Page 64

Final Act) that, among other provisions, contained agreements for confidence-building measures (CBMs) designed to reduce tensions and the possibility of misperception by making the military environment more predictable through the imposition of operational constraints on military movements and exercises. The 35 CSCE members include Eastern and Western Europe, the Soviet Union, the United States, and Canada.

Confidence-building measures (CBMs). Negotiated or unilateral measures undertaken to increase “transparency” and demonstrate a nation's lack of belligerent or hostile intent, as distinguished from measures that actually control or reduce military capabilities.

Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty. An agreement signed by 22 countries (NATO, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe) in November 1990 that place limits on a range of conventional weapons. Within 40 months of the treaty's entry into force, all weapons above treaty limits must be destroyed or, in a few cases, converted to noncombat roles, under strict guidelines.

Cruise missile. A pilotless, jet-propelled guided missile flying in the atmosphere. Cruise missiles may be armed with conventional or nuclear warheads and launched from an aircraft (air-launched cruise missiles, ALCMs), a submarine or surface ship (sea-launched cruise missiles, SLCMs), or a land-based platform (ground-launched cruise missiles, GLCMs).

Download. Procedures for the removal of some of the warheads from multiple-warhead missiles so that missiles may be counted as carrying fewer warheads within certain prescribed limits.

Dual-capable. Weapons systems, such as fighter aircraft and cruise missiles, that may deliver either nuclear or conventional munitions.

East-West Military Doctrine Seminar. Seminar held in early 1990 as part of CSCE regime involving high-level military officers and officials from NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and other European nations. Additional seminars are planned.

European Community. The three organizations—the European Coal and Steel Community (1951), the European Economic Community (1957), and the European Atomic Energy Community (1957)—created to promote the political and economic integration of Europe. Now comprising 12 nations, the EC plans to abolish all trade barriers among members by 1992.

Fissile material. A material fissionable by neutrons of all energies, including fast neutrons; for example, uranium-235 and plutonium-239.

Full-scope safeguards. The requirement in the Nonproliferation Treaty that nonnuclear weapons states that are parties to the treaty submit all their peaceful nuclear activities to safeguards administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Safeguards are various procedures de



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement