that those villagers chose to not use technology which would have prevented the contamination of that valued waterway, or is it that the type of technology for wastewater treatment isn’t available remotely?”

Hisham Hashim answered that it is not a problem with the technology because the waste is mainly organic components and the water can be easily treated in a not particularly sophisticated water treatment plant. And, indeed, the small holders tend to be more environmentally conscious than the bigger plantation management, he said. These huge plantations are generally located in remote areas, far away from the regulatory agencies, which gives them the opportunity to violate the laws.


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May, C. Y. 2012. September 2012: Malaysia: Economic transformation advances palm oil industry. Available at (accessed July 29, 2013).

RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil). 2011. Malaysia sets record as world’s largest producer of certified sustainable palm oil. Available at (accessed July 29, 2013).

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