B

Speaker Biosketches

Lester Brown, M.P.H. The Washington Post called Mr. Brown “one of the world’s most influential thinkers.” The Telegraph of Calcutta refers to him as “the guru of the environmental movement.” In 1986, the Library of Congress requested his personal papers, noting that his writings “have already strongly affected thinking about problems of world population and resources.”

Mr. Brown started his career as a farmer, growing tomatoes in southern New Jersey with his younger brother during high school and college. Shortly after earning a degree in agricultural science from Rutgers University in 1955, he spent 6 months living in rural India, where he became intimately familiar with the food/population issue. In 1959 Mr. Brown joined the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service as an international analyst.

Mr. Brown earned a master’s degree in agricultural economics from the University of Maryland and a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University. In 1964, he became an adviser to Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman on foreign agricultural policy. In 1966, the secretary appointed him administrator of the department’s International Agricultural Development Service. In early 1969, he left government to help establish the Overseas Development Council.

In 1974, with support of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Mr. Brown founded the Worldwatch Institute, the first research institute devoted to the analysis of global environmental issues. While there, he launched the Worldwatch Papers, the annual State of the World reports, World Watch magazine, a second annual report titled Vital Signs: The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, and the Environmental Alert book series.

Mr. Brown has authored or co-authored 50 books. One of the world’s most widely published authors, his books have appeared in some 40 languages. Among his earlier books are Man, Land and Food, World Without Borders, and Building a Sustainable Society. His 1995 book



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B Speaker Biosketches Lester Brown, M.P.H. The Washington Post called Mr. Brown “one of the world’s most influential thinkers.” The Telegraph of Calcutta refers to him as “the guru of the environmental movement.” In 1986, the Library of Congress requested his personal papers, noting that his writings “have already strongly affected thinking about problems of world population and resources.” Mr. Brown started his career as a farmer, growing tomatoes in southern New Jersey with his younger brother during high school and college. Shortly after earning a degree in agricultural science from Rutgers University in 1955, he spent 6 months living in rural India, where he became intimately familiar with the food/population issue. In 1959 Mr. Brown joined the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service as an international analyst. Mr. Brown earned a master’s degree in agricultural economics from the University of Maryland and a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University. In 1964, he became an adviser to Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman on foreign agricultural policy. In 1966, the secretary appointed him administrator of the department’s International Agricultural Development Service. In early 1969, he left government to help establish the Overseas Development Council. In 1974, with support of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Mr. Brown founded the Worldwatch Institute, the first research institute devoted to the analysis of global environmental issues. While there, he launched the Worldwatch Papers, the annual State of the World reports, World Watch magazine, a second annual report titled Vital Signs: The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, and the Environmental Alert book series. Mr. Brown has authored or co-authored 50 books. One of the world’s most widely published authors, his books have appeared in some 40 languages. Among his earlier books are Man, Land and Food, World Without Borders, and Building a Sustainable Society. His 1995 book 175

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176 THE NEXUS OF BIOFUELS, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND HUMAN HEALTH Who Will Feed China? challenged the official view of China’s food prospect, spawning hundreds of conferences and seminars. In May 2001, he founded the Earth Policy Institute to provide a vision and a roadmap for achieving an environmentally sustainable economy. In November 2001, he published Eco-Economy: Building an Economy for the Earth, which was hailed by E. O. Wilson as “an instant classic.” His most recent book is World on the Edge, which the Financial Times called “a provocative primer on some of the key global issues that businesses will face in the coming decades.” Mr. Brown is the recipient of many prizes and awards, including 25 honorary degrees, a MacArthur Fellowship, the 1987 United Nations Environment Prize, the 1989 World Wide Fund for Nature Gold Medal, and the 1994 Blue Planet Prize for his “exceptional contributions to solving global environmental problems.” In 2012, he was inducted into the Earth Hall of Fame. Alena Buyx, Dr.Med., is a bioethicist with a background in medicine, philosophy, and sociology. After her studies in Münster, London, and York, she was assistant professor of medical ethics at the Institute of Ethics, History and Philosophy of Medicine, Münster. Following that, she spent a year as visiting scholar in the Harvard Program in Ethics and Health, where she mainly worked on issues of justice in health care and public health. From 2009 until early 2012, she was assistant director of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, London, furthering her research in bioethics and adding a new focus on developing well-argued recom- mendations for policy makers. She remains an advisor to the Nuffield Council and is also a senior research associate at the School of Public Policy, University College, London. Dr. Buyx has worked across the whole field of bioethics, with particular focus on justice questions in applied contexts such as resource allocation, transplantation, personalized and commercialized medicine, and public health. Other main areas of work include neuroethics, ethics of renewable energies and climate change, philosophy of medicine and theory of medical professionalism, and medical ethics teaching. During her tenure at the Nuffield Council, she was lead or co-author of reports on the ethics of biofuels, solidarity in bioethics, ethics of novel neuro- technologies, mitochondrial donation, emerging biotechnologies, donation in medicine and research, personalized medicine, and dementia. She has been published widely in high-ranking journals, including Science, BMJ, Bioethics, the Journal of Medical Ethics, and many others, and lectures

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APPENDIX B 177 nationally and internationally in her areas of expertise. She continues to work with the Nuffield Council on a number of topics, including the solidarity in bioethics project. Elliott Campbell, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the School of Engineering and Energy Research Institute at the University of California, Merced. He received his master’s degree in environmental engineering from Stanford University and his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa. His primary research efforts focus on sustainable bioenergy assessment, chemical transport modeling, and carbonyl sulfide/carbon cycle interactions. Dr. Campbell is a consultant for the United Nations Environmental Programme, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the California Council on Science and Technology, and the Chilean Environmental Protection Agency. He holds a grant from the National Science Foundation. Daniel Cassidy, Ph.D., is senior advisor for renewable energy and natural resources at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Office of the Chief Scientist. As senior advisor, he facilitates the coordination of the department’s research, education, and extension programs that promote sustainable bioenergy, biofuels, and biobased product systems. Prior to this role, he spent 6 years with the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, most recently as the national program leader for forest-based bioenergy, providing leadership for the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative’s Sustainable Bioenergy Challenge, the Investing in America’s Scientific Corps Education program, and the Biomass Research and Development Initiative. Dr. Cassidy has also served as the chair for the Federal Woody Biomass Utilization Working Group and as the deputy team leader for the U.S. Forest Service’s Woody Biomass Utilization Team. Dr. Cassidy is a silviculturalist and dendrochronologist by training who received his Ph.D. in natural resources from the University of Tennessee, where he studied the historical development and distribution of shortleaf pine in the southeastern United States. Prior to joining the USDA, Dr. Cassidy was the director of the Southern Forest Research Partnership’s Wood-to-Energy Initiative, where he worked to coordinate regional research and education projects that promoted a bio-based economy. He has held a postdoctorate faculty position at the University

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178 THE NEXUS OF BIOFUELS, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND HUMAN HEALTH of Georgia and worked for International Paper as a private forest landowner advisor. Dr. Cassidy received a B.S. in forest management from Mississippi State University with a focus on economics and an M.S. in forest policy from the University of Tennessee. Howard Gruenspecht, Ph.D., was named deputy administrator of the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) in March 2003. As the EIA deputy administrator, Dr. Gruenspecht assists the administrator in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policy making, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA provides a wide range of information and data products covering energy production, stocks, demand, imports, exports, and prices. EIA also prepares analyses and special reports on topics of current interest. Dr. Gruenspecht works closely with the administrator to provide overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency, and, when necessary, he serves as acting administrator. During the past 30 years, Dr. Gruenspecht has worked extensively on electricity policy issues, including restructuring and reliability, regulations affecting motor fuels and vehicles, energy-related environmental issues, and economy-wide energy modeling. Before joining EIA, he was a resident scholar at Resources for the Future. From 1993 to 2000, Dr. Gruenspecht served as director of Economic, Electricity and Natural Gas Analysis in the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Policy, having originally come to DOE in 1991 as deputy assistant secretary for economic and environmental policy. His accomplishments as a career senior executive at DOE have been recognized with three Presidential Rank Awards. Prior to his service at DOE, Dr. Gruenspecht was senior staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisers (1989–1991), with primary responsibilities in the areas of environment, energy, regulation, and international trade. His other professional experience includes service as a faculty member at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University (1981–1988), economic adviser to the chairman of the U.S. International Trade Commission (1988–1989), and assistant director, economics and business, on the White House Domestic Policy Staff (1978–1979). Dr. Gruenspecht received his B.A. from McGill University in 1975 and his Ph.D. in economics from Yale University in 1982.

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APPENDIX B 179 Jamal Hisham Hashim, Ph.D., is currently a research fellow at the United Nations University (UNU) International Institute for Global Health. He is also a professor of environmental health at the National University of Malaysia (UKM). He has a Ph.D. in environmental health sciences from the School of Public Health, University of Michigan. He has been teaching and conducting research and consultancy in environmental and occupational health at UKM and UNU for the past 29 years. His research interests are mainly on the health effects of heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, air pollution, and, recently, climate change. He has been the principal investigator of nine research projects and co- investigator of another six projects, and has more than 220 publications and presentations to date. He has been engaged as an environmental health consultant in more than 50 local and overseas projects, primarily in the area of environmental health impact and risk assessment. He has also been consulted by the World Health Organization, the Risk Science Institute in the United States, and the governments of Malaysia, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia on various environmental health issues. He is a registered environmental impact assessment consultant with the Department of Environment, Malaysia, and a member of the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health in the United Kingdom. Jason Hill, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in bioproducts and biosystems engineering. His research interests include the technological, environmental, economic, and social aspects of sustainable bioenergy production from current and next-generation feedstocks. Dr. Hill’s work on the life-cycle impacts of transportation biofuels has been published in the journals Science and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dr. Hill has testified before U.S. Senate committees on the use of diverse prairie biomass in biofuels production, as well as the impacts of land-use change on net greenhouse gas emissions from ethanol and biodiesel. His current research focuses on the effects the global biofuels industry will have on climate change, land use, biodiversity, and human health. Dr. Hill received his bachelor’s degree in biology from Harvard College and his doctorate in plant biological sciences from the University of Minnesota.

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180 THE NEXUS OF BIOFUELS, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND HUMAN HEALTH S. Kent Hoekman, Ph.D., is a research professor within the Division of Atmospheric Sciences at the Desert Research Institute (DRI). DRI is a statewide division of the Nevada System of Higher Education that pursues basic and applied environmental research on local, national, and international scales. His professional interests include environmental impacts of energy production, distribution, and use; development of renewable and sustainable energy systems; conversion of biomass to biofuels; air quality impacts of vehicle emissions; and impacts of advanced-technology fuels and vehicles on emissions and energy use. He is also interested in the interface between politics and environmental science, particularly in the areas of energy policy, renewable fuels, greenhouse gases, and climate change. In addition to his personal professional activities, Dr. Hoekman has provided leadership for DRI in the identification, protection, and licensing of intellectual property developed at the institute. Dr. Hoekman was instrumental in establishing a joint Technology Transfer Office (TTO) between DRI and the University of Nevada, Reno. He currently serves as DRI’s liaison to the TTO, and oversees the activities of this office on behalf of DRI. Dr. Hoekman has also served DRI by coordinating and promoting the institute’s research and development portfolio in the field of renewable energy. He has led the effort to establish a Renewable Energy Center (REC) at DRI, and continues to provide leadership in this area. For further information about the DRI-REC, please refer to its website: http://www.dri.edu/rec. Catherine Kling, Ph.D., professor of economics at Iowa State University, serves as the division head of the Center for Agricultrual and Rural Development’s (CARD’s) Resource and Environmental Policy Division. She received a bachelor’s degree in business and economics from the University of Iowa and a doctorate in economics from the University of Maryland. In her work at CARD, Dr. Kling is undertaking research to examine how agricultural practices affect water quality, wildlife, soil carbon content, and greenhouse gases. Erik D. Olson, J.D., is the director of food programs at the Pew Charitable Trusts. He was deputy staff director and general counsel of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works until November 2008 and has 25 years of experience in environmental policy and consumer advocacy. Mr. Olson is responsible for consumer product

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APPENDIX B 181 safety, including efforts to improve food safety, overhaul toxic chemical regulatory programs to better protect children and other vulnerable people, and establish safeguards for emerging risks in consumer products. During his Senate tenure, Mr. Olson worked on environmental issues and health threats from toxic chemicals, playing a key role in major environmental legislation and hearings on global warming, toxic chemicals, children’s environmental health, clean air, drinking water, clean water, and environmental justice, among other issues. He also helped to negotiate the lead and phthalates provisions enacted in the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 and the green buildings and green schools provisions of the Energy Independent Security Act of 2007. Prior to his Senate work, Mr. Olson worked for 15 years at the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), where he held various positions, including advocacy center director, public health program director, and senior attorney. At NRDC, he worked extensively on toxic chemicals, pesticides, drinking water, hazardous waste, and many other environmental and health issues. He previously served as counsel for the National Wildlife Federation’s environmental quality program for 5 years and as an attorney for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of General Counsel, working on hazardous waste and water issues. Mr. Olson graduated from the University of Virginia School of Law, where he was inducted into the Order of the Coif legal honor society and served as an editor of the environmental law journal, and is a graduate of Columbia College of Columbia University, where he created an independent major in environmental biology and policy. Roger Prince, Ph.D., is a senior research associate with ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., in Annandale, New Jersey. He has worked on various aspects of environmental and bioprocessing microbiology during his career with ExxonMobil, and is currently assessing various biofuel options for transportation fuels, especially algal biofuels in ExxonMobil’s alliance with Synthetic Genomics, Inc. He was Exxon’s lead scientist in the monitoring of the successful bioremediation of the Exxon Valdez spill, and has also done field work on experimental spills in the Arctic. He has served on a number of government and international workshops and panels, including the National Research Council’s Panel on Marine Biotechnology.

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182 THE NEXUS OF BIOFUELS, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND HUMAN HEALTH Prior to joining ExxonMobil, Dr. Prince was a visiting faculty member at the University of California, Berkeley, and on the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania. He serves on the editorial board of the Bioremediation Journal and the editorial advisory board of Environmental Science and Technology. He has published more than 300 papers and chapters in the refereed literature. Dr. Prince was awarded Stanford’s Farrel W. Lytle Prize for Contributions to Synchrotron Spectroscopy in 2000 and the American Chemical Society North Jersey Section Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007. Stephen Reynolds, Ph.D., focuses on development of exposure assess- ment methods for organic and biological aerosols and the application of these methods for epidemiological investigations of respiratory disease. In particular, his current research focuses on comparative assay and chemical approaches to evaluating gram-negative bacterial endotoxins and their role, along with genetic risk factors, in lung disease among agricultural workers. Related research into environmental causes of asthma and other respiratory disease problems among children and adults in nonindustrial environments also focuses on effectiveness of interventions to prevent disease. Dr. Reynolds’ other initiatives include research concerning exposure assessment methods for pesticides and development of international education programs for the occupational hygiene profession, primarily in the former Soviet Union countries. Dr. Reynolds is director of the High Plains Intermountain Center for Agriculture Health and Safety under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In that role, he is involved in rural and agricultural health research, education, outreach, and policy on a regional and national level. Jerald L. Schnoor, Ph.D., professor at the University of Iowa, co- founded the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER) in 1990. As the organization’s co-director, Dr. Schnoor allocates seed grants, organizes symposiums, and conducts lectures nationwide about environmental change. Along with co-director Greg Carmichael, he makes yearly budgeting, managerial, and promotional decisions for the center. Dr. Schnoor is a professor in the departments of civil and environmental engineering and occupational and environmental health. He joined the university’s College of Engineering in 1977, and now holds the esteemed Allen S. Henry Chair in Engineering. His research

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APPENDIX B 183 interests include carbon sequestration, water quality modeling, phyto- remediation, and the causes of global warming. In 2007, Iowa Governor Chet Culver hired Dr. Schnoor to head the Iowa Climate Change Advisory Council (ICCAC). A 27-member panel of academics and professionals, the council guides Governor Culver’s effort to reduce Iowa’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, the ICCAC issued its final report, a 470-page document to direct the governor’s environmental agenda. Also in 2007, Schnoor became editor-in-chief of Environmental Science & Technology (ES&T). Launched in 1967 by the American Chemical Society, ES&T is a bimonthly magazine that publishes both peer-reviewed scholarly research and journalistic feature articles. The publication ranks among the leading international environmental journals, according to recent impact factor and citation figures. Among his prior achievements, Dr. Schnoor testified before the U.S. Congress to support the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) head administrator. He has also served on several commissions for the EPA, including the Board of Scientific Counselors and the Scientific Advisory Board. Dr. Schnoor earned a Ph.D. in civil engineering in 1975 and an M.S. in environmental health engineering in 1974 from the University of Texas. In 1972 he received a B.S. in chemical engineering from Iowa State University. He represents the University of Iowa and CGRER at numerous speaking engagements every month. Schnoor has addressed politicians and elementary school students alike about green energy, climate change, and reducing atmospheric carbon emissions. Along with his scholarly pursuits, Dr. Schnoor and his CGRER graduate assistants have planted more than 250,000 trees to help sequester carbon from the environment. Timothy D. Searchinger, J.D., is a research scholar and lecturer in public and international affairs at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School. He is also a Transatlantic Fellow of the German Marshall Fund of the United States. Trained as a lawyer, Dr. Searchinger now works primarily on interdisciplinary environmental issues related to agriculture. For 17 years, Searchinger worked at the Environmental Defense Fund, where he co-founded the Center for Conservation Incentives, and supervised work on agricultural incentive and wetland protection programs. He has also been a deputy general counsel to Governor Robert

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184 THE NEXUS OF BIOFUELS, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND HUMAN HEALTH P. Casey of Pennsylvania and a law clerk to Judge Edward R. Becker of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He is a graduate, summa cum laude, of Amherst College and holds a J.D. from Yale Law School, where he was senior editor of the Yale Law Journal. Dr. Searchinger first proposed the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program to the U.S. Department of Agriculture and worked closely with state officials to develop programs that have now restored 1 million acres of riparian buffers and wetlands to protect priority rivers and estuaries in Illinois, Maryland, and Minnesota, among other states. Searchinger received a National Wetlands Protection Award from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1992 for a technical book about the functions of seasonal wetlands of which he was principal author. His most recent writings focus on the greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels and agricultural conservation strategies to clean up nutrient runoff. Theresa Selfa, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Environmental Studies at the State University of New York College of Environ- mental Science and Forestry. Her research interests include the social ecological impacts of bioenergy development in the United States and Latin America, sustainable agriculture and food systems, environmental politics, and interdisciplinary water management. She is an active member of the Rural Sociological Society. Dr. Selfa received a Ph.D. in development sociology from Cornell University. Karl Simon, J.D., is the recently named director of the Transportation and Climate Division of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). His portfolio includes work with renewable fuels, voluntary programs like Smartway, and modeling and forecasting of mobile source emissions trends. He previously served as director of the Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, where he was responsible for managing the certification, registration, and compliance activities associated with all engines and fuels sold in the United States. Some of the major activities he has been extensively involved in are the 2004 Clean Nonroad Engine and Fuel Program, the National Low Emission Vehicle program, and the Renewable Fuels Programs. He also works on international mobile source harmonization issues. Previously, he was the assistant director for the office, worked in the mobile source recall branch at the EPA, and worked in the submarine construction and design division at Newport News Ship Building and Dry Dock Company.

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APPENDIX B 185 Dr. Simon holds a B.S. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Notre Dame, a J.D. from the George Mason University School of Law, and a master’s in environmental law from George Washington University.

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