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CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF LABORATORY PRIMATES The main groups of nonhuman primates are: Prosimians New World monkeys Old World monkeys Baboons The great apes In the sections that follow, the divisions of these groups (e.g., suborders, families) are named and the primates comprising them are described. PROSIMIANS The suborder Prosimii is composed of a number of phylogenetically primitive primate forms. Primates in this group are found in Africa and Asia. As a group they are small; they have cutaneous glands specialized for "marking," denti- tion specialized for use in grooming, and two or three pairs of mammary glands; they grow and mature rapidly; and they are usually nongregarious. With one exception, all nocturnal primate species belong to the suborder Prosimii; however, not all prosimians are nocturnal. Tupaiidae (Tree Shrews) This family is composed of 5 genera and about 15 species, found largely in forested areas of eastern Asia. 1

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There is some question of whether tree shrews are true primates; they are sometimes considered insectivores. Adults weigh less than 0.4 kg. Not counting the tail, they are 10 to 22 cm long; the tail is 9 to 22 cm long. Tree shrews have been studied only slightly in their natural habitats. Ob- servations of captive animals, largely Tupaia spp., have disclosed interspecific differences in social order, activity patterns, and food preferences. Tree shrews are diurnal. Lemuridae (Lemurs, Avahis, Sifakas, Indris, and Aye-Ayes) This family is composed of 10 genera and about 20 species, which are lim- ited in range to parts of Madagascar (Malagasy Republic) and the islands of Comoro. Sizes range from that of a small rat to that of a medium-sized dog. Encroachment on the natural habitat, mostly by clearing of forests, threatens many lemur species with extinction. The capture and export of lemurs is illegal. Lorisidae (Lorises, Pottos, Galagos, and Angwantibos) This family is composed of 6 genera and about 12 species, which are found in Asia and sub-Sahara Africa. All species are nocturnal and largely arboreal. Adults weigh 0.2 to 1.5 kg and are 17 to 39 cm long (head and body). Lorises, pottos, and angwantibos are stocky, short-tailed, small-eared, and slow-moving. Galagos (or bushbabies) are slender, long-tailed, large-eared, and fast-moving. Galagos in captivity have received considerable study; lorises and pottos, however, have received little attention. Tarsiidae (Tarsiers) Three species of the genus Tarsius are found in Indonesia and the Philippines. Adults weigh 80 to 150 g, they are 8 to 16 cm long (head and body), and the tail is 13 to 27 mm long. In appearance and behavior, tarsiers are similar to Galago spp. They are nocturnal and largely arboreal. They are almost completely insectivorous and carnivorous. They are very difficult to maintain in captivity.

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NEW WORLD MONKEYS New World monkeys are found chiefly in Central and South America. They differ greatly in many respects, since they fall into two families and 14 genera. All are highly arboreal. All are diurnal except the genus Aotus. Some have prehensile tails. The common laboratory species can be divided into four groups according to size. In ascending order, these groups are: Tamarins and Marmosets, Saguinus spp. and Callithrix spp. Squirrel Monkeys, Saimiri sciureus; Night or Owl Monkeys, Aotus trivirgatus; Titi Monkeys, Callicebus spp. Ringtail or Capuchin Monkeys, Cebus spp. Spider Monkeys, A teles spp.; Woolly Monkeys, Lagothrix lagotricha; Howler Monkeys, A louatta spp. For further information on taxonomy the reader is referred to Hershkovitz' reports cited in the bibliography. Following are average measurements for the more commonly used monkeys: Crown to Tail Weight (kg) heel (cm) length (cm) White-lipped marmoset 0.5 35 37 Squirrel monkey 1.0 45 45 Capuchins 2.8 70 52 Spider monkey 6.0 85 77 OLD WORLD MONKEYS Most Old World monkeys in routine laboratory use fall into the following classification: Cercopithecoids Cercopithecus aethiops, vervet, or African green monkey C. mitis, Sykes monkey Cynopithecoids Cercocebus spp., mangebeys Macaca spp., macaques

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M. fascicularis (M. irus), crab-eating macaque or cynamolgus monkey M. fuscata, Japanese macaque Af. mulatta, rhesus monkey M. nemestrina, pig-tailed macaque M. radiata, bonnet macaque M. arctoides (M. speciosa), stump-tailed macaque Cynopithecus niger, Celebes crested macaque Coloboids Presbytis cristatus, silvered langur, or leaf-monkey P. entellus, Hanuman langur The animals in this group with which we have had the most experience are the macaques, especially Af. mulatta. Since the standards that apply to the macaques apply, with a few exceptions, to the other species, the macaques are considered here as typical of the entire group. In later sections, references to the macaques should be interpreted as applying to Old World monkeys in general; certain exceptions are noted. Approximate measurements for adult macaques are given below. They apply to Af. mulatta, Af. nemestrina, and Af. arctoides. Crown to Crown to Weight (kg) rump (cm) heel (cm) Females 5-8 50 70 Males 8-14 50-60 70-90 In general, Af. fuscata and C. niger are 10 percent larger than Af. mulatta, and Af. fascicularis is 10 percent smaller than M. mulatta. BABOONS Baboons are large, extremely hardy, essentially terrestrial members of the family Cercopithecidae, subfamily Cercopithecinae. Three genera are com- monly recognized: Theropithecus, Mandrillus, zndPapio. Although baboons are essentially vegetarians, they also eat insects, eggs, mussels, crayfish, and small mammals. In their native habitat, eastern and southern Africa, baboons live in closed social-system groups of 3 to 50 animals, each large group guarded by one dominant male and several other adult males. Following are approximate measurements for baboons:

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Male Female adult adult Infant Crown to rump (cm) 78-83 60-65 23-27 Crown to heel (cm) 118-123 98-103 37-41 Crown to tip of tail (cm) 138-143 100-105 45-50 Shoulder to heel of hand (cm) 55-60 55-60 15-18 Weight (kg) 20 10 0.7-1.0 THE GREAT APES The apes (Pongidae) are divided into four major primate types. Classification is undergoing revision, and names are changing also. Nevertheless the four types are clear: Gorilla Two forms: Lowland (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) Mountain (G. g. beringei) Chimpanzee Two forms: Typical (Pan troglodytes) Pygmy (P. paniscus) Orangutan One form: Pongo pygmaeus Gibbon Two forms: Gibbon (Hylobates spp.) Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) Gorillas are the largest of the primates, saddleback males often weighing 135 to 227 kg (300 to 500 Ib). They are found in the forested regions of central Africa, from coastal lowland areas to volcanic mountains. Chimpan- zees cover a similar range, except that the pygmy chimpanzee is found only on the left bank of the Congo River. Gorillas and chimpanzees are covered with black hair. (Color variations, including albinos, have been observed.) Asian pongids include the orangutan of Borneo and Sumatra and the gib- bons of southeastern Asia. The male orangutan has long red hair and weighs up to 182 kg (400 Ib). The gibbon is the smallest ape, weighing 7 to 9 kg (15 to 20 Ib) when full grown. A siamang may weigh twice that.

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The Asian apes are almost exclusively arboreal, moving from place to place without touching the ground. Gorillas and chimpanzees are primarily terrestrial, but often nest in trees. All apes are primarily frugivorous and herbivorous, but show a tendency to eat insects.