assistance programs), and the extent to which there are gaps in program coverage or inability to adequately access those programs. He said that one fundamental question posed by Allard (see Chapter 4) is outstanding: how is adequate access defined? This question remains as a challenge to be answered.

Regarding the consequences of childhood hunger, he noted the workshop participants discussed the public health and medical consequences in some depth. Much attention was focused on measurement and its implications for how child development, well-being, and food insecurity are understood. Ziliak asked about the adequacy of the current state of knowledge, noting tremendous progress over the last 15 years since the food security module was introduced into the Current Population Survey (CPS). The collection of these data has been a tremendous resource for research to move forward. He said that researchers have learned a lot about what is affecting low-income and disadvantaged populations in this country through the food insecurity measures and its links to child development and other outcomes. Even though the data have some issues and gaps, Ziliak said he believes that important research on child hunger has progressed because of the available data. Its strengths and importance can be acknowledged, along with a discussion about opportunities for improvement.

Ziliak noted recurrent themes expressed by several speakers concerning the knowledge gaps that remain. He said that, as others observed during the workshop, measurement matters, both how food insecurity is conceived and how the questions are asked. He said that Korenman raised a provocative issue about the screener, the sequence and issues that are associated with this screen, and the questions asked in the implementation of the food security supplement (see Chapter 3). Ziliak said that he and several colleagues have been examining food insecurity as measured in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), using data collected in 1999, 2001, and 2003. The rates of food insecurity measured in that survey are about half of those measured on the CPS, and the question is why. He said that he and his colleagues will review measurement issues based on Korenman’s comments.

Ziliak said workshop presenters provided valuable information about the scale to measure food insecurity. He noted a recurring debate about whether narrowly measuring food insecurity or including marginal food insecurity is most important, which the advocacy community has also taken up. Ziliak reported that the Meals on Wheels Association of America and the National Foundation to End Senior Hunger, for which he and Gundersen have done work, prefer the marginal food insecurity measure, whereas Feeding America prefers the food insecurity measure. The best measure, he noted, could be different for different purposes. For



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