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Nonhuman Primates Standards and guidelines for the breeding, care, and management of laboratory animals A Report of the Subcommittee on Primate Standards 'committee on Standards Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources National Research Council V NAS-NRC SEP 9 1968 LIBRARY PUBLICATION 1677 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. | 1968

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This report was supported in part by Contract PH43-64-44 from the Cancer Chemo- therapy National Service Center, National Cancer Institute, and the Animal Resources Branch, National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health Service; Grant #RC-1I from the American Cancer Society, Inc.; Contract Nonr-2300(24) with the Office of Naval Research, United States Army, and United States Air Force; and Contract AT(49-1)643 with the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Available from Printing and Publishing Office National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 68-61341 Order trom National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va. 22151 HrHprNn

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SF407.P7N37 1968 c.l Nonhuman primates: standards and guidelines for the breeding, care, and management of laboratory animals; a report. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources The Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), was founded in 1952 as a subsidiary of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Established as a coordinating agency, the Institute disseminates in- formation, surveys existing and required resources, establishes standards, and promotes education in the field of laboratory animal resources so that needed information and quality animal stock will be available to research workers. In this effort, ILAR works to enlighten the research animal scientist, veteri- narian, technician, and supplier by furnishing them with information and guidelines developed through the participation of authorities in the field.

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These standards and guidelines are made available because of the increasing extent to which nonhuman primates (hereafter referred to as primates) are being used as laboratory animals. They apply to experimental colonies, to production colonies, and to facilities used by importers for maintaining and conditioning primates. Subcommittee on Primate Standards Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Arthur J. Riopelle, Chairman Robert W. Cooper C. W. de Lannoy, Jr. Robert L. Hummer Charles C. Middleton

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CONTENTS CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF LABORATORY PRIMATES PROSIMIANS 1 Tupaiidae; Lemuridae; Lorisidae; Tarsiidae NEW WORLD MONKEYS 3 OLD WORLD MONKEYS 3 BABOONS 4 THE GREAT APES 5 FACILITIES: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION DESIGN 7 Receiving Area; Quarantine and Conditioning Area; Postquarantine Holding Area; Isolation Area; Infirmary; Other Areas CONSTRUCTION 9 Walls; Ceilings; Floors; Doors; Windows; Lights SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM 11 CAGES AND EQUIPMENT 11 General Requirements (Cage Design and Size, Materials, Equip- ment); Cages for Prosimians (Tupaiidae, Lorisidae); Cages for

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New World Monkeys (Marmosets, Squirrel Monkeys, Capuchins and Ringtails, Spider Monkeys); Cages for Old World Monkeys (Individual Cages, Gang Cages, Indoor-Outdoor Enclosures); Cages for Baboons (Individual Cages, Gang Cages); Cages for the Great Apes (Indoor Room, Outdoor Room, Squeeze Cage) MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES QUARANTINE AND CONDITIONING 22 COLONY MAINTENANCE 23 Environmental Control (Ventilation, Temperature, Other Factors); Feeding; Watering; Sanitation (Daily Cleaning of Cages, Sanitation of Cages, Housekeeping, Vermin Control, Personal Hygiene); Type and Number of Employees ARTIFICIAL REARING 25 Infant Care; Housing; Feeding and Weaning DISEASE CONTROL 30 General; Tuberculosis; Pneumonia; Pulmonary Acariasis (Lung Mites); Enteric Diseases SAFETY AND SECURITY 32 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 33 Animal Handlers (Suitability and Health, Training, Equipment) NUTRITION 34 Tree Shrews; Lorisidae; New World Monkeys; Old World Monkeys; Baboons; Chimpanzees EUTHANASIA 36 IDENTIFICATION AND RECORDS 37

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BREEDING BREEDING SYSTEMS 38 Free-Ranging Breeding; Colony Caging; Caged Breeding; Permanently Paired Mating BREEDING IN RELATION TO CERTAIN SPECIES 40 Tree Shrews; Lorisidae; New World Monkeys; Old World Monkeys; Baboons; Chimpanzees APPENDIXES I. SUGGESTED STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR DETECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS 44 II. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 49