C

Speaker Biographies
(in order of appearance)

Ralph Forquera, M.P.H., is executive director for the Seattle Indian Health Board, one of the largest and most comprehensive urban Indian community health centers in the nation. He is a member of the Juaneno (pronounced Juan-n-yo) Band of Mission Indians, Acjachmen (pronounced Uh-Hosh-Men) Nation, a state-recognized Indian tribe from the San Juan Capistrano region of Southern California.

Mr. Forquera holds a faculty appointment as a clinical assistant professor with the School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences, at the University of Washington. He is president of the Community Health Council of Seattle/King County, and immediate past-chair of the American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Caucus of the American Public Health Association. He is the urban representative to the American Indian Health Commission for Washington State, and recently joined the Board of Directors for PRO-West, a private health quality review organization for the Northwest. He is active with the Washington Association of Community and Migrant Health Centers, the National Association of Community Health Centers, and other national health care advocacy groups for better health care for low-income/uninsured Americans. Mr. Forquera has an M.P.H. degree from California State University, Northridge, and a B.S. degree in health science and safety from San Diego State College.

Prior to moving to Seattle in 1990, Mr. Forquera was executive director for the San Diego American Indian Health Center in California. In 1985, he was appointed and later elected to the board of trustees for Palomar College, a large community college in the northeastern section of San Diego County, where he served as president of the board in 1987. He lectured



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C Speaker Biographies (in order of appearance) Ralph Forquera, M.P.H., is executive director for the Seattle Indian Health Board, one of the largest and most comprehensive urban Indian community health centers in the nation. He is a member of the Juaneno (pronounced Juan-n-yo) Band of Mission Indians, Acjachmen (pronounced Uh-Hosh- Men) Nation, a state-recognized Indian tribe from the San Juan Capistrano region of Southern California. Mr. Forquera holds a faculty appointment as a clinical assistant profes- sor with the School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences, at the University of Washington. He is president of the Community Health Council of Seattle/King County, and immediate past-chair of the Ameri- can Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Caucus of the American Public Health Association. He is the urban representative to the American Indian Health Commission for Washington State, and recently joined the Board of Directors for PRO-West, a private health quality review organiza- tion for the Northwest. He is active with the Washington Association of Community and Migrant Health Centers, the National Association of Com- munity Health Centers, and other national health care advocacy groups for better health care for low-income/uninsured Americans. Mr. Forquera has an M.P.H. degree from California State University, Northridge, and a B.S. degree in health science and safety from San Diego State College. Prior to moving to Seattle in 1990, Mr. Forquera was executive director for the San Diego American Indian Health Center in California. In 1985, he was appointed and later elected to the board of trustees for Palomar College, a large community college in the northeastern section of San Diego County, where he served as president of the board in 1987. He lectured 81

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82 LEVERAGING CULTURE TO ADDRESS HEALTH INEQUALITIES in the Department of American Indian Studies and in the School of Pub- lic Health at San Diego State University and California State University, San Marcos. In 1994, Mr. Forquera was a co-author of the first and only population-based study on the health status of urban American Indians and Alaskan Natives, which was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. He co-authored an article titled “A Political History of the Indian Health Service,” which appeared in the December 1999 issue of the Milbank Quarterly. In July 2000, Mr. Forquera launched a new enterprise by creating the Urban Indian Health Institute as a division of the Seattle Indian Health Board. The institute was created to provide leadership and support for national information on the health of urban Indians and the social factors, health policies, and systems of care that effect urban Indians and their health. Mr. Forquera has spent much of his professional career working to improve the health and well-being of urban American Indians and Alaska Natives, an often misunderstood, overlooked, and gravely underserved population. James Knibb-Lamouche is Cree/Métis and grew up in northern Alberta, Canada, near Kpawe’no (Grouard) on the shores of the Lesser Slave Lake. Mr. Knibb-Lamouche has experience working as an educator develop- ing science and health curricula that respects Indigenous knowledge and attempts to engage Indigenous students more fully. His research experience includes the Pulmonary Research Institute at the University of Alberta as well as the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Massachusetts. Mr. Knibb-Lamouche has also served as both a participant and coordinator for the Four Directions Summer Research Program, as well as a research fellow at Harvard Medical School. His most recent position with the National Aboriginal Health Organi- zation provided him with the opportunity to work with elders and healers from many different nations and traditions toward the goal of protection and promotion of Indigenous knowledge and traditional medicines. He also has extensive experience working internationally in the areas of traditional medicines, Indigenous rights, multilateral environmental agreements, and intellectual property rights. Mr. Knibb-Lamouche currently holds the posi- tions of director of research and Indigenous health sciences coordinator at Blue Quills First Nations College. Why Culture Matters in Addressing Health Inequities Bonnie Duran, Dr.P.H., is an associate professor in the department of health services, University of Washington School of Public Health, and director of the Center for Indigenous Health Research at the Indigenous Wellness

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APPENDIX C 83 Research Institute (www.iwri.org). She received her Dr.P.H. from the Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health in 1997. Dr. Duran teaches graduate courses in community-based participatory research, health promotion/disease prevention, and critical theory. She has worked in public health research, evaluation, and education among Native Americans and other communities of color for 27 years. Dr. Duran is currently the principal investigator of two National Insti- tutes of Health–funded research projects in Indian country. Working with the National Congress of American Indians Policy Research Center and the University of New Mexico, she is studying the promoters, barriers, and mechanisms of change in community-based participatory research. With the Northwest Indian College and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, she is conducting a needs and capacity study of behavioral health at 34 tribal colleges (http://www.iwri.org/health). Dr. Duran is also co–principal investigator of a National Institute of Mental Health–funded HIV and mental health research training program. Her past work includes partnering with the Navajo Nation, Indian Health Service, and Indigenous community-based organizations on frontier rural projects aimed at improv- ing health services, and developing culture-centered health promotion. Using indigenous theories to guide her work, Dr. Duran’s research includes studies of the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders, violence, and child abuse; and treatment-seeking patterns and barriers to care among Native peoples. The overall aims of her research are to work with communities to design public health treatment and prevention efforts that are empowering, culture-centered, assessable, and sustainable and that have maximum public health impact. She is the author of more than 50 publications, including articles in peer-reviewed journals, book chapters, and books. Dr. Duran is on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Public Health and Progress in Community Health Partnerships and is on the Cen- ters for Disease Control and Prevention Health Disparities Advisory Board. In her free time, Dr. Duran teaches “Indigenous Presence” (mindfulness) meditation to Indigenous and other communities of color. Michael H. Trujillo, M.D., M.S., M.P.H., is presently the associate dean for the Outreach & Multicultural Affairs program and professor in the department of internal medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine–Phoenix. The program office serves to increase the ethnic and cultural diversity of the college’s student body. Dr. Trujillo is a part-time consultant for the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) in Phoenix. He assists TGen to engage Indian communities in the development of applied community-based participatory research partnerships that will not only increase scientific understanding of the genetic basis of disease, but

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84 LEVERAGING CULTURE TO ADDRESS HEALTH INEQUALITIES also lead to improvements in clinical care and treatment. In this effort, new partnerships and new alliances have developed that affect research strate- gies to improve health outcomes for Arizona American Indian (AI) tribes. Dr. Trujillo was TGen’s executive director for Program Development & Community Outreach from 2006 to 2008. He also continues with TGen’s clinical outreach to AI patients for cancer clinical trials. From November 2008 until June 2010, Dr. Trujillo was the health research director for the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc. (ITCA) in Phoenix, Arizona. There, he assisted the executive office of ITCA in manag- ing, coordinating the various health care initiatives, projects and grants, and extended collaboration with federal, non-federal, state, community, and AI tribal organizations and programs, especially dealing with National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health cancer initiatives. Dr. Trujillo served as the national director of the Indian Health Service (IHS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in Rockville, Maryland. In March 1994, he was the first president-appointed director of the IHS with Senate confirmation. As director, he was an Assistant Surgeon General/Rear Admiral (08) in the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS). He served two confirmed 4-year terms as the IHS director. In June 2002, he was appointed to the Office of the Surgeon General, HHS, where he was involved in nationwide initiatives to improve the health status and dispari- ties in health care of minority and underserved populations. In May 2003, he retired after serving 29 years as a USPHS Commissioned Corps Officer and having served in several agencies of the HHS and in the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice. As the director of the IHS, Dr. Trujillo led the effort that resulted in unprecedented tribal participation and collaboration in the IHS and within the HHS. He headed an IHS budget expansion of more than $1 billion to tribes and urban Indian programs that exceeded $5 billion and more than 15,000 employees. He directed the IHS in developing the expansion for tribes to manage their own health care programs through the new self- governance compacting process. He led the agency’s headquarters reorga- nization with participation of tribal and urban Indian program leadership, and he directed the development of the first business plan for the agency. In 2003, Dr. Trujillo retired back to his roots and served as an associate professor in the department of family and community medicine, and as the associate director for minority and community programs and outreach for the Regional Cancer Research & Treatment Center at the School of Medi- cine, University of New Mexico (UNM), in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Concurrently, he was the tribal liaison officer for the Office of the Director at the Albuquerque VA Regional Medical Center, and served as an outpa- tient clinician evaluating veterans for disabilities and compensation. Dr. Trujillo, a member of the Laguna Pueblo tribe in New Mexico,

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APPENDIX C 85 was the first AI to graduate from the UNM School of Medicine after he earned several undergraduate and graduate degrees from the UNM. He completed his family practice internship and an internal medicine residency at the UNM School of Medicine. Later, he earned an M.P.H. degree in public health administration and policy from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, and completed a fellowship in preventive medicine, department of internal medicine at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. PANEL 1: Training in Cultural Competence: Increasing the Number of Culturally Competent Physicians and Clinicians Terry Maresca, M.D. (Mohawk Tribe, Kahnawake Band), is a board- certified family physician and the medical director for the Snoqualmie Tribe of western Washington. She is a graduate of Vassar College and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She has spent the past 25 years work- ing in reservation, tribal, and urban American Indian communities. She is a clinical associate professor at University of Washington School of Medi- cine, department of family Medicine, where she serves on the admissions committee. A faculty member with Seattle Indian Health Board’s family medicine residency training program since 1997, Dr. Maresca served as the program director on grants to promote cultural competency. Her training and clinical practice has blended both Native plant medicine work and Western approaches to health. A former president of the Association of American Indian Physicians (AAIP), Dr. Maresca has worked with a num- ber of AAIP programs during the past 30 years to mentor and increase the pool of Native people serving Native communities. Roger Dale Walker, M.D., is professor of psychiatry, public health, and preventive medicine and director of the Center for American Indian Edu- cation and Research at Oregon Health and Science University. His current work draws attention to best practices for the prevention and treatment of addiction and mental health disorders with American Indian populations. Prior to arriving at the Oregon Health and Science University 7 years ago, Dr. Walker led the development of the first National Center of Excel- lence for Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Problems within the national VA Medical Center system. This work and focus began at the Seattle VA Medi- cal Center and the University of Washington School of Medicine. Nationally, Dr. Walker has participated in numerous consultations and provided testimony on promoting access to care, best practices, and effec- tive research integration into community settings, especially focusing on American Indian populations. He has presented testimony in both houses of Congress in regard to these issues, and provided leadership, direction,

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86 LEVERAGING CULTURE TO ADDRESS HEALTH INEQUALITIES and advocacy for the American Psychiatric Association’s efforts for mental health and addictions parity for all citizens. Throughout his career, Dr. Walker has served nationally and locally as an advocate and activist for access to health care and the elimination of the stigma of mental illness and substance use disorders. A major focus of his research has been on addictions and mental health issues of American Indians. Over the past 25 years, the American Indian Research Group has studied the prevalence and natural history of addiction disorders, risk and protective factors relating to addiction disorders, the relationship between mental and addictive disorders, and treatment strategies. He and his col- leagues have consulted and lectured throughout North America on Ameri- can Indian issues. Benjamin Young, M.D., was born and raised in Hawaii. He graduated from Milligan College, Tennessee, with a degree in English literature, and received his M.D. from Howard University College of Medicine, Washing- ton, DC. He trained in psychiatry at the University of Hawaii and is the first Native Hawaiian to enter the field of psychiatry. He served as dean of students at the University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, and was also vice president of student affairs systemwide. His last position was executive director of the Native Hawai- ian Center of Excellence. In 1973, he was one of only seven Native Hawaiian physicians in Hawaii. At that time, he was asked to start a program to increase the num- bers of Hawaiians in medicine. Today, there are more than 350 practicing Native Hawaiian physicians. Dr. Young was awarded the prestigious title Living Treasure of Hawaii, and was named a Distinguished Medical Historian by the Hawaiian His- torical Society. In addition, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry named him the Joseph Noshpitz Lecturer at their recent conven- tion. The National Library of Medicine/Medical Library Association also awarded him the title Joseph Leiter Distinguished Lecturer. Dr. Young is currently immersed in writing a book on Hawaii’s medi- cal history. PANEL 2: Weaving Culture into the Clinical Setting Arne Vainio, M.D., was born in Chisholm, Minnesota, to a full-blood Ojibwe mother and a Finnish father. He is an enrolled member of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe. He completed his undergraduate studies in 1990 at the University of Minnesota–Duluth, entered the University of Minnesota Medical School– Duluth, and graduated in 1994. He completed his family practice residency

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APPENDIX C 87 program at the Seattle Indian Health Board and Providence Hospital in Seattle, Washington, in 1997. He has been employed as a family practice physician at the Min-No- Aya-Win Human Services Clinic on the Fond du Lac Ojibwe Reservation in Cloquet, Minnesota, since September 1997. His hospital affiliations include St. Mary’s Medical Center, St. Luke’s Hospital & Regional Trauma Cen- ter, Miller-Dwan Medical Center (all located in Duluth, Minnesota), and Cloquet Memorial Hospital in Cloquet, Minnesota. He is also employed as a preceptor at the Duluth Family Practice Center in Duluth, Minnesota, and volunteers as a preceptor for the University of Minnesota Medical School–Duluth campus. He is a member of the Association of American Family Physicians and the Association of American Indian Physicians. Dr. Vainio is the recent recipient of the following awards: National IHS (Indian Health Service) Director’s Award, National Diabetes Physician’s Recognition Award, and the Minnesota Medical Foundation’s Early Distinguished Career Award. Dr. Vainio is featured in the 2009 Emmy-nominated American Indian health documentary film Walking into the Unknown, currently showing on more than 200 public television stations, and writes a monthly column for News from Indian Country (www.indiancountrynews.com). His column is picked up by multiple tribal newspapers across the country. PANEL 3: Action in Diabetes Prevention in the Communities Darlene Willis is a member of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. She resides in Choctaw, Mississippi, with her husband and three children. Ms. Willis has been employed with the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians for 29 years. Nineteen of those years have been with the health department. She has been the Diabetes Prevention Program Coordinator since the establish- ment of the Special Diabetes Program for Indians in 1998. Ms. Willis received her bachelor’s degree in social work in 1996 from Mississippi State University. In 2011 she received a Special Initiative Award from the Indian Health Service. She is actively involved in the Native American Research Center for Health project with representatives from Vanderbilt University and United South and Eastern Tribes. She serves as a board member for the several entities of her tribe and is an active member of the Spirit of Life Christian Center. Her goal in life is to make a differ- ence in peoples’ lives bringing awareness in the area of health and finances. In her spare time she enjoys teaching at her church and community on basic finances. Ms. Willis is also a retired veteran from the Mississippi Air National Guard.

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88 LEVERAGING CULTURE TO ADDRESS HEALTH INEQUALITIES Walleen Whitson: “My Tlingit name is Shaun’ Nuth Du’ Joon, from the Raven moiety, Seapigeon clan. My parents were Harvey and Marietta Williams and I am the proud mother of three. My husband and I will be celebrating our 25th anniversary next month. I was born and raised in Sitka, Alaska, with a population of approximately 7,500, of which one- third are American Indian/Alaska Native. My employer is the SouthEast Alaska Regional Health Consortium (SEARHC) located in Sitka, Alaska. I have been working in the health prevention field for 8 years. Presently I am a Health Educator II within the Lifestyle Balance Program (LBP), which is a part of the SEARHC Health Promotion Programs. The SEARHC LBP is 1 of 37 grant programs funded by the Special Diabetes Program for Indians (SDPI) Diabetes Prevention Project established by Congress in 1997. The SDPI funds are targeted toward diabetes prevention and treatment services in the Indian Health Service, tribal, and urban Indian health programs. While working full time, I am pursuing a bachelor of science degree to become a registered dietitian. My goal is to be a diabetes educator and work with my Native people in the fight against diabetes. Thank you for allowing me an opportunity to share with you how our program in Sitka, Alaska, is working in the fight against diabetes in Indian country.” Nia Aitaoto, M.P.H., is a Ph.D. candidate and fellow at the University of Iowa College of Public Health. She is currently the principal investigator of the Faith In Action Research Alliance, a National Institutes of Health– funded (R21) research project that utilizes constructs such as culture, reli- gion, and family to design diabetes prevention and control interventions. She is also the advisor of two regional coalitions, the Pacific Chronic Dis- ease Coalition and the Pacific Partnership for Tobacco-free Islands. Prior to this, she was the coordinator for the Pacific Diabetes Education Program at Papa Ola Lōkahi, where she provided health education, community mobi- lization training, and technical assistance in American Samoa, Common- wealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Hawaii, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Republic of Palau. She was also a program coordinator for the Cancer Council of the Pacific Island and a principal investigator of a National Cancer Institute–funded research project to investigate health-seeking behaviors of American Samo- ans in Hawaii. PANEL 4: Action in Cancer Prevention in the Communities JoAnn Tsark, M.P.H., is the research director for Papa Ola Lōkahi and proj- ect director of ‘Imi Hale Native Hawaiian Cancer Network (U01CA114630; U54CA153459), 1 of 23 National Cancer Institute–funded Community

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APPENDIX C 89 Network Program Centers. ‘Imi Hale is a community-placed, community- driven initiative that provides a robust infrastructure to support increasing the number of Native Hawaiians in cancer prevention and control research and building capacity through training and education in Hawaiian health agencies and communities to address cancer health disparities. As a found- ing member and project director of ‘Imi Hale Native Hawaiian Cancer Network, she and her team have mentored and supported more than 50 Native Hawaiians to win and lead (as principal investigators [PIs] and co- PIs) cancer research grant awards, developed the largest body of culturally tailored cancer education materials for Hawaiian and Pacific audiences, established the Ho‘okele i ke Ola Cancer Patient Navigation Training Program in Hawaii and trained 130 navigators, and assisted the Queen’s Medical Center in attaining their designation as one of 30 National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Center Program. ‘Imi Hale programs and research incorporate community-based participatory principles com- munity leadership, capacity building, and community participation (www. imihale.org). She received a master’s degree in public health from the University of Hawaii at Mānoa in 1984 and focused her tenure in public health on Native Hawaiian community health and wellness. Prior to joining Papa Ola Lōkahi, she served as director of research education and training at the Rehabilitation Hospital of the Pacific and director of the Governor’s Pacific Health Promotion and Development Center, which focused on health dis- parities in Hawaii and the U.S. Affiliated Pacific. At Papa Ola Lōkahi, since 1999, she has spearheaded federally funded programs from the NCI, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the Centers for Dis- ease Control and Prevention to support programs for cancer prevention and control research and education, and diabetes prevention and control in Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. Additionally, she has sup- ported efforts in cardiovascular risk factor research with Dr. Emmett Aluli and Na Pu‘uwai, Inc. and worked with the Moloka‘i community as a grants writer and program developer to launch their Native Hawaiian Health Care System. Kerri Lopez (Tolowa) is the project director for Northwest Tribal Compre- hensive Cancer Western Tribal Diabetes Projects and has worked in tribal public health for the past 15 years. Ms. Lopez has more than 10 years’ experience in program management for tobacco, diabetes, and breast and cervical cancer prevention, and has provided training and technical assis- tance in diabetes, tobacco education and cessation, breast and cervical can- cer, cultural competency, as well as the history of Indian health. Ms. Lopez serves on the Oregon State Diabetes and Comprehensive Cancer Coalitions, the Oregon Nutrition Council, and the Washington State Diabetes and

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90 LEVERAGING CULTURE TO ADDRESS HEALTH INEQUALITIES Cancer Coalitions, is a current board member for the Oregon Public Health Association, and served on the workgroup for OR HB 3486 to make guid- ing principle and policy recommendations impacting obesity and diabetes. She has served on the Tobacco Free Coalition of Oregon and Wash- ington, the Board of the County Multicultural Breast and Cervical Cancer Coalition, and Oregon’s Multi-Cultural Advisory Committee. Her work was instrumental in setting the agenda for negotiation for tribal allocations for tobacco prevention funds from the tobacco tax initiative in Oregon. Ms. Lopez was the director for the Diabetes Program, American Legacy Foun- dation Cessation Project, the State of Oregon American Indian Tobacco Prevention Project, and the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program for the Portland Urban Indian Health Clinic. Linda Burhansstipanov, Dr.P.H., M.S.P.H., is Cherokee Nation of Okla- homa and is the founder of the Native American Cancer Research Cor- poration (NACR). Her work has emphasized Native American cancer patients since 1987. The NACR has been involved with navigator and survivorship programs that are local, regional, national, and international since 1994. She is a nationally recognized cancer survivorship researcher for the implementation and assessment of culturally appropriate interven- tions for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Her personal interest in cancer started in 1979 when her stepfather, whose name she carries, was diagnosed with lung cancer. He passed in 1983 of lung and bladder cancer. In collaboration with Linda U. Krebs, the original Native American Cancer Education for Survivors intervention was developed. She is the original designer for NACR’s online evaluation program. She is the originator for NACR’s outreach, recruitment, and screening programs beginning with the Native American Wellness through Awareness cancer screening and out- reach intervention in1994. She has been the lead educator for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Board annual training for tribal and urban recruit- ment and outreach strategies for breast and cervix screening since 1996. She has been the principal investigator for a community-based participatory research R01 research application through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 1989 (cervix cancer among urban American Indian women). She has conducted community-based participatory research since 1988. She was recruited to the National Cancer Institute to develop the National Native American Cancer Research Program within the Special Population Studies Branch from 1989 to 1993 (first in an intergovernmental personnel act position and then “expert” position within NIH). She has served on several federal advisory boards, including, but not limited to, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Women’s Health Initiative Working Group (May 1996 to 2002), the CDC National Breast

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APPENDIX C 91 and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Board (July 1996 through 2002), the Diversity Advisory Group for the National Institute of General Medical Sci- ences on “Pharmacogenetics” (spring 1999 to 2003), and most recently the CDC’s Promising Practices Assessment of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Expert Panel (start date January 2011).

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