POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR PHOTONS

A Report Prepared by the

Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons

Energy Engineering Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1991



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR PHOTONSA Report Prepared by the Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons Energy Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is the president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract No. XX-9-19012-1 from the Solar Energy Research Institute Division of the Midwest Research Institute through the U.S. Department of Energy to the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 91-62493 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04576-2 NAP S-415 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons COMMITTEE ON POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF CONCENTRATED SOLAR PHOTONS ALLEN J. BARD Chairman, Department of Chemistry, University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas ADAM HELLER Vice-Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas J. LAMBERT BATES, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, Washington ELSA M. GARMIRE, Center for Laser Studies, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California ARTHUR L. GOLDSTEIN, Ionics, Incorporated, Watertown, Massachusetts JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY, Consultant, Dallas, Texas DAVID F. OLLIS, Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina ADEL F. SAROFIM, Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts NICK SERPONE, Department of Chemistry, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada MICHAEL A. TENHOVER, B.P. Research, Warrensville Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio VERONICA VAIDA, Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado National Research Council Staff KAMAL J. ARAJ, Study Director, Energy Engineering Board JAN C. KRONENBURG, Study Assistant (to February 1991)

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons ENERGY ENGINEERING BOARD JOHN A. TILLINGHAST Chairman, Tiltec, Portsmouth, New Hampshire DONALD B. ANTHONY, Bechtel Corporation, Houston, Texas RICHARD E. BALZHISER, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California BARBARA R. BARKOVICH, Barkovich and Yap, Consultants, San Rafael, California JOHN A. CASAZZA, CSA Energy Consultants, Arlington, Virginia RALPH C. CAVANAGH, Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco, California DAVID E. COLE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan H. M. (HUB) HUBBARD, Midwest Research Institute, Golden, Colorado ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (to February 1991) CHARLES IMBRECHT, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California CHARLES D. KOLSTAD, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois HENRY R. LINDEN, Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois JAMES J. MARKOWSKY, American Electric Power Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio (to February, 1991) SEYMOUR L. MEISEL, Mobile R&D Corporation (retired), Princeton, New Jersey DAVID L. MORRISON, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia MARC H. ROSS, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Garrett Ceramic Component Division, Torrance, California HAROLD H. SCHOBERT, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania GLEN A. SCHURMAN, Chevron Corporation (retired), San Francisco, California JON M. VEIGEL, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee BERTRAM WOLFE, GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, California Staff ARCHIE L. WOOD, Executive Director, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and Director, Energy Engineering Board (to January 1991) MAHADEVAN (DEV) MANI, Director, Energy Engineering Board KAMAL J. ARAJ, Senior Program Officer ROBERT COHEN, Senior Program Officer (retired) GEORGE LALOS, Senior Program Officer JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Senior Program Officer JUDITH A. AMRI, Administrative Coordinator THERESA M. FISHER, Administrative Secretary JAN C. KRONENBURG, Administrative Secretary (to February 1991) PHILOMINA MAMMEN, Administrative Secretary NANCY WHITNEY, Administrative Secretary

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons Preface The Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons was appointed by the National Research Council on May 7, 1990, to consider potential applications of concentrated solar energy in nonelectric areas (such as waste treatment, photochemical processes and materials processing); to review current work and assess the state of the art in these fields; and to recommend research needed for further development. The committee considered both technologies leading to applications (i.e., products or processes of commercial value) and research that might result in relevant discoveries. The committee recognizes that applications of solar energy may require many years to develop and that such applications will become more important as fossil fuels are depleted and environmental concerns become acute. To carry out its task, the committee held several meetings and convened a workshop. At its first meeting, on June 7–8, 1990, the committee was briefed by members of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Solar Energy Research Institute on past and current activities of DOE's Solar Thermal Technology Program and possible applications of concentrated sunlight. At the workshop, held November 7–9, 1990, in Golden, Colorado, a number of experts in areas of possible applications assessed the current state of the field and discussed technologies for which solar energy might be utilized. Speakers also discussed areas of fundamental research (e.g., in photo-chemistry and lasers). The proceedings of the workshop, which are being published separately, contain much of the background material that is used in the present report. Following the workshop, the committee held a meeting to discuss the proceedings and the outline of this report. In addition, committee members consulted with other experts in relevant fields. To review international research and development activities, the chairman attended a symposium on solar high temperature technologies in Davos, Switzerland, and another committee member and the study director visited several European research establishments. The committee drafted the report, with conclusions and recommendations, at its final meeting on February 7–9, 1991. The committee is grateful to the speakers and other participants at the workshop for their contributions and advice. We also acknowledge the assistance of Jan Kronenburg and Susanna Clarendon for their tireless efforts in handling the administrative matters of conducting the study and laboring through the many drafts of this report. Allen J. Bard, Chairman Committee on Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons Contents     LIST OF FIGURES   ix     LIST OF TABLES   ix     LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS   x     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     General Recommendations   2     Specific Recommendations   2 1   INTRODUCTION   5     Genesis and Scope of the Study   5     Technical Background   5     Organization of the Study and Report   10     References   10 2   REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF VARIOUS APPLICATION AREAS   11     Water and Wastewater Treatment   11     Brief Description   11     Status of Technology   12     Economics   14     Assessment of Knowledge Base   15     Recommendations   16     References   17     Waste Treatment   18     Brief Description   18     Status of Technology   19     Assessment of the Knowledge Base   20     Recommendations   25     References   26     Materials Processing and Synthesis   27     Brief Description   27     Status of Technology   28     Potential Applications   29     Conclusions   30     Recommendations   30     References   31

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons     Photochemical and Photobiological Synthesis   31     Brief description   31     Assessment of Knowledge Base   31     Recommendations   32     Conclusions   34     Notes and References   35     Solar Pumping of Lasers   35     Brief Description   35     Status of Technology   36     Assessment of Knowledge Base   37     Conclusions and Recommendations   38     Applications and Economics   39     References   40     Solar Fuels and Biomass Conversion   41     Background   41     Status of Technology   42     Competitive Technologies to Solar-Driven Fuels   44     Economic Analyses   44     An Industry's Experience in Solar Fuel Research   45     Development and Commercialization of New Technologies   45     Conclusions   46     Recommendations   46     References   46     Solar Air Conditioning   47     Brief Description   47     Recommendation   47 3   ORGANIZATION, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, PROGRAM DIRECTION, AND INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES   48     Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons   48     Program and Personnel Dimensions   48     Organizational and Institutional Aspects of Research on Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons   50 4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   51     Introduction   51     General Recommendations   51     Personnel   51     Long-Term Fundamental Research   52     Market Analysis   52     User Facilities   53     Specific Recommendations   53     Water and Wastewater Treatment   53     Waste Treatment   53     Materials Synthesis and Processing   53     Photochemical Synthesis   54     Solar Pumping of Lasers   54     Solar Fuels and Biomass Conversion   54

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons     APPENDIXES     A   Statement of Task   55 B   Committee Meetings and Activities   57 C   List of European Visits   62 D   Intensity Influence   64 E   Pressure Dependence of Photochemical Reactions   67 F   Knowledge Base and Status of Technology of Solar Fuels   69 LIST OF FIGURES 1-1   Solar thermal concepts   6 1-2   Spectral irradiance curves for direct sunlight extraterrestrially and at sea level with the sun directly overhead   8 2-1   Typical hazardous waste treatment costs   20 2-2   Effects of temperature and exposure to 95 suns on the decomposition 3,3',4,4' tetrachlorobiphenyl (3000 ppm) in air and on its fractional conversion to tetrachlorodibenzofuran   22 2-3   Simplified potential energy diagram for a hypothetical high-temperature photochemical reaction   23 2-4   Destruction of CH3Cl versus temperature   24 2-5   Price-volume correlation of various chemical compounds   32 2-6   Solar-pumped laser system   37 2-7   Flow diagram for hydrogen production technologies   42 3-1   Flow chart for project development   49 D-1   Illustration of calculation for configurations and concentrator   65 E-1   Three state of thermal-photolytic model   67 F-1   Diagram of a hybrid water-splitting system (Mark 5 and Mark 6) for the production of hydrogen and oxygen   71 F-2   A model scheme of the Yokohama Mark VII   72 F-3   Experimental setup for the thermolytic/electrolytic decomposition of water   73 F-4   Electrolysis with 600°C receiver versus S/I2 with a 900°C receiver   76 F-5   Electrolysis versus S/I2 high-temperature receiver   77 LIST OF TABLES 1-1   Typical Characteristics of Systems Concentrating Solar Photons   7 2-1   Commercial Hazardous Waste Treatment Costs   19 2-2   First and Second Law Efficiencies, Plant size, and Typical Costs of Solar Hydrogen   45 F-1   First Law (Energy) and Second Law (Exergy) Efficiencies for the Thermolysis/Electrolysis System and Related Costs   74

OCR for page R1
Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Photons LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AM1 air mass 1 AOP advanced oxidation process CAESAR CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver DCAR direct catalytic absorption reactor DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency eV electron volt gpd gallon per day gpm gallon per minute GRI Gas Research Institute GJ gigajoule HTGR high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor IEA International Energy Agency kW kilowatt kWt kilowatt (thermal) LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MBMS molecular beam mass spectrometer MW megawatt NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NRC National Research Council nm nanometer (= 10-9 m) ph photon ppm parts per million ptg per thousand gallons PV photovoltaic R&Dresearch and development SERI Solar Energy Research Institute SNL Sandia National Laboratories TCE trichloroethylene UV ultraviolet