Research Progress on Environmental, Health,
and Safety Aspects of Engineered
                Nanomaterials

Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental,
Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee re- sponsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with re- gard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract EP-C-09-003 between the National Academy of Sciences and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Any opin- ions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organiza- tions or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-29186-6 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-29186-0 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Acade- mies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the re- sponsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Nation- al Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), University of Southern California, Los Angeles JURRON BRADLEY, BASF, Florham Park, NJ SETH COE-SULLIVAN, QD Vision, Inc., Lexington, MA VICKI L. COLVIN, Rice University, Houston, TX EDWARD D. CRANDALL, University of Southern California, Los Angeles RICHARD A. DENISON, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC WILLIAM H. FARLAND, Colorado State University, Fort Collins MARTIN FRITTS, SAIC-Frederick, Frederick, MD PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY JAMES E. HUTCHISON, University of Oregon, Eugene REBECCA D. KLAPER, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee GREGORY V. LOWRY, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA ANDREW MAYNARD, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor GÜNTER OBERDÖRSTER, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY KATHLEEN M. REST, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY DAVID B. WARHEIT, DuPont Haskell Global Centers for Health and Environmental Sciences, Newark, DE MARK R. WIESNER, Duke University, Durham, NC Staff EILEEN ABT, Project Director KERI STOEVER, Research Associate NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects CRAIG PHILIP, Senior Program Assistant Sponsor US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY v

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BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1 Members ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM PRAVEEN AMAR, Clean Air Task Force, Boston, MA RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC MICHAEL J. BRADLEY, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA JONATHAN Z. CANNON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GAIL CHARNLEY, HealthRisk Strategies, Washington, DC DAVID C. DORMAN, Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Raleigh, NC CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, New York WILLIAM H. FARLAND, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark STEVEN P. HAMBURG, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY ROBERT A. HIATT, University of California, San Francisco PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario H. SCOTT MATTHEWS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley TERRY L. MEDLEY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE JANA MILFORD, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI GINA M. SOLOMON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA PETER S. THORNE, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA DOMINIC M. DI TORO, University of Delaware Newark, DE JOYCE S. TSUJI, Exponent Environmental Group, Bellevue, WA Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Studies ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center RADIAH ROSE, Manager, Editorial Projects 1 This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. vi

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides (2013) Science for Environmental Protection: The Road Ahead (2012) Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy (2012) A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials (2012) Macondo Well–Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety (2012) Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops (2011) Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment (2011) A Risk-Characterization Framework for Decision-Making at the Food and Drug Administration (2011) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde (2011) Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change (2010) The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010) Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010) Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2009) Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune—Assessing Potential Health Effects (2009) Review of the Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research (2009) Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009) Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008) Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008) Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH (2008) Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008) Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008) Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007) Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007) Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007) Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007) Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) vii

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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (12 volumes, 2000-2012) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu viii

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Members DAVID WALT (Co-chair), NAE, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts TIMOTHY SWAGER (Co-chair), NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DAVID BEM, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan ROBERT G. BERGMAN, NAS, University of California, Berkeley JOAN BRENNECKE, NAE, University of Notre Dame, Indiana HENRY E. BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID W. CHRISTIANSON, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia RICHARD EISENBERG, NAS, University of Rochester, New York MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC (retired), The Woodlands, Texas CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts SANDER G. MILLS, Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corporation, Kenilworth, New Jersey DAVID MORSE, NAE, Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia DARLENE SOLOMON, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey Senior Staff DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer ELIZABETH FINKELMAN, Administrative Assistant ix

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Opportunities and Obstacles in Large-Scale Biomass Utilization: The Role of the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Communities: A Workshop Summary (2013) Determining Core Capabilities in Chemical and Biological Defense Science and Technology (2012) Transforming Glycoscience: A Roadmap for the Future (2012) Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear and Radiochemistry Expertise (2012) The Use and Storage of Methyl Isocyanate at Bayer CropScience (2012) Challenges in Chemistry Graduate Education: A Workshop Summary (2012) The Role of the Chemical Sciences in Finding Alternatives to Critical Resources: A Workshop Summary (2012) Challenges in Characterizing Small Particles: Exploring Particles from the Nano- to Microscales: A Workshop Summary (2012) Research Frontiers in Bioinspired Energy: Molecular-Level Learning from Natural Systems: A Workshop (2012) Chemistry in Primetime and Online: Communicating Chemistry in Informal Environments (2011) Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards, Revised Edition (2011) Trends in Science and Technology Relevant to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: Summary of an International Workshop: October 31 to November 3, 2010, Beijing, China (2011) Promoting Chemical Laboratory Safety and Security in Developing Countries (2010) Research at the Intersection of the Physical and Life Sciences (2010) BioWatch and Public Health Surveillance: Evaluating Systems for the Early Detection of Biological Threats: Abbreviated Version (2010) Strengthening High School Chemistry Education Through Teacher Outreach Programs: A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable (2009) Catalysis for Energy: Fundamental Science and Long-Term Impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Science Catalysis Science Program (2009) Effectiveness of National Biosurveillance Systems: BioWatch and the Public Health System: Interim Report (2009) A Framework for Assessing the Health Hazard Posed by Bioaerosols (2008) Disrupting Improvised Explosive Device Terror Campaigns: Basic Research Opportunities: A Workshop Report (2008) Test and Evaluation of Biological Standoff Detection Systems: Abbreviated Version (2008) x

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NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD Members ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK (Chair), NAE, General Electric Aviation, Cincinnati, OH PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE, Aluminum Company of America (retired), Boca Raton, FL LAWRENCE D. BURNS, NAE, University of Michigan, Franklin JIM C. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan GEORGE (RUSTY) T. GRAY, III, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, H-Technologies Group, Inc., Cleveland, OH SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta MAJ. GEN ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, VA MICHAEL F. MCGRATH, ANSER (Analytic Services Inc.), Arlington, VA CELIA MERZBACHER, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC EDWARD MORRIS, National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining, Youngstown, OH ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, VA VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC, Dayton, OH HAYDN N. WADLEY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ALBERT R. C. WESTWOOD, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Senior Staff DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Manager JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Program Assistant xi

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OTHER REPORTS OF THE NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD Optics and Photonics: Essential Technologies for our Nation (2012) Engineering Aviation Security Environments – Reduction of False Alarms in Computed Tomography-Based Screening of Checked Baggage (2012) Application of Lightweighting Technology to Military Vehicles, Vessels, and Aircraft (2011) Opportunities in Protection Materials Science and Technology for Future Army Applications (2011) Materials Needs and R&D Strategy for Future Military Aerospace Propulsion Systems (2011) Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering (2010) Assessment of Corrosion Education (2009) Proceedings of a Workshop on Materials State Awareness (2008) Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: A Transformational Discipline for Improved Competitiveness and National Security (2008) Managing Materials for a Twenty-first Century Military (2008) A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Bank Notes: Keeping Them Real (2007) Assessment of Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Technology for Detection and Identification of Concealed Explosives and Weapons (2007) Fusion of Security System Data to Improve Airport Security (2007) Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century (2007) Managing Materials for a 21st Century Military (2007) A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (2006) Proceedings from the Workshop on Biomedical Materials at the Edge: Challenges in the Convergence of Technologies (2006) Defending the U.S. Air Transportation System Against Chemical and Biological Threats (2006) Globalization of Materials R&D: Time for a National Strategy (2005) Going to Extremes: Meeting the Emerging Demand for Durable Polymer Matrix Composites (2005) High-Performance Structural Fibers for Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites (2005) Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community (2005) xii

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Preface Over the last decade, there has been an increase in funding for research on and a rising number of publications that address the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Those efforts have led to progress in understanding some aspects of potential EHS risks posed by ENMs. However, research on the potential EHS implications of ENMs still lacks context, particularly with regard to future risks, because uses of materials are changing rapidly. EHS research efforts are not keeping pace with the evolving applications of nanotechnology, and uncertainty persists about the potential implications of the materials for consumers, workers, and ecosystems. To address those uncertainties, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council to perform an independent study to develop and monitor the implementation of an integrated research strategy to address the EHS aspects of ENMs. In response to that request, the Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials was formed and released a report in January 2012, A Research Strategy for the Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. That report developed a research plan with short-term and long-term priorities and estimated resources needed to implement the research plan. In this second report, the committee assesses the trajectory of research pro- gress on the basis of indicators identified in its first report. The committee sug- gests pathways for advancing the research and considers a vision for optimizing the research efforts of the nanotechnology EHS community. This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their di- verse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purposes of the independent review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsive- ness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain con- fidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of this report: Nathan Baker, Pacific Northwest National Labora- tory; Diana Bowman, University of Michigan; Barbara Boyan, Virginia Com- monwealth University; Elsa Garmire, Dartmouth College; Timothy Killeen, State xiii

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xiv Preface University of New York, Albany; Terry Medley, E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co.; Andre Nel, University of California, Los Angeles; Robert Tanguay, Oregon State University; Jason Unrine, University of Kentucky; and Paul Westerhoff, Arizona State University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or rec- ommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by the review coordinator, Richard B. Schle- singer, Pace University, and the review monitor, Julia M. Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the committee and the institution. The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for making presenta- tions to the committee during its November 7, 2012 workshop in Washington, DC (see Appendix C for a summary of the workshop): James Alwood and Tina Ba- hadori, US Environmental Protection Agency; Nathan Baker, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carolyn Cairns, Consumers Union; Teresa Croce, US Food and Drug Administration; Anna Fendley, United Steel Workers; Charles Geraci and Paul Schulte, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; Vincent Hackley, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Michael Holman, Lux Research; Barbara Karn, National Science Foundation; Georgios Katalagarianakis, European Commission; Jamie Lead, University of South Carolina; Scott McNeil, National Cancer Institute; Sri Nadadur and Christopher Weis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Martin Philbert, University of Michigan; Mihail Roco, National Science Foundation; Robert (Skip) Rung, Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute; Maxine Savitz, Honeywell Corporation (retired); Robert Tanguay, Oregon State University; and Sally Tinkle, Science Technology and Policy Institute (formerly with the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office). The committee is also grateful for the assistance of National Research Council staff in preparing this report: Eileen Abt, project director; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Keri Stoever, research associate; Norman Grossblatt, senior editor; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, manager, Technical Information Center; Radiah Rose, manager, editorial projects; and Craig Philip, senior program assistant. I would especially like to thank the members of the committee for their ef- forts throughout the development of this report. Jonathan M. Samet, Chair Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

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Contents SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ 3 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 17 Study Scope, 18 Overview of First Report, 19 Context for and Approach to Second Report, 24 References, 26 2 REVIEW OF RECENT REPORTS AND NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE WORKSHOP ................ 28 Introduction, 28 The National Nanotechnology Initiative Supplement to the President’s FY 2013 Budget, 29 The Report to the President and Congress on the Fourth Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, 30 Government Accountability Office Report, Nanotechnology: Improved Performance Information Needed for Environmental, Health, and Safety Research, 31 European Union Efforts, 34 National Research Council Committee Workshop, 37 Conclusion, 37 References, 38 3 ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS ...................................................... 41 Introduction, 41 Indicators of Research Progress, 43 Indicators of Progress in Implementation, 67 References, 73 4 GETTING TO GREEN ..................................................................... 83 Introduction, 83 Fundamental Processes Affecting Nanomaterial Exposure and Hazard, 86 xv

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xvi Contents Nanomaterial Sources and Development of Reference Materials, 87 Model Development, 90 Methods and Instrumentation, 92 Informatics: The Knowledge Commons, 94 Nanomaterial Interactions in Complex Systems Ranging from Subcellular Systems to Ecosystems, 98 Analysis of Progress Towards Addressing Implementation Needs, 101 References, 111 5 GOING BEYOND GREEN ............................................................ 115 Introduction: A Vision for the Future, 115 Effective Governance, 117 Sustaining and Nurturing Research Excellence, 121 Adaptive Decision-Making and Knowledge-Sharing, 122 Conclusion, 125 References, 125 APPENDIXES A BIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH STRATEGY FOR ENVRIONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF ENGINEERED NANOMATERIALS ........................................................................ 126 B STATEMENT OF TASK ................................................................ 135 C WORKSHOP SUMMARY: RESEARCH PROGRESS ON ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH, AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY................................................................... 137 BOXES AND FIGURES BOXES S-1 Status of Indicators of Progress in Research, 6 S-2 Status of Indicators of Progress in Implementation, 8 1-1 Research-Progress Indicators, 22 1-2 Indicators of Progress in Implementation, 23 3-1 Status of Indicators of Research Progress, 42 3-2 Status of Indicators of Progress in Implementation, 44

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Contents xvii FIGURES S-1 Nanotechnology environmental, health, and safety research enterprise, 5 1-1 Conceptual framework for the committee’s research strategy, 20 1-2 Nanotechnology environmental, health, and safety research enterprise, 25 4-1 Nanotechnology environmental, health, and safety research enterprise, 84

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