B

Biographies of Planning Committee Members, Moderators, Panelists, and Staff

ALAN DRESSLER, Planning Committee Co-Chair and Moderator, is an observational astronomer at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science. His principal areas of research cover the formation and evolution of galaxies and the study of star populations of distant galaxies. Dr. Dressler has made significant contributions in understanding galaxy formation and evolution, including effects of the environment on galaxy morphology. He was a leader in the identification of the “great attractor” that causes a large distortion of the Hubble expansion. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Dressler chaired the AURA committee “HST & Beyond: Exploration and the Search for Origins” that presented NASA with “A Vision for Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Space Astronomy.” Dr. Dressler is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He served on the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Setting Priorities for National Science Foundation (NSF)-Sponsored Large Research Facility Projects and he chaired the Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground of the 2000 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. Dr. Dressler also chaired the Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space of the 2010 astronomy decadal survey and was a member of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey. Dr. Dressler now serves on the NRC’s Space Studies Board (SSB).

CHARLES F. KENNEL, Planning Committee Co-Chair and Moderator, is a distinguished professor of atmospheric science emeritus in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Kennel was the founding director of the UCSD Environment and Sustainability Initiative, an all-campus effort embracing teaching, research, campus operations, and public outreach, and is now chair of its international advisory board. His research covers plasma physics, space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, plasma astrophysics, and environmental science and policy. He is a member of the NAS, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). He was a member of the NASA Advisory Council from 1998 to 2006, its chair from 2001-2005, and is presently chair of the California Council on Science and Technology. He has had visiting appointments to the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder), the Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), California Institute of Technology (Caltech, Pasadena), Space Research Institute (Moscow), and the University of Cambridge (U.K.). He is a recipient of the James Clerk Maxwell Prize (American Physical Society, APS), the Hannes Alfven Prize (European Geophysical Society), the Aurelio Peccei Prize (Accademia Lincei), and the NASA Distinguished Service and Distinguished Public Service Medals. He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysical sciences from Princeton University. Dr. Kennel has served on numerous NRC committees and boards including the Committee on Global Change Research (chair), the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA, chair), the Committee on Cooperation with the USSR in Solar Activity, Solar Wind, Terrestrial Effects, and Solar Acceleration (co-chair), and the Air Force Physics Research Committee. He most recently served on the 2010 astronomy decadal survey follow-on—the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey. Dr. Kennel is chair of the NRC’s SSB.



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B Biographies of Planning Committee Members, Moderators, Panelists, and Staff ALAN DRESSLER, Planning Committee Co-Chair and Moderator, is an observational astronomer at the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science. His principal areas of research cover the formation and evolution of galaxies and the study of star populations of distant galaxies. Dr. Dressler has made significant contributions in understanding galaxy formation and evolution, including effects of the environment on galaxy morphology. He was a leader in the identification of the “great attractor” that causes a large distortion of the Hubble expansion. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Dressler chaired the AURA committee “HST & Beyond: Exploration and the Search for Origins” that presented NASA with “A Vision for Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Space Astronomy.” Dr. Dressler is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He served on the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Setting Priorities for National Science Foundation (NSF)-Sponsored Large Research Facility Projects and he chaired the Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground of the 2000 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. Dr. Dressler also chaired the Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space of the 2010 astronomy decadal survey and was a member of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey. Dr. Dressler now serves on the NRC’s Space Studies Board (SSB). CHARLES F. KENNEL, Planning Committee Co-Chair and Moderator, is a distinguished professor of atmospheric science emeritus in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Kennel was the founding director of the UCSD Environment and Sustainability Initiative, an all-campus effort embracing teaching, research, campus operations, and public outreach, and is now chair of its international advisory board. His research covers plasma physics, space plasma physics, solar-terrestrial physics, plasma astrophysics, and environmental science and policy. He is a member of the NAS, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA). He was a member of the NASA Advisory Council from 1998 to 2006, its chair from 2001-2005, and is presently chair of the California Council on Science and Technology. He has had visiting appointments to the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder), the Ecole Polytechnique (Paris), California Institute of Technology (Caltech, Pasadena), Space Research Institute (Moscow), and the University of Cambridge (U.K.). He is a recipient of the James Clerk Maxwell Prize (American Physical Society, APS), the Hannes Alfven Prize (European Geophysical Society), the Aurelio Peccei Prize (Accademia Lincei), and the NASA Distinguished Service and Distinguished Public Service Medals. He earned his Ph.D. in astrophysical sciences from Princeton University. Dr. Kennel has served on numerous NRC committees and boards including the Committee on Global Change Research (chair), the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA, chair), the Committee on Cooperation with the USSR in Solar Activity, Solar Wind, Terrestrial Effects, and Solar Acceleration (co-chair), and the Air Force Physics Research Committee. He most recently served on the 2010 astronomy decadal survey follow-on—the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey. Dr. Kennel is chair of the NRC’s SSB. 88

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MARK R. ABBOTT, Moderator, is dean and professor in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. He received his B.S. in conservation of natural resources from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1974 and his Ph.D. in ecology from the University of California, Davis, in 1978. He has been at OSU since 1988 and has been dean of the college since 2001. Dr. Abbott’s research focuses on the interaction of biological and physical processes in the upper ocean and relies on both remote sensing and field observations. Dr. Abbott is a pioneer in the use of satellite ocean color data to study coupled physical/biological processes. He has also advised the Office of Naval Research and NSF on ocean information infrastructure. Dr. Abbott is serving a 6-year term on the National Science Board, which oversees NSF and provides scientific advice to the White House and to Congress. He is vice chair of the Oregon Global Warming Commission, which is leading the state’s efforts in mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change. He is a member of the Board of Trustees for the Consortium for Ocean Leadership as well as the Board of Trustees for the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and is president-elect of the Oceanography Society. WALEED ABDALATI, Panelist, was appointed NASA chief scientist on Jan. 3, 2011, serving as the principal adviser to NASA Administrator Charles Bolden on NASA science programs, strategic planning and the evaluation of related investments. He is currently on leave from his position as director of the University of Colorado’s Earth Science and Observation Center, which carries out research and education activities on the use of remote sensing observations to understand the Earth. Dr. Abdalati is also a fellow of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University. His research has focused on the use of satellites and aircraft to understand how and why Earth’s ice cover is changing, and what those changes mean for life on our planet. He also has served as leader of the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Science Definition Team and has led or participated in nine field and airborne campaigns in the Arctic and Antarctic. Dr. Abdalati has received various awards and recognition, most notably the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers from the White House. He received a Ph.D. from University of Colorado in 1996. RICHARD A. ANTHES, Panelist, is president emeritus of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) in Boulder, Colorado. His research has focused on the understanding of tropical cyclones and mesoscale meteorology and on the radio occultation technique for sounding Earth’s atmosphere. Dr. Anthes is a fellow of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), receiving the AMS Clarence I. Meisinger Award and the Jule G. Charney Award and also serving as president of the AMS in 2007. Dr Anthes is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), as well. In 2003, he was awarded the Friendship Award by the Chinese government, the most prestigious award given to foreigners, for his contributions to atmospheric sciences and weather forecasting in China, and is also currently a member of the Global Position System Scientific Application Research Center based out of Taiwan’s National Central University. Dr. Anthes received a B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin System. Prior NRC service includes chairing the National Weather Service Modernization Committee from 1996 to 1999 the Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition of Research to Operations in 2002-2003, and co-chairing the survey committee for the 2007 decadal survey on Earth science and applications from space. He was a member of the SSB’s Committee on Earth Studies until 2010. DANIEL N. BAKER, Panelist, is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he also holds appointments as professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and as a professor of physics. His primary research interest is the study of plasma physical and energetic particle phenomena in planetary magnetospheres and in the Earth’s vicinity. He conducts research in space instrument design, space physics data analysis, and magnetospheric modeling. He currently is an investigator on several NASA space missions including the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission, the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission, and the 89

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Canadian ORBITALS mission. In 2010, Dr. Baker was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for leadership in studies, measurements, and predictive tools for the Earth’s radiation environment and its impact on U.S. security. He is a fellow of the AGU, the IAA, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Among his other awards are the 2007 University of Colorado’s Robert L. Stearns Award for outstanding research, service, and teaching and the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) James A. Van Allen Space Environments Award for excellence and leadership in space research. Dr. Baker served as president of the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of the AGU (2002-2004) and he presently serves on advisory panels of the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and NSF. Dr. Baker is a National Associate of the NRC. He served on numerous NRC committees including as chair of the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the co-chair of the NRC Committee on Assessment of Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions. He is also a member of the SSB. He was a member of the steering committee for the NRC’s 2003 decadal survey in solar and space physics. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Iowa. STEVEN J. BATTEL, Moderator and Planning Committee Member, is president of Battel Engineering, providing engineering, development, and review services to NASA, the Department of Defense, and university and industrial clients. His areas of specialization include program management, cost and schedule evaluation, systems engineering, advanced technology development, spacecraft avionics, power systems, high-voltage systems, precision electronics, and scientific instrument design. Mr. Battel was a member of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) External Readiness Review Team for SM-2, SM3A, and SM3B; the AXAF/Chandra Independent Assessment Team; the TDRS-H/I/J Independent Review Team; the Mars Polar Lander Failure Review Board; and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Genesis Failure Review Board. Prior to becoming president of Battel Engineering, he worked as an engineer, researcher, and manager at the University of Michigan, the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. In April 2012, Mr. Battel was elected to a 3-year term as a member of the AURA Space Telescope Institute Council. He served on the NRC Committee on NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment and the Committee on Assessment of Options for Extending the Life of the Hubble Space Telescope, the [steering] Committee on Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010, and on the [standing] Committee on Earth Studies. He recently completed service on the SSB and is currently a member of the [steering] Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics. DAVID A. BEARDEN, Panelist, is general manager of Aerospace Corporation’s NASA Programs Office, where he manages and provides technical direction to staff supporting various NASA human exploration and science programs. These include the Constellation program, Mars Program, the Astrophysics Program, the Discovery/New Frontiers programs, and other missions at NASA Headquarters and field centers. His expertise lies in project management and space systems architectural assessment, including conceptual design, simulation, and programmatic analysis of space systems. He led the HST Servicing Analysis of Alternatives which earned him the 2006 Aerospace Corporation’s President’s Award. He has also led various mission studies, including the Lunar Robotic Exploration Architecture study and the Mars Sample Return studies. He served on the NRC Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee in 2008. Dr. Bearden has served on a number of Standing Review Boards and led development of the Small Satellite Cost and Complexity-based Risk Assessment (CoBRA) models and their application to NASA independent reviews. He also led deployment of the Concurrent Engineering Methodology at JPL’s Project Design Center. He has authored chapters in Space Mission Analysis and Design and Reducing the Cost of Space Systems. He was the recipient of the Aviation Week and Space Technology Annual Aerospace Laurels in 2000 for conducting “the first quantitative assessment of NASA’s faster-better-cheaper initiative in space exploration.” He holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Southern California (USC) and a B.S. in mechanical engineering/computer science from the University of Utah. 90

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ROGER BLANDFORD, Panelist, is a native of England and took his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees at Cambridge University. Following postdoctoral research at Cambridge, Princeton and Berkeley he took up a faculty position at Caltech in 1976 where he was appointed as the Richard Chace Tolman Professor of Theoretical Astrophysis. In 2003 he moved to Stanford University to become the first Director of the Kavli Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and the Luke Blossom Chair in the School of Humanities and Science. His research interests include black hole astrophysics, cosmology, gravitational lensing, cosmic ray physics and compact stars. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the NAS. Dr. Blandford was the chair of the 2010 astronomy decadal survey committee. STACEY BOLAND, Panelist and Planning Committee Member, is a senior systems engineer at JPL and is the Observatory System Engineer for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) Earth System Science Pathfinder mission. Dr. Boland is also a cross-disciplinary generalist specializing in Earth- mission concept development and systems engineering and mission architecture development for advanced (future) Earth observing mission concepts. She was awarded NASA’s Exceptional Achievement Medal in 2009. She served as a consultant for the following NRC studies: Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future; Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft; and A Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft. Dr. Boland received her B.S. in physics from the University of Texas, Dallas, and her M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Caltech. Dr. Boland served as a member on the NRC Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions, and she recently completed service on the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program—the midterm assessment of the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey. She is currently a member of the SSB [standing] Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. JAY BOOKBINDER, Panelist, is the senior Program Manager for SAO’s High Energy Division. He is currently a Co-I and Project Manager for the SWEAP suite experiment on the Solar Probe plus mission. Dr. Bookbinder was the Mission Scientist for the International X-ray Observatory (formerly Con-X), and a member of the International X-ray Observatory Coordination Group, and is currently fulfilling the same role for the Advanced X-ray Spectroscopic Imaging Observatory (AXSIO). He is a Co-Investigator and Project Manager for both the IRIS SMEX and the AIA instrument on SDO. He is a Co-I (and formerly Project Manager) on the Hinode X-Ray Telescope. CHARLES ELACHI, Panelist, was appointed director of JPL in May 2001. Dr. Elachi is also vice president of the Caltech. He received a bachelor of science (1968) in physics from University of Grenoble, France; a diplom-ingenieur (1968) in engineering from the Polytechnic Institute, Grenoble; and master of science (1969) and doctorate (1971) degrees in electrical sciences from the Caltech. He also has a master of science (1983) degree in geology from the University of California, Los Angeles and a master of business administration (1979) from USC. He joined JPL in 1970 and is a professor of electrical engineering and planetary science at Caltech. He has been a principal investigator on a number of research and development studies and flight projects sponsored by NASA. These include the Shuttle Imaging Radar series (science team leader), the Magellan Imaging Radar (team member) and the Cassini Titan Radar (team leader). In 1989, Dr. Elachi was elected to the NAE and has served on a number of academy committees. Dr. Elachi has received numerous awards, including the NAE Arthur M. Bueche Award (2011), AIAA Carl Sagan Award (2011), International von Karman Wings Award (2007), and the NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal (2004, 2002, 1994). LARRY W. ESPOSITO, Panelist, is the principal investigator of the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) experiment on the Cassini space mission to Saturn. He was chair of the Voyager Rings Working Group. As a member of the Pioneer Saturn imaging team, he discovered Saturn’s F ring. He has been a 91

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participant in numerous US, Russian and European space missions and used HST for its first observations of the planet Venus. He was awarded the Harold C. Urey Prize from the American Astronomical Society, the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement, and the Richtmyer Lecture Award from the American Association of Physics Teachers and APS. Dr. Esposito has written his Ph.D. dissertation, numerous scientific publications, scholarly reviews on the topic of planetary rings as well as the Cambridge University Press book Planetary Rings. Along with his students and colleagues he continues to actively research the nature and history of planetary rings at the University of Colorado, where he has been since 1977. He is now professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences and a member of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). He has been an officer of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society and of the Committee for Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions. He was chair of the NRC Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. He is a member of American Astronomical Society and International Astronomical Union and a fellow of the AGU. LENNARD A. FISK, Panelist, is the Thomas M. Donahue Distinguished University Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. Dr. Fisk was previously the associate administrator for space science and applications and chief scientist at NASA. He has served as professor of physics and vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. He is a member of the NAS, the board of directors of the Orbital Sciences Corporation, and a co-founder of the Michigan Aerospace Corporation. He is an active researcher in both theoretical and experimental studies of the solar atmosphere and its expansion into space to form the heliosphere. Dr. Fisk received his Ph.D. in applied physics from the University of California, San Diego. His prior NRC service includes chair of the SSB and membership on the Committee on Scientific Communication and National Security, the Committee on Fusion Science Assessment, the Committee on International Space Programs, the Air Force Physics Research Committee, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Panelist, is the Director of the Earth Science Division, in the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters. Prior to coming to NASA, he was a Professor and Associate Dean in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. He received BS degrees in Physics (Honors) and Chemistry from Haverford College in 1975 and a Ph.D. in Oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Univ. of CA., San Diego) in 1982. From 1983- 1991 he was a Member of the Technical Staff at JPL. Dr. Freilich’s research focuses on the determination, validation, and geophysical analysis of ocean surface wind velocity measured by satellite-borne microwave radar and radiometer instruments. He has developed scatterometer and altimeter wind model functions, as well as innovative validation techniques for accurately quantifying the accuracy of spaceborne environmental measurements. Dr. Freilich has served on many NASA, NRC, and research community advisory and steering groups, including the WOCE Science Steering Committee, the NASA EOS Science Executive Committee, the NRC Ocean Studies Board, and several NASA data system review committees. He chaired the NRC Committee on Earth Studies, and served on the NRC SSB and the Committee on NASA/NOAA Transition from Research to Operations. RANDALL FRIEDL, Panelist, is currently serving as deputy director for Research, Engineering and Science Directorate. In addition, he is a member of the JPL Science and Technology Management Council that oversees all of JPL’s internal research and technology development investments. Dr. Friedl received his Ph.D. in Chemistry from Harvard University in 1984 prior to accepting a research position at NASA’s JPL. Dr Friedl’s research is focused on gas and particle reactions relevant to the Earth’s stratosphere and troposphere. He has participated in a number of international assessments, notably, as lead author for the IPCC Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (1999), and as contributing author for the IPCC Third Assessment Report on Climate Change (2001). More recently, he was a panel member on the NRC’s first-ever decadal survey on Earth science that was released in January 92

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2007. In addition to his JPL activities, Dr. Friedl has served several roles at NASA Headquarters. From 1994 to 1996 he was the Project Scientist for the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. During that tenure, he developed and organized numerous research efforts, including several aircraft field campaigns to study aircraft impacts on the upper troposphere. For his work on the aviation-related issues he received a NASA Exceptional Service Medal in 1997 and a NASA Group Achievement Award in 1999. Prior to reassuming his current JPL position at the beginning of 2009, Dr. Friedl spent a year and a half at NASA Headquarters as the Deputy Chief Scientist for Earth Science within SMD and as the Deputy for Science within the Earth Science Division of SMD. In those roles, Dr. Friedl was the primary advisor on Earth science issues to the NASA Associate Administrator and Earth Science Director and was tasked with formulating internal strategy for the NASA Earth science program as well as joint strategies with other Federal agencies. WILLIAM B. GAIL, Panelist and Planning Committee Member, is co-founder and chief technology officer of Global Weather Corporation, a private-label provider of precision weather forecasts to businesses within the energy, media, and transportation sectors. Dr. Gail was previously director in the Startup Business Group at Microsoft with responsibility for enabling breakthroughs in consumer software (having held similar positions within the public sector and virtual Earth organizations). Prior positions include vice president of the Mapping Products Division at Vexcel Corporation (where he initiated Vexcel’s 2006 acquisition by Microsoft) and director of Earth Science Programs at Ball Aerospace (responsible for developing spaceborne instruments/missions for Earth science and meteorology). He serves or has served on a variety of corporate and organizational boards including Peak Weather Resources Inc., Women in Aerospace, Imaging Notes magazine, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (acting), and the NASA Applied Sciences Program Advisory Group. Dr. Gail received his B.A. in physics and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University, where his research focused on plasma physics in Earth’s magnetosphere. During this period, he spent a year as cosmic ray field scientist at South Pole Station. Dr. Gail has served on numerous NRC committees, including the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and the steering committee of the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey. He is currently a member of the Committee on the Assessment of the National Weather Service’s Modernization Program. JOHN M. GRUNSFELD, Panelist, was named associate administrator for SMD at NASA Headquarters in January 2012. He previously served as the Deputy Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, managing the science program for HST and the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Grunsfeld’s background includes research in high energy astrophysics, cosmic ray physics and in the emerging field of exoplanet studies with specific interest in future astronomical instrumentation. Grunsfeld joined NASA’s Astronaut Office in 1992. He is veteran of five space shuttle flights, and visited Hubble three times during these missions. He also performed eight spacewalks to service and upgrade the observatory. He logged more than 58 days in space on his shuttle missions, including 58 hours and 30 minutes of spacewalk time. Grunsfeld graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1980 with a bachelor’s degree in physics. He subsequently earned a master’s degree and, in 1988, a doctorate in physics from the University of Chicago using a cosmic ray experiment on space shuttle Challenger for his doctoral thesis. From Chicago, he joined the faculty of the Caltech as a Senior Research Fellow in Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy. COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Panelist, is NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s deputy center director for science, operations and performance. Prior to this, she was an assistant associate administrator at NASA Headquarters, the deputy associate administrator for SMD, and an acting associate administrator. She provides science advice and helps run programs that range from Earth observing platforms, to balloon investigations, to deep space planetary instruments and missions, to astrophysics missions such as HST and JWST. Dr. Hartman also served as professor of space policy and international affairs at the George 93

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Washington University, and as deputy assistant administrator at NOAA, she oversaw operations ranging from collecting space-based weather and climate data to managing global scientific databases. Prior to NOAA, she was division director for NASA’s planetary missions. After beginning her government career as a Presidential Management Intern, she worked on Capitol Hill, as an engineer at the Goddard Space Flight Center, and as a senior policy analyst at the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Dr. Hartman has built and launched scientific balloon payloads, worked on robotic machine vision, overseen the development of the command and data handling system for a variety of Earth observing spacecraft and served as NASA program manager for dozens of missions, including the Cosmic Background Explorer. Dr. Hartman has received many awards, including the Presidential Rank Award of Meritorious Senior Executive, the NASA Outstanding Performance Award, the Claire Booth Luce Fellowship in Science and Engineering Award, and the Hugh L. Dryden Memorial Space Club Award. She has a bachelor’s degree in zoology from Pomona College, a master’s in public administration from USC, and both a master’s and doctorate in physics from the Catholic University of America. PAUL HERTZ, Panelist, was named director of the Astrophysics Division in the SMD at NASA in March 2012. He is responsible for the Agency’s research programs and missions necessary to discover how the universe works, explore how the universe began and developed into its present form, and search for Earth-like planets. He served from 2004 to 2012 as the Chief Scientist of SMD, managing the directorate’s science solicitation activities and ensuring the scientific integrity of the directorate’s programs. During this period, he oversaw the acquisition of more than $3 billion of spaceflight missions and instruments for projects across the breadth of NASA’s space and Earth science programs. Dr. Hertz joined the NASA Office of Space Science as a detailee in 1997 and as a Senior Scientist in 2000. He managed astrophysics and planetary science projects and programs including the Discovery Program, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the SOFIA Airborne Observatory. He led the formulation of the Beyond Einstein Program and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. He managed mission operations and data analysis programs in both astrophysics and planetary science. Dr. Hertz received SB degrees in both Physics and Mathematics from MIT, followed by a PhD from Harvard University in Astronomy in 1983. J. TODD HOEKSEMA, Panelist and Planning Committee Member, is a senior research scientist in the W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory at Stanford University. His professional experience includes research administration, system and scientific programming, and the design, construction, and operation of instruments to measure solar magnetic and velocity fields from both ground and space. He is co-investigator and magnetic team lead for the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory and the instrument scientist for the Michelson Doppler Imager instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which was launched by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). He has been associated with the Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford for three sunspot cycles. His primary scientific interests include the physics of the Sun and the interplanetary medium, solar- terrestrial relations, the large-scale solar and coronal magnetic fields, solar velocity fields and rotation, helioseismology, and education and public outreach. Dr. Hoeksema was chair of the Solar Physics Division of AAS and has served on the heliophysics subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee. He has served for 4 years as a solar physics discipline scientist at NASA. Dr. Hoeksema led NASA’s Heliophyiscis Roadmap team in 2005. He has been awarded the NASA distinguished public service medal and is a member of the AAS, the AGU, International Astronomical Union, American Scientific Affiliation, and the AAAS. In addition, for several years Dr. Hoeksema was the vice chair of Commission E.2 of the Committee on Space Research. He earned his Ph.D. in applied physics from Stanford University. He recently served on the NRC’s Astro2010 Decadal Survey’s Panel on Optical and Infrared Astronomy from the Ground, and he is a member of the [steering] Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics. RICK HOWARD, Panelist, is the program director of the JWST Program Office at NASA Headquarters. Previously he was the Deputy Chief Technologist in the Office of the Chief Technologist and Deputy 94

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Director of the Astrophysics Division in SMD. Mr. Howard received a B.S. in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin in 1968 and a M.S. degree in astronomy from the Pennsylvania State University in 1974. From 1975 to 1984 he worked on millimeter-wave receivers and antenna systems for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. He worked at NASA’s JPL from 1984 to 1986 on advanced microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing systems. In 1986 and 1987, he was site manager during the construction and initial operations of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. In 1987, he rejoined JPL and in 1988 was detailed to the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters where he managed several space science flight programs and technology development programs. He joined NASA Headquarters in 1991 and continued to work on flight programs and advanced technologies in the Office of Space Sciences. G. SCOTT HUBBARD, Panelist, is a professor in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University where he focuses on planetary exploration, especially Mars and also serves as the Director of the Stanford Center of Excellence for Commercial Space Transportation. He served 20 years with NASA—culminating as the director of NASA’s Ames Research Center. In 2003 he served full time as the sole NASA representative on the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), where he directed impact testing that demonstrated the definitive physical cause of the loss of the Columbia. In 2000 Hubbard served as NASA’s first Mars program director and successfully restructured the entire Mars program in the wake of mission failures. He is the founder of NASA’s Astrobiology Institute, establishing it in 1998. He conceived the Mars Pathfinder mission with its airbag landing and was the manager for NASA’s highly successful Lunar Prospector Mission. Hubbard has received seven NASA medals including NASA’s highest award, the Distinguished Service Medal. He was elected to the IAA, is a fellow of the AIAA, and also was awarded the Von Karman medal by the AIAA. He has published more than 50 research papers. Hubbard received his undergraduate degree in physics and astronomy at Vanderbilt University and his graduate education in solid state and semiconductor physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Prof. Hubbard has served on the NRC’s Committee on the Assessment of Solar System Exploration, the 2011 Steering Group of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and the NASA Advisory Council Science Committee. ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Planning Committee Member, is director of the Joint Global Change Research Institute of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Maryland. Earlier, he was a senior research fellow and vice president at the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment. At the World Resources Institute, Dr. Janetos served as senior vice president and chief of programs. He has also served as senior scientist for the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program in NASA’s Office of Earth Science and was program scientist for the Landsat 7 mission. He had many years of experience in managing scientific research programs on a variety of ecological and environmental topics, including air-pollution effects on forests, climate change impacts, land-use change, ecosystem modeling, and the global carbon cycle. Dr. Janetos received his B.S. in biology from Harvard University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biology from Princeton University. He was a co-chair of the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and an author of Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (an IPCC special report) and Global Biodiversity Assessment. Prior NRC experience includes serving on the steering committee for the 2007 decadal survey on Earth science and applications from space, the Committee on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change, the Climate Research Committee, and the Committee on the Socioeconomic Scenarios for Climate Change Impact and Response Assessments. Dr. Janetos recently completed service on the Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program—the midterm assessment of the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey, and he is currently a member of the SSB and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. JOHN M. KLINEBERG, Moderator, is the former CEO of Swales Aerospace and retired president of Space Systems/Loral (SS/L). Before assuming the presidency of SS/L, Dr. Klineberg served as executive 95

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vice president for Loral’s Globalstar program, where he successfully led the development, production, and deployment of the Globalstar satellite constellation used for telephone services. Prior to joining Loral in 1995, Dr. Klineberg spent 25 years at NASA, where he served in a variety of management and technical positions. He was the director of the Goddard Space Flight Center, director of the Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center, deputy associate administrator for aeronautics and space technology at NASA Headquarters, and a research scientist at the Ames Research Center. Before beginning his career at NASA, he conducted fundamental studies in fluid dynamics at Caltech and worked at the Douglas Aircraft Company and the Grumman Aircraft Company. Dr. Klineberg has a B.S. in engineering from Princeton University and an M.S. and Ph.D. from the Caltech. He is the former chair of two NRC study committees, including the Committee to Review the NASA Astrobiology Institute, a former member of two other NRC committees, and a former member of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. He is currently serving as a member of the steering committee of a NRC Review of NASA Technology Development Roadmaps. LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, Panelist, is a Distinguished Research Professor of Physics at New Jersey Institute of Technology, has spent four and one-half decades contributing to research that includes studies of space plasmas and geophysics, and engineering problems related to the impact of atmospheric and space processes on terrestrial technologies, and those in space. Prior to joining NJIT in 2003, Dr. Lanzerotti spent more than three decades at Bell Laboratories-Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, N.J. Lanzerotti has been principal investigator (PI) or co-investigator on a number of NASA Earth-orbiting, interplanetary, and planetary missions including IMP, Voyager, Ulysses, Galileo, and Cassini. He is currently a PI for instruments to be flown in 2012 on NASA’s Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission in Earth’s magnetosphere. Dr. Lanzerotti’s research directed toward understanding Earth’s upper atmosphere and space environments has also taken him to the Antarctic and the Arctic. He was selected as the 2011 William Bowie Medalist of the AGU. He has also received the William Nordberg Medal for applications of space science from the COSPAR. Dr. Lanzerotti has been elected to the NAE and the IAA. He is the recipient of the 2012 Basic Science Award of the IAA. He holds a B.S. in engineering physics from the University of Illinois and master’s and doctoral degrees in physics from Harvard University. ROBERT P. LIN, 1 Moderator and Planning Committee Member, is a professor of the Graduate School in the Physics Department at the University of California, Berkeley, a chair professor at Kyung Hee University, Korea, and former director of the Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley. Dr. Lin’s research interests have spanned experimental space physics, planetary science, and high-energy astrophysics—in particular, how particles are accelerated in the astrophysical plasmas, specifically in solar flares, the interplanetary medium, and Earth’s magnetosphere. His approach is to develop and fly innovative instruments for spacecraft, rockets, and balloons. He led the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager mission, the 3D Plasma and Energetic Particle investigation on the Wind spacecraft, and the SupraThermal Electron investigation on the STEREO mission; and he is developing instrumentation for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatiles Evolution mission, the Cubesat for Ions, Neutrals, Electrons and Magnetic fields mission, and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares balloon instrument. He obtained his B.S. from Caltech and his Ph.D. in physics in from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Lin is a member of the NAS and served on several NRC committees, including the Committee on NASA’s Suborbital Research Capabilities and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. He is a member of the Panel on Solar and Heliospheric Physics of the Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics, and a member of the SSB. In addition, he is the U.S. Representative to COSPAR and also a vice president of COSPAR. 1 Dr. Lin passed away on November 17, 2012. 96

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STEPHEN MACKWELL, Panelist and Planning Committee Member, is the director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas. Prior to his appointment, Dr. Mackwell served as the director of the Bayerisches Geoinstitut at the University of Bayreuth, Germany. He has served as program director for geophysics in NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences (1993-1994); as member, group chief, and panel chair of the review panel for NASA’s Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program; as expert reviewer for the Department of Energy’s Geosciences Research Program (1993); and as expert consultant for NSF’s Division of Earth Sciences (1995). Dr. Mackwell conducts laboratory-based research into the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of geological materials under conditions relevant to the mantle and crust of Earth and other terrestrial planets. He received his Ph.D. in Earth sciences from the Australian National University. He served on the NRC Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration, the Committee to Review Near-Earth-Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, and the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. He currently serves on the NRC [standing] Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science. LISA MAY, Panelist, is the Program Executive at NASA Headquarters for the MAVEN mission and for Mars Sample Return. Lisa is the NASA Lead for the Mars Sample Return Joint Engineering Working Group with ESA. She also served as the Planetary Science Decadal Survey Mars Panel POC and lead POC for studies conducted for the Decadal Survey. For a change of pace from her management duties, Lisa is also the “female voice” of NASA’s ScienceCasts. Before joining NASA, she led Jackson-May Associates, a systems engineering and proposal management consulting firm. While at JMA, she worked on the BioSAR airborne radar, the Fermi space telescope, EO-1, and Nexus. Lisa received her Master’s in Mechanical Engineering and her Bachelor’s in Speech Communication from the University of Virginia. CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, Panelist, is a professor of physics and of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has also served as the chair for the Department of Physics. His research focuses on the theory of the interstellar medium and of star formation and uses both analytic and numerical techniques to address this problem. He helped develop the three- phase model of the interstellar medium, which has been widely used to organize and interpret observational data over the past decade, and developed a model for the structure and evolution of molecular clouds and for the rate of star formation within these clouds. He is currently carrying out numerical simulations of star formation. Dr. McKee is a member of APS and AAAS. Dr. McKee was helped establish the Theoretical Astrophysics Center at Berkeley and served as its first director. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the NAS and serves as the NAS Section 12 liaison. He previously served on the NRC’s BPA, the Committee on Review of Progress in Astronomy and Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision, and co-chaired the 2001 astronomy decadal survey committee. RALPH L. McNUTT, JR., Panelist and Planning Committee Member, is a physicist, member of the principal professional staff, and science and analysis branch scientist (space science) at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Dr. McNutt is currently the project scientist and a co-investigator on the MESSENGER Discovery mission to Mercury, a co-investigator on the New Horizons mission to Pluto, co- investigator on the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) investigation on Solar Probe Plus, and a co-investigator on the Voyager Plasma Science and Low-Energy Charged Particles experiments. He is also a member of the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Team for the Cassini Orbiter spacecraft. Dr. McNutt has worked on the physics of the magnetospheres of the outer planets, the outer heliosphere (including solar wind dynamics and properties of very-low-frequency radiation), Pluto’s atmosphere, pulsars, high-current electron beams, the physics of active experiments in the mesosphere/thermosphere (artificial aurora), and the solar neutrino problem. He received his Ph.D. in physics from MIT and is a member of the International Academy of Astronsutics. Dr. McNutt co-chaired the NRC Committee on Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. He recently completed service on the [steering] Committee on Planetary Science Decadal Survey: 2013-2022. 97

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DENNIS McSWEENEY, Panelist, serves as the Deputy Director, Science Division, Office of International and Interagency Relations. His office works closely with NASA SMD to coordinate NASA’s international science activities, including the negotiating and drafting of international agreements for joint projects. Mr. McSweeney served in Moscow as the NASA Russia Representative for a total of 7 years during two separate tours. He has worked at NASA Headquarters since 1990 in a variety of capacities, including: Acting Director of the Space Operations Division in the Office of External Relations; Executive Secretary of the NASA Advisory Council Task Forces on Shuttle-Mir and International Space Station Safety and Operational Readiness; and International Liaison for the Office of Aeronautics. BERRIEN MOORE III, Panelist, is dean of atmospheric and geographic Sciences at the University of Oklahoma. He also serves as Chesapeake Energy Corporation chair in climate studies, director of National Weather Center, and vice president for Weather & Climate Programs. Most recently, Moore served as executive director of Climate Central, a nonprofit, nonpartisan think-tank based in Princeton, New Jersey, and Palo Alto, California, which is dedicated to providing public, business and civic leaders and policymakers with objective and understandable information about climate change and potential solutions. He has published extensively on the global carbon cycle, biogeochemistry, remote sensing and environmental policy. Prior to heading Climate Central, Moore served for 20 years as the director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire and held the position of Distinguished University Professor. He earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Virginia. His extensive NRC service includes serving as a member of the SSB, chair of the Committee on Earth Studies, and co-chair of the Survey Steering Committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future. MASATO NAKAMURA, Panelist, is research director of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Dr. Nakamura developed the time of flight (TOF) experiment device which used ion beams for electric field measurement in space. His sounding rocket experiment on S-510-9 was the first TOF electric field measurement in the ionosphere/magnetosphere in the world and is a pioneer of the digital electric field measurement method of the world. Later he designed the electric field detector system (EFD) on Geotail. Dr. Nakamura analyzed the electric field data and particle data from Geotail, and especially on the events of the Pc5 ULF waves, reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. He designed the eXtreme Ultra-Violet scanner (XUV) on Planet-B Mars orbiter which was launched in 1998. He succeeded in taking the first EUV snap shot of the terrestrial plasmasphere in the world, and is considered as a pioneer of EUV imaging of the planetary plasma. Dr. Nakamura became the principal investigator of PLANET-C (AKATSUKI) Venus orbiter in 2004. This mission was planned to investigate the Venusian climate system, which is different from that on the Earth. This spacecraft was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center in May 2010. Unfortunately the first trial of Venus orbit insertion in December 2010 was unsuccessful, and is waiting for the next opportunity expected in 2015. He received the NASA group achievement award on his contribution to the magnetospheric science in 1994, as well as an ESA award in 2003 on his contribution to Cluster mission. He also received the Tanakadate medal from the Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences on his work “The study of plasma transport in the terrestrial magnetosphere” in 2002. Dr. Nakamura earned a doctor of science degree in geophysics from the University of Tokyo. JEFFREY NEWMARK, Panelist, is the strategic planning lead for the Heliophysics Division, in SMD at NASA Headquarters. In this position, he leads a team to define and document division science priorities and implementation plans ensuring that future programs fulfill the Heliophysics goal to “Understand the Sun and its interaction with the Earth and solar system.” Additionally, Dr. Newmark is the Program Scientist for the Explorer and Sounding Rocket flight programs. Prior to coming to NASA in 2009, he worked at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 2001 where he participated in the development of the STEREO Sun Earth Connection and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) and served 98

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as the Project Scientist on two Sounding rockets investigations. He graduated in Physics and Astronomy from the University of Rochester in 1985 and received his Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1990 from the Pennsylvania State University. He subsequently held positions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center working on the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). His ongoing research has been devoted to research in the science of Space Weather, specifically instrument development and data analysis for the study of solar atmospheric structure and variability. He is a long-term member of the American Astronomical Society and the AGU. JOHN PEREIRA, Panelist, is the Chief of the Advanced Satellite Planning and Technology assessment Division (ASPT) within NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service. His division is responsible for conducting pre- formulation studies and other investigations to determine how NOAA can better meet its needs for satellite observations of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and space environment. Mr. Pereira served as NOAA’s project manager for two studies conducted by committees under the NRC: (1) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft (2008); and (2) Assessing the requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations (2011). Mr. Pereira currently serves as chair of an ad hoc committee on the transition of research to operations (R2O). Prior to his current NOAA role, Mr. Pereira served in numerous positions in NOAA/NESDIS from 1992 to 2008. Prior to his career in NOAA, he was a weather officer in the USAF from 1983 to 1992. He also served as a part-time reservist in the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserves until his retirement in 2004. Mr. Pereira earned an M.S. in meteorology from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in 1990 and a B.S. in meteorology from the Pennsylvania State University in 1983. MARCIA J. RIEKE, Panelist, is a Regents’ Professor of Astronomy and an astronomer in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona. Her research interests include infrared observations of galactic nuclei and high-redshift galaxies. She has served as the deputy PI on the near-infrared camera and multi-object spectrometer for Hubble Space Telescope (NICMOS), and she is currently the principal investigator for the near-infrared camera (NIRCam) for JWST. Dr. Rieke has worked on the Spitzer Space Telescope as a co-investigator for the multiband imaging photometer and as an outreach coordinator and as a member of the Science Working Group. She was also involved with several infrared ground observatories, including the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Dr. Rieke is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the NAS. She received her Ph.D. in physics from MIT. Dr. Rieke currently serves on the NRC’s SSB. Her previous NRC service includes as co-vice chair of the Astro2010 Decadal Survey Committee, as a member on the 2001 astronomy decadal survey steering committee, as a vice chair on the Panel on Ultraviolet, Optical, and Infrared Astronomy from Space for the 2000 survey, and as a member on the Steering Committee for the Task Group on Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union. PAUL L. SCHECHTER, Planning Committee Member, is the William A.M. Burden Professor of Astrophysics at MIT. Dr. Schechter’s research interests are galaxies, clusters of galaxies, the distribution of dark matter, and active optics. He is also familiar with observational techniques such as microlensing and gravitation lensing. Prior to joining the faculty at MIT, Dr. Schechter held postdoctoral positions at the Institute for Advanced Study and the University of Arizona, a faculty position at Harvard, and staff positions at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. He has carried out optical observations of the mirages produced by extragalactic gravitational potentials using the HST and ground-based telescopes. He also helped develop the active optics system for the Magellan Telescopes. He received his B.S. in physics and mathematics from Cornell University and his Ph.D. in physics from the Caltech. Dr. Schechter, a member of the NAS, was a member of the Astro2010 Panel on Electromagnetic Observations from Space and is currently a member of the BPA. Dr. Schechter is currently the co-chair of the SSB and BPA [standing] Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics. 99

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DAVID SOUTHWOOD, Panelist, was appointed ESA Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) in April 2008, and took up duty on 15 June. Prof. Southwood was previously Director of Science. Prof. Southwood is credited with more than 200 publications and scientific articles, and has worked on a variety of space missions. One of his most challenging roles was leading the team that built the Cassini magnetometer for the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini- Huygens mission, now orbiting Saturn. He has chaired a number of committees associated with space science in Europe, including the ESA Space Science Advisory Committee from 1990 to 1993 and the ESA Science Programme Committee from 1993 to 1996. As Director, he was devoted to the mandatory scientific programme and to the part of exploration dedicated to robotic exploration, and was created in April 2008 in an organisational change triggered by ESA Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain and endorsed by the ESA Council. HARLAN E. SPENCE, Panelist, is a professor of physics and director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). Prior to UNH, Dr. Spence was a professor and department chair of the department of astronomy and a member of the Center for Space Physics at Boston University. Dr. Spence has also served as a senior member of the technical staff at The Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Spence’s research interests include theoretical and experimental space plasma physics, cosmic rays and radiation belt processes, and physics of the heliosphere, planetary magnetospheres, and the aurora. He has served on multiple NASA and NSF advisory panels including the NASA Living with a Star Management Operations Working Group and the NASA Earth-Sun System Subcommittee. Dr. Spence received his Ph.D. in geophysics and space physics from the University of California, Los Angeles. He previously served on the NRC’s Panel on Solar Wind-Magnetospheric Interactions, the Panel on Space Sciences and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. STEVEN W. SQUYRES, Panelist, is a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, and is the principal investigator for the science payload on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project involving both the Spirit and Opportunity rovers currently exploring Mars. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell in 1981 and spent 5 years as a postdoctoral associate and research scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center before returning to Cornell as a faculty member. His main areas of scientific interest have been Mars and the moons of the outer planets. The research for which he is best known includes the study of the history and distribution of water on Mars and the possible existence and habitability of a liquid water ocean on Europa. He has participated in many of NASA’s planetary exploration missions, including the Voyager mission to Jupiter and Saturn, the Magellan mission to Venus, and the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission. Along with his work on MER, he is also a co- investigator on the 2003 Mars Express and 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions, a member of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Flight Investigation Team for the Mars Odyssey mission, and a member of the imaging team for the Cassini mission to Saturn. Dr. Squyres recently served as chair of the NASA Space Science Advisory Committee and as a member of the NASA Advisory Council. He has also served on the NRC Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies. Most recently, Dr. Squyres chairs the NRC’s planetary science decadal survey, Visions and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. JEAN-PIERRE SWINGS, Panelist, is Honorary Professor at the University of Liège (Belgium) where he obtained his master’s degree in space engineering and his Ph.D. and D.Sc. in astrophysics. Between the latter two, he spent 3 years of post-doctoral fellowships in JILA (Boulder, Colorado) and at the Hale Observatories (Pasadena, California). His subjects of interest are solar physics, emission-line and/or infrared excess objects, extragalactic astrophysics, space research, (very) large telescopes and their instrumentation, solar system exploration, etc. He gradually switched from observational astrophysics to “astropolitics”, as General Secretary of the International Astronomical Union, member of numerous committees of the ESA; of the European Southern Observatory of which he was Council member for 17 years and involved in the advisory structure of the Very Large Telescope project and the selection of its site; and also of the European Astronomical Society of which he was one of the four founders with Lodewijk Woltjer. Dr. Swings is currently chairman of the European Space Sciences Committee of the 100

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European Science Foundation and member of the Space Advisory Group of the European Commission 7th Framework Program. A. THOMAS YOUNG, Planning Committee Member, is retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin. He is currently chair of the board of SAIC. Mr. Young previously was president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta Corporation. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA. At NASA, he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is currently a fellow of the AIAA and of the American Astronautical Society and a member of the NAE. Mr. Young previously served as the vice chair of the NRC’s SSB and has extensive NRC experience. Prior NRC committee service includes membership on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey steering committee, the Astro2010 Decadal Survey Committee and subsequent follow-on Panel on Implementing Recommendations from New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey, and the Committee on Assessment of Impediments to Interagency Cooperation on Space and Earth Science Missions. Staff DAVID H. SMITH, Study Director, joined the SSB in 1991. He is the senior staff officer and study director for a variety of NRC activities in planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. He also organizes the SSB’s Lloyd V. Berkner Summer Policy Internship program and supervises most, if not all, of the interns. He received a B.Sc. in mathematical physics from the University of Liverpool in 1976, completed Part III of the Mathematics Tripos at Cambridge University in 1977, and earned a D.Phil. in theoretical astrophysics from the University of Sussex in 1981. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Queen Mary College University of London (1980-1982), he held the position of associate editor and, later, technical editor of Sky and Telescope. Immediately prior to joining the staff of the SSB, Dr. Smith was a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at MIT. LEWIS B. GROSWALD is an associate program officer for the SSB. He joined as an Autumn 2008 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern and then served as a research associate for more than 4 years. Mr. Groswald is a graduate of George Washington University, where he received a master’s degree in international science and technology policy and a bachelor’s degree in international affairs, with a double concentration in conflict and security and Europe and Eurasia. Following his work with the National Space Society during his senior year as an undergraduate, Mr. Groswald decided to pursue a career in space policy, with a focus on educating the public on space issues and formulating policy. He has worked on NRC reports covering a wide range of topics, including near-Earth objects, orbital debris, life and physical sciences in space, and planetary science. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, an editor, joined the SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN has worked for the National Academies since 1974. She started as a senior project assistant in the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (which is now the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research in the Division on Earth and Life Studies), where she worked for 2 years. She then transferred to the Space Science Board, which is now the SSB. She is a program associate with SSB. 101

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HARRISON DREVES, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern, recently received a B.A. degree from Vanderbilt University with concentrations in the communication of science and technology and Earth and environmental sciences. His academic interests include science policy, climate science, and science communication through video. At Vanderbilt, he served as a senior video producer for student media. Mr. Dreves hopes to pursue a career in science journalism or science policy, working to translate between the scientific community and the public. He is interested in combining his lifelong passion for space exploration (attending Space Camp in Huntsville at age 11) with his interest in science policy at the Space Studies Board, especially to gain insight into the political and economic structures behind space science programs. As a future space science communicator, Mr. Dreves would like to explain how research is funded, how a research target is selected, and, most importantly, why space science research funding matters. MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) at the NRC of the National Academies. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, the BPA, the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. In his time at the ASEB/SSB Dr. Moloney has overseen the production of more than 30 reports, including three decadal surveys—in planetary science, life and microgravity science, and solar and space physics, a prioritization of NASA space technology roadmaps, as well as reports on issues such as NASA’s Strategic Direction, orbital debris, the future of NASA’s astronaut corps, and NASA’s flight research program. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in 2010, Dr. Moloney was associate director of the BPA and study director for the 2010 astronomy decadal survey. With 12 years’ experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has served as study director or senior staff for a series of reports on subject matters as varied as quantum physics, nanotechnology, cosmology, the operation of the nation’s helium reserve, new anti-counterfeiting technologies for currency, corrosion science, and nuclear fusion. In addition to his professional experience at the Academies, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experience as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government—including serving at the Irish Embassy in Washington and the Irish Mission to the United Nations in New York. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics. 102