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no purpose beyond the deterrence of, and possible response to, the use of nuclear weapons by other nuclear weapon states. Only such constraints can maintain and strengthen the political consensus against the acquisition of nuclear weapons.

These are all “supply side” arguments, sponsored or undertaken by potential suppliers of nuclear technology and materials, and designed to limit the availability of supplies or to reduce the incentives for procuring them. Equally or more important are “demand side” agreements, undertaken by some or all nonnuclear states in order to bolster the nonproliferation regime. These agreements may be purely nuclear or contain broader regional arms control arrangements. To be effective and durable they must be solidly grounded in the local political framework. An adequate discussion of such agreements is beyond the scope of this report, but we wish to point out their increasing relevance to U.S. nuclear weapons policy.


1. Most experts agree that Israel has produced a small number of nuclear weapons. India exploded a nuclear device in 1974, but it is not certain that the country has ever produced nuclear weapons. Pakistan is generally considered to possess all the necessary elements to produce nuclear weapons, but experts do not agree on whether it has a nuclear device.

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