are usually not relevant to research aimed at advancing foundational or enabling technologies; rather, they emerge primarily in the context of specific applications to address urgent needs. Third, nothing in the discussion above limits consideration of ethical, legal, and societal issues after a new application is deployed for use, and indeed policy makers should be prepared for the possibility that actual operational use of a given application will raise ethical, legal, and societal issues that they will have to address.

The recommendations in Chapter 8 elaborate one version of the approach suggested above.

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