Appendix F

Glossary

The terms defined in this glossary are for the purpose of usage within this report.

Adaptive adversary An opponent that continually reacts to defensive actions and protective measures by adapting or inventing new pathways to do harm.

Analytic framework An analytic framework is a consistent way of thinking in a planning or decision-making context, which usually involves specific analytical tools (e.g., cost-benefit analysis, risk analysis, Bayesian analysis) and methods (e.g., statistics, expert elicitation, value of information analysis).

Architecture Often used in connection with the term “systems” as in “systems architecture.” A (systems) architecture consists of basic elements that interrelate and connect to form subsystems and the system as a whole. The definition of an architecture also includes the purpose of the system and its boundaries.

Best-effort budget An overall value that represents the GNDA budget; it is determined by reports from each of the agencies that participates in the GNDA. Each agency estimates the activities, resources and costs that are GNDA-related.



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Appendix F Glossary The terms defined in this glossary are for the purpose of usage within this report. Adaptive adversary  An opponent that continually reacts to defensive ac- tions and protective measures by adapting or inventing new pathways to do harm. Analytic framework  An analytic framework is a consistent way of think- ing in a planning or decision-making context, which usually involves spe- cific analytical tools (e.g., cost-benefit analysis, risk analysis, Bayesian analysis) and methods (e.g., statistics, expert elicitation, value of informa- tion analysis). Architecture  Often used in connection with the term “systems” as in “systems architecture.” A (systems) architecture consists of basic elements that interrelate and connect to form subsystems and the system as a whole. The definition of an architecture also includes the purpose of the system and its boundaries. Best-effort budget  An overall value that represents the GNDA budget; it is determined by reports from each of the agencies that participates in the GNDA. Each agency estimates the activities, resources and costs that are GNDA-related. 91

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92 APPENDIX F Capability  The ability to perform tasks or assessments based on avail- able capacities that lead to outcomes. Capacity (see below) and capability together describe the resources in place to achieve a predefined task. For example, a vaccination program may have a capacity of 10 million vaccines which would lead to the capability of vaccinating 1 million people per day. Capacity  The tools and core resources that enable action; for example, detectors, concepts of operation, and training are capacities. Detection  The action or process of determining the presence of a target object or substance, by way of passive and active detection equipment as well as by nontechnical means, such as ongoing law-enforcement infor- mation or observations, public and other government departments’ and agencies’ observations, or reporting of suspicious behavior (GNDA, 2010). Deterrence  Reduction by denial, by retribution, by other means of the likelihood that adversaries will attempt an attack. Gap  A pathway without detection capabilities (as used within the GNDA). Goal  A statement of the result or achievement toward which effort is directed. Strategic goals articulate clear statements of what the agency wants to achieve to advance its mission and address relevant national problems, needs, challenges, and opportunities. These outcome-oriented strategic goals and supporting activities should further the agency’s mission (OMB, 2012). Goals are usually defined as specific attainment level or target on an ob- jective or performance measure. In some contexts (e.g., GNDA, 2012; NAS, DTRA) the term goal is used synonymously with a higher-level objective. Implementation plan An implementation plan defines the specific programs and steps to be taken to implement a . It is usually more short term (1-3 years) than a strategic plan and it defines specific activities and desired goals and targets. Indicator  A measurable value that is used to track progress toward a goal or target. (See “metric” below.) “Agencies are encouraged to use outcome indicators . . . where feasible” (OMB, 2012). Metric   Synonymous with “indicator,” the actual quantity that is used to measure progress. Metrics can be quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative metrics may use numerical (e.g., a percentage or number) or constructed

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APPENDIX F 93 scales (e.g., high, medium, low). A standard or indicator of measurement (OMB, 2012). Measure   Qualitative or quantitative facts that gauge the progress toward achieving a goal. These facts may be in the form of indicators, statistics, or metrics. Mission boundary  The boundary and transfer of federal responsibilities across the spectrum of nuclear counterterrorism activities. Mission statement  A brief, easy-to-understand narrative . . . [that] defines the basic purpose of the agency and is consistent with the agency’s core programs and activities expressed within the broad context of national problems, needs, or challenges” (OMB, 2012). Objectives (or Strategic objectives)  The outcome or impact the agency is trying to achieve (OMB, 2012). Out of regulatory control  Materials that are being imported, possessed, stored, transported, developed, or used without authorization by the ap- propriate regulatory authority, either inadvertently or deliberately (DHS, 2011b, Vol. I, p. 4). Outcome  A type of measure that indicates progress against achieving the intended result of a program. Indicates changes in conditions that the government is trying to influence (OMB, 2012). Outcome-based  Provides information on progress made against an in- tended result or can indicate changes in conditions that the customer is attempting to influence. Output  Description of the level of an activity or a program, such as the number of inspections conducted in a given day or the number of inter- agency meetings held per year. Outputs may not necessarily be related to outcomes. A type of measure, specifically the tabulation, calculation, or record- ing of activity or effort, usually expressed quantitatively. Outputs describe the level of product or activity that will be provided over a period of time. While output indicators can be useful, there must be a reasonable connec- tion between outputs used as performance indicators and outcomes (OMB, 2012).

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94 APPENDIX F Performance goal  Goals established by an agency to monitor and under- stand progress toward strategic objectives (OMB 2012). A statement of the level of performance to be accomplished within a time frame, expressed as a tangible, measurable objective or as a quantita- tive standard, value, or rate. For the purposes of this guidance and imple- mentation of the GPRA Modernization Act, a performance goal includes a performance indicator, a target, and a time period. The GPRA Modern- ization Act requires performance goals to be expressed in an objective, quantifiable, and measurable form unless agencies in consultation with OMB determine that it is not feasible. In such cases an “alternative form” performance goal may be used. The requirement for OMB approval of an alternative-form goal applies to performance goals only. Milestones are of- ten used as the basis of an alternative-form performance goal. Performance goals specified in alternative form must be described in a way that makes it possible to discern if progress is being made toward the goal (OMB 2012). Performance measure  “[M]easurable values that indicate the state or level” and that are “used to track progress toward a goal or target. . . . By definition, the indicators for which agencies set targets with time frames are performance indicators. . . . Agencies are encouraged to use outcome indicators as performance indicators where feasible” (OMB, 2012). Performance metric  A performance metric is a specific prescription of how to make an estimate or assessment of a decision alternative or plan on a performance measure. For example, the performance measure “Life-cycle cost” can be estimated by the metric “discounted life-cycle cost in 2012 dollars.” Often the metric is defined as part of a performance measure. Port(s) of Entry  The terms ‘‘port’’ and ‘‘port of entry’’ incorporate the geo- graphical area under the jurisdiction of a port director (19 CFR § 101.3). Proxy  A metric that does not directly relate to a goal or objective but can be used as an indirect measure as long as a strong relationship between the metric and its objective can be made. Proxies can be useful and should not be indiscriminately avoided especially when a direct metric cannot be established. Proxy metrics are also called “indirect metrics.” Scope (of a goal, objective, or metric)  The focus or functional scope con- sists of three main levels as they relate to the GNDA: Architecture—the integrated capability of all three geographic layers and the crosscutting functions of the GNDA. Layers—the operational elements and assets in each of the three geo-

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APPENDIX F 95 graphical layers of the GNDA (exterior to the United States, border, and interior of the United States). Resources—budgets, people, assets, and capabilities. Strategic goals  The general, outcome-oriented, long-term goals for the major functions and operations of the agency (OMB, 2012). Strategic objectives  Objectives that reflect the outcome or impact the agency is trying to achieve (OMB, 2012). Strategic plan  Presents the long-term objectives an agency hopes to ac- complish, set at the beginning of each new term of an Administration. It describes general and longer-term goals the agency aims to achieve, what actions the agency will take to realize those goals, and how the agency will deal with the challenges likely to be barriers to achieving the desired result. An agency’s strategic plan should provide the context for decisions about performance goals, priorities, and budget planning, and should provide the framework for the detail provided in agency annual plans and reports (OMB, 2012). Surge  A domestic operation under DNDO authority to be a temporary increase in intensity of preventive detection activities using existing limited resources, initiated by weak intelligence cues that do not constitute the basis for determining a credible threat that would otherwise trigger search operations (JASON, 2012, p. 9). Type  There are different types of goals, objectives, and metrics. Input—indicates consumption of resources used (e.g., time, money). Process—indicates how well a procedure, process, or operation is working. Output—describes the level of activity (or product) that will be pro- vided over a period of time. Outcome—indicates progress against achieving the intended result. Vision statement  Describes the long-term goal of the organization or program (OMB 2012).

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