TABLE 1 HERITABILITY ESTIMATES FOR THE USE OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES IN TWIN STUDIES FROM FINLAND, SWEDEN, AND THE UNITED STATES

     

Heritability a

Study

Sample Size (Twin Pairs)

Country of Origin

Tobacco

Alcohol

Caffeine

Partanen et al. 3

902

Finland

0.28

0.47

0.46

Pedersen 4

137

Sweden

0.84

0.28

0.88

Kaprio et al. 2

5,044

Finland

0.46

0.51

0.46

Swan, Carmelli, et al. 23 [NHLBI Twins]

360

USA

0.52

0.60

a Proportion of total variance attributed to additive genetic effects.

Note: Adapted from Hughes. 1

TABLE 2 SUBSTANCE USE IN THE NAS-NRC AND FINNISH TWIN REGISTRIES

Substance Use

NAS-NRC Registry

Finnish Registry

Smoking

Nonsmoker

19.1%

38.1%

Current smoker

58.7

42.5

Former smoker

22.2

19.4

Alcohol use (g/month)

0 – 250

46.7

47.7

251 – 500

14.4

25.8

> 500

38.9

26.5

Coffee drinking (cups/day)

0

11.0

6.1

1–5

66.1

51.0

> 6

22.9

43.9



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