to be taken globally to ensure effective nuclear security.


FIGURE 5-1 Integrated Security Approach. SOURCE: Kumar, 2012.

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