Selected Directed Energy Research and Development for
U.S. Air Force Aircraft Applications

A Workshop Summary

Robert J. Katt, Rapporteur

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

                OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Selected Directed Energy Research and Development for U.S. Air Force Aircraft Applications A Workshop Summary Robert J. Katt, Rapporteur Air Force Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This is a report of work supported by Grant FA9550-12-1-0413 between the U.S. Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-29261-0 ISBN-10: 0-309-29261-1 Copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Keck 360 Washington, DC 20001 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ASSESSMENT OF DIRECTED ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR U.S. AIR FORCE APPLICATIONS: A WORKSHOP RONALD E. KEYS, RK Solution Enterprises, LLC, Chair WILLIAM L. BAKER, Independent Consultant, Sandia Park, New Mexico JACQUELINE G. GISH, Independent Consultant, Glendale, California MATT L. MLEZIVA, Wildwood Strategic Concepts, LLC THOMAS E. ROMESSER, Independent Consultant, Torrance, California DAVID J. SCOTT, Independent Consultant, Payton, Colorado FRANK J. SERNA, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. ANDEW M. SESSLER, E.O Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Staff CARTER W. FORD, Program Officer MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator v

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AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD GREGORY S. MARTIN, GS Martin Consulting, Chair BRIAN A. ARNOLD, Raytheon Company CLAUDE M. BOLTON, JR., Defense Acquisition University STEVEN R.J. BRUECK, University of New Mexico THOMAS J. BURNS, Science Applications International Corporation FRANK CAPPUCCIO, Cappuccio and Associates, LLC BLAISE J. DURANTE, U.S. Air Force (retired) DONALD C. FRASER, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired) MICHAEL J. GIANELLI, The Boeing Company (retired) DANIEL HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RAYMOND E. JOHNS, JR., U.S. Air Force (retired) PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. ROBERT LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates NANCY G. LEVESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute LESTER L. LYLES, The Lyles Group MATT L. MLEZIVA, Wildwood Strategic Concepts C. KUMAR N. PATEL, Pranalytica, Inc. GERALD F. PERRYMAN, JR., Independent Consultant RICHARD V. REYNOLDS, The VanFleet Group, LLC J. DANIEL STEWART, University of Tennessee STARNES E. WALKER, University of Hawaii System DAVID A. WHELAN, The Boeing Company REBECCA WINSTON, Winston Strategic Management Consulting Staff TERRY J. JAGGERS, Director DIONNA ALI, Research Assistant JESSICA R. BROKENBURR, Financial Assistant GREGORY EYRING, Senior Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Program Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator vi

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William L. Baker, Independent Consultant, Sandia Park, New Mexico, Ken Bruner, U.S. Pacific Command, John H. Hammond, Independent Consultant, Fairfax, Virginia, Lester L. Lyles, The Lyles Group, Matt L. Mleziva, Wildwood Strategic Concepts, LLC, and Julia M. Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Robert A. Frosch, Harvard University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. vii

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 OVERVIEW 3 Workshop Scope, 3 Recurring Themes From the Three Workshop Sessions, Theme 1. What are the reasons that the Air Force is not adopting directed energy weapon (DEW) systems? Why are the products from Air Force (and other) DEW research and development (R&D) programs not being operationalized for Air Force applications?, 4 Theme 2. What role does the Air Force have in the application of ground- based DEWs to air base defense?, 11 Theme 3. What are potential paths forward for transitioning DEW technology and/or systems to Air Force operations?, 12 3 SYNOPSIS OF WORKSHOP SESSIONS 18 Session 1. February 27-28, 2013, Washington, D.C., 18 Session 2. March 18-19, 2013, Washington, D.C., 30 Session 3. April 24-25, 2013, Washington, D.C., 40 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 46 B Terms of Reference 40 C Workshop Session Agendas 51 D Workshop Participants 60 ix

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ACRONYMS ACC Air Combat Command AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AoA Analysis of Alternatives ARDEC Armaments Research, Development and Engineering Center C-RAM counter rocket, artillery, and mortar CHAMP Counter-electronics HPM Advanced Missile Project COCOM Combatant Command CONOPS operational concept(s) DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DEW directed-energy weapon DIRCM Directed Infrared Countermeasures DoD Department of Defense DRFM digital radio frequency memory EO electro-optical HEL high-energy laser HEL-JTO High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office HELLADS High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System HPM high-powered microwave IED improvised explosive device IR infrared IRCM infrared countermeasures IRST infrared search and track JCIDS Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System JCTD Joint Capability Technology Demonstration JHPSSL Joint High Power Solid State Laser xi

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LADAR laser direction and range-finding LAIRCM Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures MAJCOM major command MDA Missile Defense Agency NKCE non-kinetic counter-electronics OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense R&D research and development RDECOM Research and Development Command RELI Robust Electric Laser Initiative RPA remotely piloted aircraft S&T science and technology xii