Glossary

antenatal care The regular medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy.

APBD (Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Daetah) A separate channel of national funding that is transferred directly to district budgets,

Askes (Asuransi Kesehatan) Social health insurance.

Askeskin (Asuransi Kesehatan Keluarga Miskin) Social health insurance for poor families. Replaced with Jamkesda (see Jamkesda).

Bappenas (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional) Also known as the National Development Planning Agency, a national agency engaged in all areas of the country’s development.

BEmONC Basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (pelayanan obstetri dan neonatal emergensi dasar). BEmONC facilities meet the definition of a CEmONC but lack the capability to perform a cesarean section and to administer a blood transfusion (see CEmONC).

Bidan Delima Midwife accreditation program aimed at improving the quality of midwifery services in Indonesia. Program was launched in 2003 by the Indonesian Midwives’ Association (Ikatan Bidan Indonesia, IBI) to educate private midwives and give them the incentive to meet and maintain the standard of care.

Bidan di Desa Program launched in 1989 in which a trained midwife was placed in each village along with a village birth facility (see Polindes),

BOK (Bantuan Operasional Kesehatan) Assistance fund for operational costs at the health center level.

BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Also known as Statistics Indonesia, a nondepartmental national agency whose chief mandate is to provide the government and the public with periodic information on the structure and growth of economy, social change, and development. Those statistics may be derived from its own research and surveys as well as from other government department as secondary data. The agency reports directly to the president of the Republic.

CEmONC Comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care (pelayanan obstetri dan neonatal emergensi komprehensif). As defined by the World Health Organization, CEmONC capabilities consist of trained doctors, nurses, and midwives who possess the abilities to perform a cesarean section, provide a blood transfusion, undertake vacuum delivery of a baby, administer magnesium sulfate and antibiotics, and render the other services necessary to remedy those conditions that most commonly cause maternal or neonatal mortality in Indonesia.

DAK (dana alokasi khusus) Government funds provided by the line ministries to district governments to primarily fund public infrastructure and equipment. Local counterparts are required to provide 10 percent of funding, generally from DAU support (see DAU).



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Glossary antenatal care The regular medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy. APBD (Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Daetah) A separate channel of national funding that is transferred directly to district budgets, Askes (Asuransi Kesehatan) Social health insurance. Askeskin (Asuransi Kesehatan Keluarga Miskin) Social health insurance for poor families. Replaced with Jamkesda (see Jamkesda). Bappenas (Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional) Also known as the National Development Planning Agency, a national agency engaged in all areas of the country’s development. BEmONC Basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (pelayanan obstetri dan neonatal emergensi dasar). BEmONC facilities meet the definition of a CEmONC but lack the capability to perform a cesare- an section and to administer a blood transfusion (see CEmONC). Bidan Delima Midwife accreditation program aimed at improving the quality of midwifery services in Indonesia. Program was launched in 2003 by the Indonesian Midwives’ Association (Ikatan Bidan Indo- nesia, IBI) to educate private midwives and give them the incentive to meet and maintain the standard of care. Bidan di Desa Program launched in 1989 in which a trained midwife was placed in each village along with a village birth facility (see Polindes), BOK (Bantuan Operasional Kesehatan) Assistance fund for operational costs at the health center level. BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik) Also known as Statistics Indonesia, a nondepartmental national agency whose chief mandate is to provide the government and the public with periodic information on the struc- ture and growth of economy, social change, and development. Those statistics may be derived from its own research and surveys as well as from other government department as secondary data. The agency reports directly to the president of the Republic. CEmONC Comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care (pelayanan obstetri dan neonatal emergensi komprehensif). As defined by the World Health Organization, CEmONC capabilities consist of trained doctors, nurses, and midwives who possess the abilities to perform a cesarean section, provide a blood transfusion, undertake vacuum delivery of a baby, administer magnesium sulfate and antibiotics, and render the other services necessary to remedy those conditions that most commonly cause maternal or neonatal mortality in Indonesia. DAK (dana alokasi khusus) Government funds provided by the line ministries to district governments to primarily fund public infrastructure and equipment. Local counterparts are required to provide 10 percent of funding, generally from DAU support (see DAU). 109

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110 Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in Indonesia DAU (dana alokasi umum) Government funds provided by the Ministry of Finance to district govern- ments to fund public services. Mainly cover operational costs. dekon (asas) dekon(sentrasi) Deconcentration fund in which grants from the Ministry of Health are used for activities sponsored by the central government. District proposals that utilize these funds are approved at the provincial level. Jamkesda (Jaminan Kesehatan Daerah) Various community-based health insurance schemes. Jamkesmas (Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat) Community health insurance. Jampersal (Jaminan Persalinan) Community insurance for antenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care. JNPK (Jaringan Nasional Pelatihan Klinis) Also known as the National Clinical Training Network, the clinical training institution endorsed by the Ministry of Health since 1998 to improve health provider per- formance in Indonesia. JPKM (Jaminan Pemeliharaan Kesehatan Masyarakat) Public health care insurance; managed-care model. IBI (Ikatan Bikdan Indonesia) Also known as the Indonesian Midwives’ Association, a national group that developed a standardized examination system leading to the credential Certified Professional Mid- wife (CPM). kader Village-level community health volunteer. maternal mortality rate Defined in low-income countries as the death of the mother during pregnancy or within 42 days (six weeks) of the birth. Rate is reported for every 100,000 live births. maternal mortality ratio Defined as the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth per 100,000 live births per year. midwife According to the World Health Organization, “a person who, having been regularly admitted to a midwifery educational programme, duly recognized in the country in which it is located, has successful- ly completed the prescribed course of studies in midwifery and has acquired the requisite qualifications to be registered and/or legally licensed to practise midwifery.” midwifery According to the World Health Organization, midwifery encompasses care of women during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery, as well as care of the newborn. It includes measures aimed at preventing health problems in pregnancy, detecting abnormal conditions, procuring medical assistance when necessary, and executing emergency measures in the absence of medical help. MDG 4 One of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by world leaders at the Millenni- um Summit at the United Nations in 2000, with the global aim of reaching equitable development by 2015. MDG 4 seeks to reduce the 1990 under-5 infant mortality rate by two-thirds. MDG 5 One of eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted by world leaders at the Millenni- um Summit at the United Nations in 2000, with the global aim of reaching equitable development 2015. MDG 5 seeks to improve maternal health by reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters of its 1990 value and by ensuring skilled birth attendance for all. In 2005 the international community added a se- cond target to MDG5: universal access to reproductive health.

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Glossary 111 National Clinical Training Network (NCTN). See JNPK. neonatal mortality rate The probability of a neonate dying before reaching 28 days of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. pajak Tax. perda (peraturan daerah) (Munipicial/district regulation. perinatal care The care of a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery PKK (Pemberdayaan dan Kesejahteraan Keluarga) Also known as the Family Empowerment and Welfare Movement, a program launched to promote government programs in which mothers are the most important agents in families. PNS (pegawai negeri sipil) Civil servants. polindes (pondok bersalin desa) Village maternity clinic or village birth center. poskesdes (pos kesehatan desa) Village health post (physical building). posyandu (pos pelayanan terpadu) Integrated health post that provides preventative maternal and child health services, including birth monitoring, monthly birth weight, distribution of vitamin A, and immun- izations (if health worker is present). Not a physical building. PNPM (Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat). Also known as the National Program for Community Empowerment, central government grants used for community empowerment activities such as building and rebuilding village sanitation units and community health posts and constructing and re- constructing roads. Community proposals for these funds are approved by the district administration. PTT ([dokter/bidan] pegawai tidak tetap) Temporary public health employee. puskesmas (pusat kesehatan masyarakat) Community health center (physical building). Offers a wide range of services but generally has an antenatal and family planning room. If a center is designated as one that assists in births, it has a delivery bed, water source, basic supplies, and the equipment needed to man- age a normal birth. pusling (puskesmas keliling) Mobile health center designed to reach remote and isolated areas of Indonesia. pustu (puskesmas pembantu) Sub-health center. PWSKIA (Pemantauan Wilayah Setempat Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak) Local area monitoring for ma- ternal and child health. Riskesdas (Riset Kesehatan Dasar) Basic health survey that provides information on the population’s health status.

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112 Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in Indonesia Seknas-Fitra (Sekretariat Nasional Forum Indonesia untuk Transparansi Anggaran) Also known as the National Secretariat–Indonesian Forum for Budget Transparency, a local nongovernmental organiza- tion. skilled birth attendant An accredited health professional—a midwife, doctor, or nurse—who has been educated and trained to proficiency in the skills needed to manage normal (uncomplicated) pregnancies, childbirth, and the immediate postnatal period, and in the identification, management, and referral of complications in women and newborns. stillbirth Defined as death in utero after 28 weeks of pregnancy. Stillbirth is also referred to as intrauter- ine fetal death (IUFD). swadana Self-supporting principle. traditional birth attendant (dukun bayi) A person who assists the mother during delivery and who ini- tially acquired her skills by delivering babies herself or by working with other TBAs. under-5 mortality rate The probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age 5, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Rate is composed of three components: newborns (neo- nates), infants (1 month to 1 year), and children 1–5 years of age. World Health Organization (WHO) Specialized agency of the United Nations concerned with