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NATIONAL MATER.ALS ADVISORY BOARD COMMISSION ON SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEMS Ch'rm,• Past Chairman: Members: Tim ml '•':. '- Itltlllllalf

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Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Knlerod) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING R)KM I. REPORT NUMBER NMAB-321 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE fand Subtitle) Erosion in Large Gun Barrels 5. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORflJ National Materials Advisory Ad Hoc Committee on Gun Tube Erosion 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERC") MDA903-74-C-0167 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS National Materials Advisory Board National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D. C. 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS U.S. Army Materiel Command Department of Defense —Wggh'ngtr>p D. C. 14. MONITORfNG AGENCY NAME 4 ADDRESSflf different from Controlling Office) 12. REPORT DATE; 1975 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 64 IS. SECURITY CLASS, (ol this report) Unclassified 15«. DECLASSIFICATION DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT in! this Report) Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract entered fn Block 20, It different from Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide if necessary and identity by block number) Additives Cannon Coatings Chromium Cutting Tools Erosion Exhaust Valves Gun Barrels Piston Rings Projectiles Propellants Refractory Metals Rotating Bands Wankel Seals 20. .\HSTRACT (Continue on reverse side It necessary and identify by block number) The erosion of gun tubes is a very complex interdisciplinary problem involving several branches of engineering and science. Several mechanisms are responsible for this limitation to gun tube life, some of which are of thermal origin, some are mechanical and some chemical. The exact combination of these mechanisms will depend upon the following components of the gun system. (Over) i JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered}

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Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEfHTien Data Entered; 1. The gun barrel system 2. The projectile system 3. The charge assembly 4. Wear reducing additives in the propellant 5. Firing conditions After reviewing the history of gun barrel erosion from these several points of view, possible mechanisms are discussed. Several other fields of engineering endeavors that are limited by severe wear problems are reviewed for possible sources of technology transfer. The report concludes by suggesting long and short range programs, including a number of specific ideas that should be evaluated. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEfWhen Data Entered)

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TD1062.E76 1975 c.l Erosion in large gun barrels : report of Committee on Gun Tube Erosion / EROSION IN LARGE GUN BARRELS REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GUN TUBE EROSTQN NATIONAL MATERTALS ADVISORY BOARD Commission on Sociotechnical Systems National Research Council Publication NMAB-321 National Academy of Sciences Washington, D. C. 1975 NAS-NAE DEC 2 41975 LIBRARY

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ii NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for ap- propriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted, with supplemental Army support under Contract No. MDA903-74-C-0167 with the Department of Defense. The National Research Council was established in 1916 by the National Academy of Sciences to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy by authority of its Congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, non-profit, self-governing membership corporation. Ad- ministered jointly by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine (all three of which operate under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences), the Council is their principal agency for the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. This report is for sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151. Requests for permission to reproduce this report in whole or in part should be addressed to the National Materials Advisory Board. Printed in the United States of America. Order from National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22161 Order N

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iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The assistance to the committee freely given by personnel of the Department of Defense is acknowledged with thanks.

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iv NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD COMMTTTEE ON GUN TUBE EPOSION Chairman: Dr. Milton C. Shaw Institute Professor and Head Department of Mechanical Engineering Carnegie-Melon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Members Mr. Richard T. Begley Westinghouse Research Laboratory Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 Dr. Iain Finnie Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California Berkeley, California 94720 Dr. Peter Kosting Formerly with the U.S. Department of the Army Washington, D. C. Mr. Robert Remaly Manager, Chemical Energetics IIT Research Institute Chicago, Illinois 60616 CONSULTANT: Mr. Adolph O. Schaefer Director The Metal Properties Council New York, New York 10017 Mr. Mortimer Schussler Senior Scientist Fansteel, Inc. North Chicago, Illinois Mr. Charles D. Strang, Jr. President Outboard Marine Corporation Waukegan, Illinois 60085 Mr. Lawrence Sama Seaford, New York 11783

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Liaison Representatives Department of the Army Mr. Eugene Boward U.S. Army Materiel Command Alexandria, Virginia 22304 Mr. Edward Lippi U.S. Army Materiel Command Alexandria, Virginia 22304 Dr. Richard Ward Ballistic Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 Dr. Wayne M. Robertson U.S. Army Armament Command Rock Island, Illinois 61201 Dr. Robert Weigle Director Benet Weapons Laboratory Watervliet Arsenal Watervliet, New York 12189 Department of the Navy Dr. John Copley Naval Service Weapon Center Dahlgren, Virginia 22448 NMAB Staff Member Dr. Joseph R. Lane Staff Metallurgist National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council Washington, D. C. 20418

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vi ABSTRACT The erosion of gun tubes is a very complex interdisciplinary problem involving several branches of engineering and science. Several mechanisms are responsible for this limitation to gun tube life, some of which are of thermal origin, some are mechanical and some chemical. The exact combination of these mechan- isms will depend upon the following components of the gun system. 1. The gun barrel system 2. The projectile system 3. The charge assembly 4. Wear reducing additives in the propellant 5. Firing conditions After reviewing the history of gun barrel erosion from these several points of view, possible mechanisms are discussed. Several other fields of engineering endeavors that are limited by severe wear problems are reviewed for possible sources of technology transfer. The report concludes by suggesting long and short range programs, including a number of specific ideas that should be evaluated.

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vii CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 OBJECTIVES 1 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1 CONCLUDING REMARKS 7 DESCRIPTION OF GUN SYSTEM 7 1. The Gun Barrel System 16 2. The Projectile System 23 3. The Charge Assembly (including additives) 26 4. The Firing Conditions 35 MECHANISMS OF GUN BARREL EROSION 36 TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY FROM OTHER FIELDS TO THE EROSION OF GUN BARRELS 41 1. Internal Combustion Engine Technology 42 2. Cutting Tool Technology 49 3. Casting, Forging and Extrusion Technologies 52 4. Rocket Nozzles 54 5. Gas Turbine Engines 55 REFERENCES , . . , , 56