the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Punishment may be imposed by ad hoc international tribunals, military commissions, courts martial, or domestic courts.

A relevant ethical question derived from considering the law of armed conflict is the following:

• How and to what extent, if any, does the research effort and foreseeable uses of its results implicate the ethical principles underlying the law of armed conflict? For example:

—What is its impact on policy makers regarding their willingness to resort to the use of force?

—How and to what extent, if any, should the effects of an application be regarded as “harm” that implicates the law of armed conflict?

—How does it affect discrimination?

—How might it affect command responsibilities and authority?

4.3.2 International Human Rights Law

Human rights are restraints on the actions of governments with respect to the people under their jurisdiction. These rights may originate nationally (e.g., the civil and political rights granted under the U.S. Constitution), through international human rights treaties (e.g., the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights), or through customary international law.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a UN General Assembly declaration adopted in 1948. It is not a treaty, and therefore it is not binding on nations, although some provisions have become a part of customary international law (e.g., prohibitions against torture). However, the UDHR is sometimes cited as one basis for the existence of customary international law regarding human rights.

The UDHR covers such areas as prohibitions on torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment; freedom to freely seek, receive, and impart information and ideas; freedom to assemble peaceably; and freedom to move and reside freely within the borders of one’s state. In a technology development context, the UDHR might suggest special examination for technologies that governments could use to suppress or curtail the human rights of their citizens.

For example, Article 19 of the UDHR speaks to freedom of opinion and expression and explicitly includes the right to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of national borders. Thus, development of information technologies that

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