Click for next page ( 52


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 51
RECOMMENDATIONS Based on its study of the needs, benefits, costs, and probable effects of verification, the panel recommends that a third-party verification system be implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey. This recommendation is made with the recognition that a significant commitment of effort and funding by the USGS and the industry will be required to ensure an effective and constructive system. To aid in establishing and operating the system, the panel offers a series of recommendations, many of which are interdependent. In planning and executing a verification system careful consideration of each element should be taken to minimize delays created by the procedure. The system must be flexible and adaptable in operation to accommodate new technical developments and the time-consuming step- wise process of designing, building, and installing a plat- form. (1) A policy document should be prepared by the USGS to initiate the verification system. The document should establish that the primary goal is to enhance the orderly extension of oil and gas acti- vities in an expeditious and efficient way by assuring the public and the Congress of the integrity of the fixed offshore platforms. The document should define the elements of the verification system and the policy by which the system is implemented. (2) The principal elements that should be included in the verification system are: (a) establishment of environmental design conditions for each offshore area and each class of structure, (b) documentation and promulgation of recommended design and con- struction practices, 51

OCR for page 51
52 (c) submission and approval of verification plans, (d) verification of design, fab- rication, installation, and enhancement of safety through continuing periodic inspections, (e) issuing of approvals and a permit to operate, (f) a rapid and effective procedure for appeals, and (g) provisions for auditing. (3) The USGS should establish a continuing board of consultants composed of repre- sentatives from industry, academia, the public, and government sectors, to develop and review environmental design conditions and practices (by geographical area and structure type), verification procedures, and qualifications of third- party reviewers. (4) The USGS should provide guidelines for submitting acceptable verification plans for individual projects. Such plans would be initiated by the owner or operator and should describe environ- mental and operating conditions under which the structure must maintain its integrity; the proposed design, fabri- cation, installation, and maintenance procedures; descriptions of the scope of the design reviews, inspection, and testing; and identification of individuals or organizations who will act as the third- party reviewers. (5) For each project, the following general procedure should be applied: (a) The owner or his representative submits a verification plan in accordance with the USGS guide- lines recommended in (4).

OCR for page 51
53 (b) The USGS accepts the submitted verification plan or issues a statement concerning specific corrections required. (c) Third-party review and inspection is done in accordance with the accepted plan. (d) The USGS acknowledges compliance with the verification program with written approval and issuance of a permit to operate. (e) For cases in which plans or verification practices are contested, an appeal procedure is established by the USGS, possibly through the use of an ad hoc technical panel or the board of consultants. (f) Provisions would be incorporated for step-by-step verification and approval, thus allowing actual work to be initiated in a timely manner. (6) The USGS should directly manage and administer the verification system. Although the board of consultants will make recommendations about the system and individual consultants may be utilized in reviewing verification plans when submitted, the USGS should not delegate its authority and responsibility for establishing environmental design and construction conditions, practices, and verification procedures. This also should apply to approvals of individual verification plans, their implementation, and appeals. (7) The panel recommends that, to be qualified as an independent verification agent (design reviewer or inspector), the design organization or personnel may not have corporate affiliation with the owner or operator; nor should they verify any of the design, fabrication, installation, or

OCR for page 51
54 operation functions or parts thereof which they or a corporate affiliate have per- formed for the specific platform being verified. The verification agent may thus be drawn from such groups as consultants, engineering companies, and verification societies such as ABS and Det norske Veritas, provided they meet the particular technical and the independence qualifications. (8) The shift from the present USGS system to the implementation of the verification system should be accomplished in an orderly manner, taking into consideration the critical shortage of qualified per- sonnel, the intergovernmental agency cooperation that must be established, and the time required to initiate an effective and useful system. The USGS should establish immediately the board of consultants and develop environmental design and construction practices. During a transition period, an owner or operator could continue to use existing recommended practices and applicable codes, pending the adoption of new ones by the USGS. During this transition period, in-house design approval by a professional engineer in lieu of third-party verification could be continued, although owners and operators of structures should be urged by the USGS to progressively increase their use of independent third parties for verification, thus phasing out the present USGS system. (9) Only when the USGS is staffed adequately and environmental conditions for specific regions have been established, should verification procedures shift from those used in the transition period to those recommended for full third-party verification. (10) It is to be expected that significant technical questions will arise from the verification process. The USGS should take positive steps to insure that necessary research programs are initiated.

OCR for page 51
55 (11) Procedures for routine reporting of plat- form structural conditions and analysis should be established. The reporting can be implemented using the present USGS reporting system for safety devices. (12) Accident investigation and review should be undertaken to determine the probable cause of major structural failures, or other events as determined to be necessary. Such investigations should be reviewed by a board similar to the National Transportation Safety Board. (13) The USGS should aggressively organize and develop a highly competent staff in order to establish and operate the veri- fication system. Positions must be established with civil service ratings of sufficiently high grade levels to attract highly qualified and competent engineers to undertake the program. Prior experience in offshore work is vital for these key people. (14) The USGS personnel involved in the administration and management of the verification system should be encouraged to participate in technical societies and in other groups concerned with OCS activities. (15) Adequate funding for the management and administration of the verification system needs to be assured by the federal government prior to its implementation. (16) Provision should be made by the USGS for periodic review by an independent group of the efficacy and deficiencies of the established verification system, with appropriate action recommended for alleviating each deficiency.

OCR for page 51
NOTES 1. Reeds, C. and W.D. Trammell. "Economic Criteria for Analyzing Subsea Field Development." Ocean Industry, Vol. 11, No. 7, July, 1976. 2. Lee, G.C. 1968. "Offshore Structures: Past, Present, Future and Design Consideration." Paper presented at the Offshore Exploration Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 14-16, 1968. 3. Stahl, Bernhard. 1975. "Probabilistic Methods for Offshore Platforms." Annual Meeting Papers, Division of Production. Dallas!American Petroleum Institute. 4. Council on Environmental Quality. 1974. OCS Oil and Gas — An Environmental Assessment, 5 Vols"Washington, DC:Government Printing Office. 5. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act of 1953. Public Law 212; 67 Stat. 462.43 U.S. Code 1331-1343. 6. National Academy of Engineering, Marine Board. 1972. Outer Continental Shelf Resource Development Safety: A Review of Technology and Regulation for the System- atic Minimization of Environmental Intrusion from Petroleum Products.Washington, DC:National Academy of Sciences. 7. General Services Administration, Office of the Federal Register. Federal Register, Vol. 41, No. 20, January 29, 1976, p. 4306. 8. National Academy of Engineering, Marine Board. Op. Cit. 9. The Aerospace Corporation. 1976. Verification of Off- shore Structures for Oil and Gas Development, Program Plan. Report ATR-76 (7582)-! and Program Plan Imple- mentation Options—Verification of Offshore Structures for Oil and Gas Development.Report ATR-76(7582)-2. El Segundo, California. 10. Ibid. 11. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. "Approval Procedure for Installation and Operation of 56

OCR for page 51
57 Platforms, Fixed and Mobile Structures, and Artificial Islands." 12. Department of Energy. 1974. Guidance on the Design and Construction of Offshore Installations. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 13. Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Public Law 85-726. 14. The Aerospace Corporation. Verification of Offshore Structures for Oil and Gas Development, Program Plan and Program Plan Implementation Options—Verification 3J 3h of Offshore Structures for Oil and Gas Development.

OCR for page 51
APPENDIX A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Aerospace Corporation. Program Plan Implementation Options - Verification of Offshore Structures for Oil and Gas Develop- ment, Report No. ATR-76 (7582)-2, The Aerospace Corporation. El Segundo, Calif., 1976. Allan, A.K. and W.D. Holden. "The Protective Treatment of Accommodation Modules." Paper presented at the Two-Day Con- ference on Long Service from Offshore Structures, sponsored by the Institution of Metallurgists, Institution of Corrosion Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, England, February 19-20, 1976. Allen, Richard T.L. "The Performance of Concrete Structures in the Sea." Paper presented at the Two-Day Joint Conference on Long Service from Offshore Structures, sponsored by the Institution of Metallurgists, Institution of Corrosion Sci- ence and Technology, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, England, February 19-20, 1976. American Bureau of Shipping. Rules for Building and Class- ing Offshore Mobile Drilling Units. American Bureau of Shipping, New York, N.Y., 1973. . Rules for Nondestructive Inspection of Hull Welds. American Bureau of Shipping, New York, N.Y. , 1975. . Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. American Bureau of Shipping, New York, N.Y., 1976. . (Unpublished and Untitled). Presentation before the Panel on Certification of Offshore Structures (of the Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council). Washington, D.C., June 23, 1976. American Petroleum Institute. API Bulletin on Policy and Procedures for Committees on Standardization of Oilfield Equipment and Materials.American Petroleum Institute, Dallas, Texas, 1973. 58

OCR for page 51
59 . API Specification for Drilling Rig Packaging for Minimum Self-Contained Platforms. American Petroleum Institute, Dallas, Texas, 1973. . API Recommended Practice for Production Facil- ities on Offshore StructuredAmerican Petroleum Institute, Dallas, Texas, 1974. . API Specification for Carbon Manganese Steel Plate for Offshore Platform Tubular Joints. American Petroleum Institute, Dallas, Texas, 1974. API Recommended Practice for Planning, Design- ing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. American Petroleum Institute, Dallas, Texas, 1976. Atherton, D. "Original and Repair Painting Systems for Off- shore Structures." Paper presented at the Two-Day Confer- ence on Long Service from Offshore Structures, sponsored by the Institution of Metallurgists, Institution of Corro- sion Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, England, February 19-20, 1976. Bainbridge, C.A. "Certification of Fixed Steel Platforms in the North Sea." Offshore Technology Conference Preprints, Vol. Ill, pp. 737-756, Dallas, Texas, 1975. Boeing Commercial Airplane Company. (Unpublished). "Fed- eral Aviation Administration Designee System of Aircraft Type and Airworthiness Certification." Presentation before the Panel on Certification of Offshore Structures (of the Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council). Washington, D.C., June 23, 1976. Bosnak, R.J. "Development of Maritime Safety Standards for Vessel and Equipment Construction by the U.S. Coast Guard." Paper presented at the spring meeting of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Washington, D.C., April 1-3, 1970. Brannon, H. Ray. (Unpublished). "Factors Affecting Cost of Severe Damage or Loss of a Platform." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976. Brannon, H. Ray. (Unpublished). "Impacts of Third-Party Verification." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976.

OCR for page 51
60 Brannon, H. Ray. (Unpublished). "Proposed USGS Plan for Structure Verification." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976. Brannon, H. Ray. (Unpublished). "Platform Systems." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, B.C., 1976. Brown, W.J. (Unpublished). "Presentation on Verification of Offshore Platform Design and Construction -- Program Plan Definition." The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, California, 1976. Bureau Veritas. Rules and Regulations for the Construction and Classification of Offshore Platforms. Bureau Veritas, International Register for the Classification of Ships and Aircraft, Paris, France, 1975. Derrington, J.A. (Unpublished). "Certification of Sea Structures." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engi- neering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976. Det norske Veritas. Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of Fixed Offshore Structures. Det norske Veritas, Oslo, Norway, 1974. Eijnsbergen, J.F.H. "Duplex Systems for Offshore Structures." Paper presented at the Two-Day Joint Conference on Long Service from Offshore Structures, sponsored by the Institu- tion of Metallurgists, Institution of Corrosion Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, England, February 19-20, 1976. Eri, Jacob. "Development and Implementation of Regulations for Permanent Offshore Structures." Offshore Technology Conference Preprints, Vol. Ill, pp. 757-758. Dallas, Texas, 1975. Focht, John A., Jr. (Unpublished). "Foundation of Fixed Offshore Structures." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976. Gerwick, Ben C., Jr. (Unpublished). "Design, Construction, and Installation of Concrete Offshore Platforms: State-of- the-Art." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineer- ing, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976.

OCR for page 51
61 Gerwick, Ben C., Jr. (Unpublished). "USGS Verification Program." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineer- ing, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976. Golay, Claude. (Unpublished). "Presentation of the Off- shore Operators Committee." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washing- ton, D.C., 1976. Hockenhull, B.S. "Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue in Offshore Structures." Paper presented at the Two-Day Joint Conference on Long Service from Offshore Structures, sponsored by the Institution of Metallurgists, Institution of Corrosion Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, England, February 19-20, 1976. Kash, Don E., et al. Energy Under the Oceans. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1973. Lee, G.C. (Unpublished). "Offshore Steel Platforms." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. Rules for the Construction and Classification of Mobile Oftshore uhiTTg'I London. " ' England, 1972. MacKay, W.B. "A Technical and Commercial Evaluation of Cathodic Protection Systems for Offshore Structures." Paper presented at the Two-Day Joint Conference on Long Service from Offshore Structures, sponsored by the Insti- tution of Metallurgists, Institution of Corrosion Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Engineers, London, Eng- land, February 19-20, 1976. Marine Board, National Research Council. Seafloor Engineer- ing: National Needs and Research Requirements. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1976. Meeker, Leonard C. (Unpublished). "Environmental Concerns of the Government and the Public." Available from Marine Board, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1976.

OCR for page 51
75 VERIFICATION OPERATIONS: (Policy on responsibilities of USGS, industry, et al.) Industry plan development — General contents, include nominations of third parties. USGS Plan Approval — include approval of third parties. Industry, USGS, and Third-party activities. Accident Review. APPENDICES: Glossary of Terms. Reference to USGS Regulations, etc. Reference to other Federal Regulations, etc. USGS-required documents. Related Documents. GENERAL NOTES (not part of document) Be sure to cover the policy basis for deciding: Who does what, when, to whom; How to select third parties; General content of industry submittal (not too specific, but yet enough to assure uniformity); Specs and standards — Performance-oriented, how to start, where to get later. Some portion of document should explain policies on: Grandfather clauses — how to treat existing plat- forms — (mainly periodic inspection with time based on past history; minimum update of plan when major changes made in structure or loads [review only new engineering, etc.]); Varying depth of treatment based on prior experi- ence ; Basing all decisions on sound technical data and reasoning; not on personal preference; Review and appeal route.

OCR for page 51
APPENDIX E AN EXAMPLE OF AN OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY TRAINING PROGRAM by Rupert C. Craze Petroleum Engineer INTRODUCTION If the USGS is to be responsible for the verification of offshore structures, it must have personnel competent in offshore technology. Such verification will involve per- sonnel working with industry and academia to develop prac- tical criteria for efficient design, construction, instal- lation, and maintenance of integrity for oil and gas platforms, in both the development and operation phases. The more competent the government personnel are in these offshore-related engineering disciplines, the more efficient the agency will be. Fewer management tiers and thus, fewer personnel will be needed. Criteria and regulations devel- oped will be more realistic and less complicated; corre- sponding documentation that industry must submit showing compliance will also be simpler, thus completing the loop and easing the communications between government and indus- try. The design, construction, installation, and operation of offshore platforms involve skills in a wide diversity of disciplines in the technical and management areas that are not presently characteristic of the USGS staff. A need exists, therefore, for a comprehensive training program in offshore technology to provide rapid transfer of knowledge in the subject to existing and new USGS personnel. A major approach to imparting the necessary expertise to the USGS personnel is through the medium of saturation learning process; i.e., a rapid training program involving the latest developments in all areas of offshore technology. 76

OCR for page 51
77 DISCUSSION Training Program Needs A training program should be designed specifically for those USGS personnel (present staff and new hires) whose chief responsibilities are in the areas of developing, managing, and implementing a verification program for off- shore systems. The program should be a cooperative effort of the USGS, academia, industry, and consultants. The courses should be designed to transfer the latest and most efficient technology developed by industry in the offshore field. The curriculum should include broad overview courses for all the appropriate USGS personnel. This should be followed by a group of concurrent intensive courses in each of several disciplines pertinent to offshore structural design, constructions, and verification. Each USGS "off- shore" staff member would take courses, related to the dis- cipline for which that person would have responsibility. As an adjunct to the above more formal and saturated course of instruction, further training might be implemented by the following: 0 Loan of industry personnel to the USGS on a temporary basis, working with USGS personnel to guide them on the job and train them as instructors in further courses given in the offshore area. 0 Transfer of USGS personnel on temporary loan to industry in specific areas to upgrade their expertise and to view industry activities at first-hand, with on-the-job experience. 0 Maintenance of a liaison "faculty" to provide a constant awareness and ability to analyze and utilize the results of continuing industrial and academic research developments in the field of offshore technology. 0 Participation of USGS personnel in the relevant activities of the several technical societies, such as the SPE (AIME), the Offshore Technology Con- ference, special study groups, and consulting organizations active in this field.

OCR for page 51
78 Example: Saturated Training in the Petroleum Industry The training program described in the following pre- sents the background, philosophy, and logic that led to the presentation of several highly-successful concentrated courses developed for in-house use by petroleum industry personnel. The initial course covered the field of reservoir engineering and was designed to teach competent petroleum engineers engaged in field operations the basic fundamentals and latest reservoir technology developed by research. The course was designed for rapid transfer of highly technical knowledge to the operating petroleum engineers who were responsible for the efficient development and operation of oil and gas reservoirs. The goal to be achieved by the reservoir engineering course was the logical and practical application of the most up-to-date research developments in reservoir engineering so that the operating engineers might apply these developments to maximize the recovery of hydro- carbons from the underground reservoirs in an efficient and economical manner. A secondary goal was to impart to the operating engineers a sufficiently high expertise in reser- voir engineering so that they in turn could serve as "fac- ulty" themselves in an on-going program of instruction in the subject to incoming petroleum engineers. In this fashion the continuing developments in production research were blended with the practical knowledge obtained from actual applications in the field. This process expanded and updated the course coverage for utilization on a broad- ened base to all of the engineers involved in the operation of the diverse reservoirs encountered. Over a period of time, this course has had considerable impact, not only in the operational reservoir engineering aspects, but also in such areas as well completion, well spacing, and efficient well operations. It further influ- enced the exploratory efforts, and had considerable impact on the technical foundations upon which governmental agen- cies promulgated their regulatory programs, working with industry to achieve a realistic conservation effort to produce oil and gas most efficiently. Development of the Subject of "Reservoir Engineering" Early research conducted by personnel of one of the major oil companies in the area of production research, beginning in the late 1920's and in the 1930's, both in the laboratory and in the field, established some very

OCR for page 51
79 fundamental principles relating to the behavior of fluids in oil and gas reservoirs and to a preliminary knowledge and understanding of the performance of those reservoirs. During this period, it was recognized that detailed studies of the performance of oil reservoirs had considerable value in direct application to field operation. Obtaining these benefits, however, required developing a comprehensive ex- position of the fundamental principles governing reservoir behavior in order to transfer the accumulated knowledge to the using personnel. A detailed report was prepared (in book form) that presented these fundamental principles governing reservoir behavior as established by research to that date. This report was given wide distribution among the operating elements within the company, as well as among research per- sonnel. Of course, many of the subjects included in this report had been presented by the company's researchers in technical papers presented to and published by the several technical societies to which they belonged. In that fashion, this knowledge was also made available to industry as a whole. It was during the period leading up to the publication of that report in 1940 that a new science had gradually evolved in petroleum production engineering. This new science was designated "reservoir engineering;" it became an integral part of petroleum production engineering, and it dealt principally with the movement of fluids in and the recovery of fluids from oil and gas reservoirs. It might be pointed out in passing that petroleum research organiza- tions of several oil companies and in various universities were concurrently investigating various aspects of the subject of reservoir and well performance and were publish- ing papers that added much to the available knowledge of this specialized technology. Thus, reservoir engineering grew in importance as a vital tool that could aid the petro- leum production engineer as he put this new science to practical use in the field. Formation of a "Reservoir Engineering" School With the stimulus provided by the Production Research Division's outstanding work during the 1930"s in developing some of the methods of analyzing reservoir behavior, studies of several oil fields demonstrated the practical feasibility of applying these methods of analyses to actual field opera- tions to improve recovery of oil and gas. The onslaught of World War II, and the attendant increased demand for

OCR for page 51
80 petroleum, brought to the forefront the necessity for opera- ting each oil reservoir at its maximum efficiency in order to supply the war demands for petroleum and its products. This led to an increasing volume of work necessary to con- duct technical analyses of each reservoir to obtain high operating efficiency. This work-load problem was compounded by the losses of technical men to the armed forces. It became readily apparent that the remaining few petroleum production engineers who were familiar with the reservoir engineering techniques could not handle the increasing volume of work effectively. To alleviate this shortage of technical men, plans were made in 1944 to train some of the outstanding petroleum engineers in other divisions in the subject of reservoir engineering by means of a concentrated program of transfer of available knowledge in the technology of reservoir engineering as developed by research. The first course of study included seven students for a three and one-half month period beginning in late 1944. Lec- tures and work sessions on applicable field problems were continued on a full-time basis for the entire period of this course, known as the first "Reservoir Engineering School." Later, as these first "students" began to apply the results of their training to field operations, it became apparent that this type of reservoir engineering training was very profitable. Plans were soon made to enlarge the group of production engineers having such training. As a consequence, the Reservoir Engineering School has been continued to the present time in concentrated fashion at annual intervals, with the class sizes enlarged to include an avarage of 30-40 technical personnel. As successive Reservoir Engineering Schools were conducted, it became possible in greater degree to utilize as instructors many of the petroleum engineers who had attended earlier schools and who had attained a high degree of competence as prac- ticing "reservoir engineers." Of course, the initial or- ganization continued to supply instructors in subjects in their particular areas of competence. Throughout the entire succession of Reservoir Engi- neering Schools, every effort has been made to update the course content to reflect the latest developments in reser- voir engineering technology emanating from both research and operations within the company, from developments published by others in the industry, and from published advances in reservoir engineering within the academic world. The experience gained with the first Reservoir Engi- neering School indicated the need for a Reservoir

OCR for page 51
81 Engineering Manual for use both in subsequent training work and as a guide for reservoir engineering work throughout the company operations. A tentative manual was completed in time for use by the third class in its study program. Following this third class, the manual was completely re- vised and printed. Subsequent revisions and increases in the scope of the manual's content have been made to include up- to-date developments that have evolved in reservoir engi- neering technology. These revisions in the manual incor- porated the latest thinking and experience in all the various facets of study material utilized, and made the manual an important text-book adjunct in the presentation of the course and in its further use as a guide and refer- ence in practical field application. In the late 1950's, the rapid advances made in the area of reservoir engineering made it apparent that additional training should be given to many of the practicing reservoir engineers who had already attended the prior regular schools. Accordingly, plans were made to upgrade the skills of these engineers through attendance in an "Advanced Reser- voir Engineering School." The course of study was intense in its training and covered the most recent developments evolving from research and practical field experience. These schools were scheduled according to the needs at the time and proved quite successful in improving the profici- ency of those who participated in this advanced training. Establishment of Training Programs in Other Technical Fields The success of the "Reservoir Engineering School" program exerted considerable influence among technical per- sonnel engaged in other areas of activity throughout the company's operations. With the experience gained from the format of reservoir engineering training, the company em- barked upon similar programs of instruction in the areas of Production Operations, Drilling and Well Completion Prac- tices, Well Log Interpretation, and other facets of company operations. These schools were designed to transfer the latest developments in the respective areas of study to operational personnel including production engineers, dril- ling engineers, geologists, and geophysicists throughout the company. These schools likewise have greatly enhanced the skills of the operating technologists and have proved highly successful.

OCR for page 51
82 Other Means of Training Technical Personnel — as Continuing Education In less formal and concentrated approaches in training, the approach has been used of transferring competent engi- neering and scientific personnel on a loan basis from one area of technical endeavor to another area in order to give on-the-job training to personnel in needed skills. For example, the field engineer may be transferred to work with a research group to supplement his practical knowledge, and the reserach man may be sent to the field to gain a realis- tic approach to field operational problems. The use of consultants as highly-competent specialists in their field of endeavor who are brought into contact with research and operating people has been very successful as another medium of transfer of technology. Another training procedure has been the effective use of university professors to present short but highly-concentrated instruction in fields of their particular competence to selected classes of research and operational personnel as in-house courses in needed areas of skills. In reverse fashion, technical personnel may attend courses given at various universities to acquire additional training in specific areas. Other methods of upgrading the expertise of company personnel reside in an active partici- pation in the various technical societies; presenting papers, attending meetings of these organizations, attending special courses and study groups sponsored by the societies, and becoming actively involved on special committee assignments, both technical and administrative. It is through these society activities and programs that a high degree of effec- tive interchange of technical know-how is achieved. CONCLUDING REMARKS The history, planned format, practicability, and suc- cessful operation of the "Reservoir Engineering School" exemplified in the preceding discussion appear to offer considerable aid to the development of a concentrated trans- fer of knowledge in offshore technology to the personnel of the USGS. It is the sincere hope that this presentation, based on actual industrial experience, may prove to be help- ful to those responsible for developing a course specifi- cally designed to meet the needs for rapid training of USGS personnel.

OCR for page 51
APPENDIX F CONTRIBUTORS TO THE STUDY Stanley Anderson American Bureau of Shipping Lawrence Bates American Bureau of Shipping Keith Blythe Federal Aviation Administration William Brown Aerospace Corporation Rupert C. Craze Petroleum Engineer Patrick Dunn Offshore Operators Committee G.L. Foote U.S. Army Corps of Engineers E.R. Genois Petro-Marine Engineering C.E. Golay Offshore Operators Committee C.E. Grubbs Chicago Bridge & Iron Works Co. W.M. Hannan American Bureau of Shipping J. Hoffman Aerospace Corporation Dale Kroeger American Bureau of Shipping K.D. Morland American Bureau of Shipping 83

OCR for page 51
84 Herbert Morriss Aerospace Corporation Gordon Piche U.S. Coast Guard John Sherwin American Bureau of Shipping Eugene Silva Naval Facilities Engineering Command S.G. Stiansen American Bureau of Shipping J.A. Ternet Boeing Company Joseph Vadus NOAA Office of Engineering T.R. Wartelle J. Ray McDermott & Company, Inc. Robert L. Wiegel University of California, Berkeley R. Wills U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

OCR for page 51