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High-Energy Astrophysics Amencan and Soviet Perspectives Edited by Walter H.G. Lenin George W. Clark Rashid ~ Sunyaev with Kathleen Kearney Divers David M. Abramson Proceedings from the U.S.-USSR Workshop on High-Energy Astrophysics June 18 - July I, 1989 Academy of Sciences of the Union of Sov~et Socialist Republics National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the officer of the National Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Science of the USSR on January 12, 1988. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed bar a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineenng, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineem. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its membem, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineenug. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences lay its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bondurant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized lay the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to abate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined lay the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. I-ne Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 90~2813 International Standard Book No. ~309~43344 Copies of this report are available from: Soviet and East European Alvin National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C 20418 Additional copies are for sale Mom: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Ubshington, D.C 20418 S217 Pnoted in the United States of America

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Foreword This book contains the proceedings of the American~oviet high-energy astrophysics workshop, which was held at the Institute for Space Research in Moscow and the Abastumani Laboratory and Observatory in the republic of Georgia from June 18 to July 1, 1989. This workshop evolved from a similar, very successful workshop held in Protvino in the summer of 1977. Both workshops were attended by only a small number of people from each country (12 Americans were invited in 1977 and 20 in 1989~. The Protvino meeting was of particular importance as it "broke the ice." Since that time, there have been many contacts and exchanges between scientists from the USSR and the United States. U.S. instruments are now scheduled to fly on Soviet space missions. During the past decade, the field of astrophysics progressed at an impressive rate. This was resected by the topics discussed at the workshop: the inflationary universe; the large-scale structure of the universe; the diffuse X-ray background; gravitational lenses, quasars and AGNs; infrared galaxies (results from IRAS); supernova 1987A; millisecond radio pulsars; quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray flux of low-mass X-ray binaries; and gamma-ray bursts. The meeting was generously supported by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian republic, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This collection of papers resects some of the active areas of research pursued by scientists of the USSR and the United States. It also contn~utes to the friendship between the scientists from both counties. The Editors . .. 111

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Contents powwow iii INSTABILITIES IN SN1987A AND OTHER SUPERNOVAE 1 David Arnett, Once I;lyxell, and Ewalll Muller ON THE EVOLUTION OF PULSARS V.S. Beskin, A~ fourth, and YaN Istomin THE SPIN DOWN OF THE RADIO PULSARS BRAKING INDEX V.S. Beskid, ~ fourth, omd YaN Ist~mm AMALLY SYMMETRICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANTS G.S. Bisnova~ garb, Tot Lozinskaya, and Sot Silich NEU IRON STARQUAKE MODEL FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS }RD. Blandford THE SHOCK BREAKOUT IN SN1987A MODELLED WITH THE TIME-DEPENDENT RADIATIVE TRANSFER S.~. B1i~nilcov, D.K Nadyoshin, and O.S. B~nov MANIFESTATIONS OF DYNAMO DRIVEN LARGE-SCALE MAGNETIC bl~:LD IN ACCRETION DISKS OF COMPACT OBJECTS G.D. Chagelishvili RG. Chanishvili' JO. Lomznadze, and Z.A So1~adze TURBULIZATION OF SHEAR FLOWS IN ASTROPHYSICS 55 G.D. ChagelzshviliRG. Char~ishvili, and J.G.Lomu?adze 9 14 19 28 39 46 v

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V1 AMERICAN AND SOYlET PERSPECTIVES REGULAR VARIABILITY OF THE SHAPE OF THE PRIMARY MINIMUM OF THE ORBITAL LIGHT CURVE OF SS 433 WITH THE PHASE OF THE PRECESSIONAL PERIOD ~M. Cherepashchak and S.E Yarlikov CHAOTIC INE;I"ATIONARY UNIVERSE AND THE ANISOTROPY OF THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE G. ~ Chitzsov arid ~.k Shtanov THE CYCLOTRON ABSORPTION LINE AND ECLIPSE TRANSITION PHENOMENA OF 4U 1538-52 George ~ Clark RADIO TELESCOPES AS THE DETECTORS OF SUPER HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS RD. Da~kesamansky and LME Zhelezny1~ OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE G~=IC NUCLEI Alexci ~ F~ppenko ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC STELLAR WINDS ME. Gedalin, J.G. Lominadze, and E.G. Ts~7ishvid CLUSTER RESEARCH WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS Riccardo Giacconi and Richard Burg OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY PULSARS FROM THE KVANT MODULE At Gilfanov,RSunyaev,EChurazov,~k~znikov, V:Efremov, anioYsk~' ~ ~uznetsov, N: Yamburenko, ~ Melioransk~, G.K Skinner, O. Al-Emarn, TG. Patterson, UP Fillmore, ~C. Brin~an, 1 Heise, J.J.M. In) Zand, R Jager, ~ Pietsch, S. Doebereiner, ~ Englhauser, C. Reppin, J: Truemper, ~ Loges, E. Kindzio~ra, M. Monaco B. Mony, R St~bert, ON; Palomar, arid ~ Smith GENERATION OF ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAYS IN ACCRETING X-RAY PULSARS Y~N: Gnedin and NCR l~sanov CAN A MAN-MADE UNIVERSE BE ACHIEVED BY QUANTUM TUNNELING WITHOUT AN INITIAL SINGULARITY? Awn H. Guth ON THE ORIGIN OF THE DIFFUSE X-RAY BACKGROUND 174 David ~ Helfar~d 65 68 77 87 91 108 112 134 144 153

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HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS GRAVITATIONAL LENSES: THE CURRENT SAMPLE, RECENT RESULTS, AND CONTINUING SEARCHES Jacqpuedne AL H~tt COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BURSTS K Burley GEORGIAN SPACE RESEARCH PROGRAM G.P: Ka~idze ON THE NATURE OF PULSAR RADIATION LIZ. Ka~egz, G.Z. Machabeli, and G.I. Melikidze OBSERVING SN 1987A WITH THE INTERNATIONAL ULTRAVIOLET EXPLORER Robert ~ Kirshner QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES W.H.G. Lewis, J. van Paradijs, and M. van tier Otis TO EVOLUTION OF THE GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION FROM STELLAR COMPONENTS OF GALAXIES V.M. l~punov, E.Yi'. Osmznk*z, and M: E. Pro~orov CLOSE BINARY STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS Bruce Margon THE LARGE-SCALE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS DISTRIBUTION OF THE X-RAY BACKGROUND Richard MushouLy X-RAY EMISSION FROM A~~llVE GALACTIC NUCLEI 297 Richard Upshot ON THE OBSERVATIONAL APPEARANCES OF A FREELY PRECESSING NEURON STAR IN HERCULES X-1 KA Posmov, M.E. Pro~orov, and NCL Shah~ra TED PSR 2127+12 AS AN INDICATOR OF A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE CORE OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER M 15 316 KA Posmov, M.E. Pro~orov, and Nil. Shah~ra THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF DOMAIN WALLS 322 William H. Press, Barbara S. ~den, and David ~ Spiegel .. V11 192 2W 218 225 237 251 261 270 285 307

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V111 AMERICAN AND SOVIET PERSPECTIVES A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS DETEc'1~;D BY THE KONUS EXPERIMENT ON VENERA 11 AND 12 Marten Schmidt and J:C. Higdon EXIPAGALACTIC X-RAY SOURCE COUNTS Maarten Schmidt ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES B.1: Soifer THE PECULIAR VELOCITY FIELD PREDICTED FROM THE DISTRIBUTION OF IRAS GALAXIES Michael ~ Strauss and Marc Davis X-RAY RADIATION FROM SUPERNOVA 1987N THE RESULTS OF THE KVANT MODULE IN 19g7-1989 RA Sunynev, AS. Kozniovsky, ~ Efremov, SO Grebenev, ~znetsov, E. Churasov, ~ Gilfanov, ~ Yamburenko, J. Eng~h~user, S. Doebereiner, ~ Pitch, C. Reppin, J. lluemper, E. Kendziorra, ~ Maisack B. Mony, R Staubert, G.K Skinner, I: G. Patterson, UP. Fillmore, O. Al-Emam, ~C. Brinhna'%, J. Heise, JCJ.M In't Zagged, R Jager BASIC PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY FROM PULSAR TIMING DATA JeH. Taylor GAS FLOW AND GENERATION OF X-RAY EMISSION IN WR+OB BINARIES Kit Usov HYDRODYNAMIC STUDY OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: ME PHASE OF A WAVE OF COOLING AND RECOMBINATION ~.P Utrobin APPENDIX List of Workshop Presentations 329 336 344 356 368 385 394 403 411