A

Committee Members and Staff

A.1 COMMITTEE MEMBERS

William F. Ballhaus, Jr., Co-Chair, is the retired president and chief executive officer of the Aerospace Corporation, an organization dedicated to the objective application of science and technology toward the solution of critical issues in the nation’s space program. Ballhaus joined Aerospace in 2000 after an 11-year career with Lockheed Martin Corporation. At Lockheed Martin he served as corporate officer and vice president, engineering and technology, where he was responsible for advancing the company’s scientific and engineering capabilities and for overseeing research and engineering functions. Prior to his tenure with Lockheed Martin, Ballhaus served as president of two Martin Marietta businesses, Aero and Naval Systems (1993-1994) and Civil Space and Communications (1990-1993). Before joining Martin Marietta, Ballhaus served as director of the NASA Ames Research Center (1984-1989). He also served as acting associate administrator for aeronautics and space technology at NASA Headquarters (1988-1989). He serves on the boards of Draper Laboratory and OSI Systems. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and completed two 3-year terms as a member of the NAE Council in 2007. He is an honorary fellow of the AIAA and served as its president in 1988-1989. He is a fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Astronautical Society, and is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He serves on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Advisory Council, and he served on the Defense Science Board, the NOAA Science Advisory Board, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board



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A Committee Members and Staff A.1  COMMITTEE MEMBERS William F. Ballhaus, Jr., Co-Chair, is the retired president and chief exec- utive officer of the Aerospace Corporation, an organization dedicated to the objective application of science and technology toward the solution of critical issues in the nation’s space program. Ballhaus joined Aero- space in 2000 after an 11-year career with Lockheed Martin Corporation. At Lockheed Martin he served as corporate officer and vice president, engineering and technology, where he was responsible for advancing the company’s scientific and engineering capabilities and for overseeing research and engineering functions. Prior to his tenure with Lockheed Martin, Ballhaus served as president of two Martin Marietta businesses, Aero and Naval Systems (1993-1994) and Civil Space and Communi- cations (1990-1993). Before joining Martin Marietta, Ballhaus served as director of the NASA Ames Research Center (1984-1989). He also served as acting associate administrator for aeronautics and space technology at NASA Headquarters (1988-1989). He serves on the boards of Draper Laboratory and OSI Systems. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and completed two 3-year terms as a member of the NAE Council in 2007. He is an honorary fellow of the AIAA and served as its president in 1988-1989. He is a fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Astronautical Society, and is a member of the Interna- tional Academy of Astronautics. He serves on the Jet Propulsion Labora- tory Advisory Council, and he served on the Defense Science Board, the NOAA Science Advisory Board, the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board 271

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272 ELSI FRAMEWORK FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY (co-chair, 1996-1999), and the NASA Advisory Council. He served as chair of the board of the Space Foundation. He is a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley, where he earned a Ph.D. in engineering and his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering. Jean-Lou Chameau, Co-Chair, took office as president of King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia on July 1, 2013. Chameau is president emeritus of the California Institute of Technology—Caltech—which he led for 7 years prior to joining KAUST. After receiving his engineering degree in France at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Métiers and earning his Ph.D. in civil engineer- ing from Stanford University, he had a distinguished career as a profes- sor and administrator at Purdue University and the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). He then served as president of Golder Associates, a geotechnical consulting company, before returning to Geor- gia Tech as Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar and vice provost for research. He became dean of its college of engineering, the largest in the United States, and then provost and vice president for academic affairs. Throughout his career, he has been committed to fostering excel- lence in science and technology, as well as promoting a multidisciplinary approach to research and education. He encouraged the development of programs in such areas as energy, medical science, and the environment, which can provide the dramatic scientific advances and new technologies society is seeking. He also promoted industry-university partnerships and the involvement of universities in economic development, including the development of new businesses and emphasis on advancing entrepre- neurial and international opportunities for faculty and students. He has served on a number of public and industry boards, including the Council on Competitiveness, John Wiley & Sons, MTS, Safran, and the Academic Research Council of Singapore. He has received numerous awards for his contributions as an educator and university leader. He is a member of both the French Académie des Technologies and the U.S. National Acad- emy of Engineering. Marcus Feldman is currently a professor of biology in the Department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University. With L.L. Cavalli-Sforza in 1973, he originated the quantitative theory of cultural evolution, initiating a research program in cultural transmission and gene-culture coevolution. The efforts started the subdiscipline of cultural anthropology, also known as coevolution, gene-culture evolution, cultural transmission theory, and dual inheritance theory. The landmark work that ensued used models from population genetics to investigate the spread of culturally trans- mitted units. When Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative

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APPENDIX A 273 Approach was published in 1981, it inspired new research into the cor- relation of patterns of genetic and cultural dispersion. His own research into human molecular evolution for the Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies has investigated issues concerning the history of today’s modern humans. Feldman is now working on three books—on gene-culture co-evolutionary theory, niche construction in evolutionary biology, and the sex-ratio issue in China—and also serves as academic director of Bridging the Rift, a project to develop collaborations between Israeli and Jordanian scientists. In addition to his teaching, research, writ- ing, and directing, he is managing editor of Theoretical Population Biology and associate editor of Genetics, Human Genetics, Annals of Human Genet- ics, Annals of Human Biology, and Complexity. He is a former editor of The American Naturalist. Feldman is a member of the American Society of Human Genetics and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sci- ences and of the California Academy of Sciences. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem has awarded him an honorary doctorate of philosophy, and Beijing Normal University and Xi’an Jiaotong University have each appointed him honorary professor. He earned his bachelor of science degree in 1964 at the University of Western Australia, and then 2 years later, his master of science in mathematics from Monash University in Australia. He earned his Ph.D. in biomathematics from Stanford Univer- sity in 1969, after which he returned to Australia, where he had accepted a teaching position at La Trobe University in Melbourne. Bran Ferren is the co-founder and chief creative officer of Applied Minds and is a designer of movie and theater special effects. Ferren is the former president of research and development of Walt Disney Imagineering, as well as the co-founder of Associates and Ferren, a visual effects company that supplied visual effects for Star Trek V, Altered States, Little Shop of Hor- rors, and The Manhattan Project. Ferren is also a member of a number of government advisory panels relating to national security and technology. Baruch Fischhoff is Howard Heinz University Professor in the Depart- ments of Social and Decision Sciences and of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University, where he heads the decision sci- ences major. A graduate of the Detroit Public Schools, he holds a B.S. in mathematics and psychology from Wayne State University and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in psychology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and is a past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making and of the Society for Risk Analysis. He chaired the Food and Drug Admin- istration Risk Communication Advisory Committee and the National Research Council Committee on Behavioral and Social Science Research to

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274 ELSI FRAMEWORK FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY Improve Intelligence Analysis for National Security. He has been a mem- ber of the Eugene, Oregon, Commission on the Rights of Women, and of the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee. He has also been a member of the Environmental Protection Agency Scientific Advisory Board and was a chair of the Advisory Board’s Homeland Security Advisory Committee. He has written or edited sev- eral books: Acceptable Risk (1981), A Two-State Solution in the Middle East: Prospects and Possibilities (1993), Preference Elicitation (1999), Risk Commu- nication: The Mental Models Approach (2001), Intelligence Analysis: Behavioral and Social Science Foundations (2011), Risk: A Very Short Introduction (2011), Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide (2011), Judgment and Decision Making (2011), Risk Analysis and Human Behavior (2011), and Counting Civilian Casualties (2013). Michael Gazzaniga is the director for the SAGE Center for the Study of Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He oversees an exten- sive and broad research program investigating how the brain enables the mind. Over the course of several decades, a major focus of his research has been an extensive study of patients who have undergone split-brain surgery that has revealed lateralization of functions across the cerebral hemispheres. In addition to his position in Santa Barbara, Gazzaniga is also the co-director of the Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience, president of the Cognitive Neuroscience Institute, and the founding direc- tor of the MacArthur Law and Neuroscience Project. After completing his undergraduate degree at Dartmouth College, Gazzaniga earned a Ph.D. in psychobiology at the California Institute of Technology. Henry Greely is a professor of law and co-director of the Program in Genomics, Ethics, and Society at Stanford University. A leading expert on the legal, ethical, and social issues surrounding health law and the biosciences, Greely specializes in the implications of new biomedical technologies, especially those related to neuroscience, genetics, and stem cell research. He frequently serves as an advisor on California, national, and international policy issues. He is chair of California’s Human Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee and served from 2007 to 2010 as co- director of the Law and Neuroscience Project, funded by the MacArthur Foundation. Active in university leadership, Greely chairs the steering committee for the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and directs both the law school’s Center for Law and the Biosciences and the Stanford Interdisciplinary Group on Neuroscience and Society. Greely serves on the Scientific Leadership Council for the university’s interdisciplinary Bio-X program. Before joining the Stanford Law School faculty in 1985, Greely was a partner at Tuttle & Taylor, and he served as a staff assistant

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APPENDIX A 275 to the secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy, and as special assistant to the general counsel of the U.S. Department of Defense. He served as a law clerk to Justice Potter Stewart of the U.S. Supreme Court and to Judge John Minor Wisdom of the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. He received his J.D. from Yale Law School. Michael Imperiale is a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Michigan Medical School. He joined the department in 1984 as the Arthur F. Thurnau Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and was subsequently promoted to asso- ciate professor in 1990 and professor in 1996. He is currently the Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Microbiology and Immunology as well as associate chair of the department. In 2010 Imperiale was elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, and in 2011 as a fellow of the AAAS. Before joining the University of Michigan, Imperiale carried out research training as a postdoctoral fellow at the Rockefeller University, where he first became interested in DNA tumor viruses, studying gene regula- tion in the human pathogen, adenovirus. Currently, Imperiale’s research interests focus on the study of how DNA tumor viruses interact with the host cell, including how they traffic within the cell and how they persist. Imperiale is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Bio­ security, a position he has held since 2005. He received his undergraduate and graduate training at Columbia University, receiving a B.A. in 1976, an M.A. in 1978, and a Ph.D. in 1981, all in biological sciences. Robert H. Latiff is a private consultant, providing advice on advanced technology matters to corporate and government clients and universi- ties. He retired from the U.S. Air Force as a major general in 2006. Latiff is an adjunct faculty member with the John J. Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values at the University of Notre Dame and a research professor at George Mason University. Immediately after his retirement from the Air Force Latiff was chief technology officer for Science Applica- tions International Corporation’s space and geospatial intelligence busi- ness. His last active duty assignment was at the National Reconnaissance Office, where he was director, advanced systems and technology, and deputy director for systems engineering. Latiff has also served as the vice commander, USAF Electronic Systems Center; commander of the NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Operations Center; and program director for the E-8 JSTARS surveillance aircraft. While in the U.S. Army, he served in both the infantry branch and the ordnance corps, where he commanded a tactical nuclear weapons unit, and he was also an assistant professor of engineering at the U.S Military Academy at West Point. Latiff received his commission from the Army ROTC program at the University of Notre

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276 ELSI FRAMEWORK FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY Dame and later transferred to the Air Force. He received his Ph.D. and his M.S. in materials science and his B.S. in physics from the University of Notre Dame and is a graduate of the National Security Fellows Pro- gram at Harvard’s JFK School of Government. Latiff is a recipient of the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal and the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal. He is a member and former chair of the National Research Council’s National Materials and Manufacturing Board and is a member of the Air Force Studies Board. James Moor is the Daniel P. Stone Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy at Dartmouth College. He does research in computer ethics, philosophy of artificial intelligence, philosophy of the mind, philosophy of science, and logic. He is the editor of the book The Turing Test: The Elusive Standard of Artificial Intelligence (Kluwer, 2004) and for many years was the editor-in-chief of the philosophical journal Minds and Machines. He has served as the president of the International Society for Ethics and Information Technology (INSEIT). In 2003 he received the Association for Computing Machinery SIGCAS Making a Difference Award, and in 2006 he received the American Philosophical Association Barwise Prize for lifetime achievement in philosophy and computing. Jonathan Moreno is the David and Lyn Silfen University Professor of Ethics at the University of Pennsylvania. Moreno is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine and has served as a senior staff member for three presidential advisory commissions. He was an Andrew W. Mellon postdoctoral fellow, holds an honorary doctorate from Hofstra University, and is a recipient of the Benjamin Rush Medal from the College of William and Mary Law School. His book The Body Politic: The Battle Over Science in America was named a Best Book of 2011 by Kirkus Reviews. He is also the author of Mind Wars: Brain Science and the Military in the 21st Century (2012). He is a member of the Governing Board of the International Neu- roethics Society, a faculty affiliate of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University, a fellow of the Hastings Center and the New York Academy of Medicine, and a past president of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. Joel Moses is Institute Professor as well as a professor of computer sci- ence and engineering and engineering systems at MIT. Between 1974 and 1998 he served as MIT’s provost, dean of engineering, head of the Depart- ment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), associate head of EECS, and associate director of the Laboratory for Computer Sci- ence. Moses served as the Engineering System Division’s acting director from December 2005 through November 2007. He was acting director of the Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development from 2006

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APPENDIX A 277 to 2010. Moses is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for Comput- ing Machinery, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He led the development of the Macsyma system for algebraic formula manipulation and is the co-developer of the knowledge-based systems concept in artificial intelligence. His current interests include the com- plexity and flexibility of engineering systems and artificial intelligence. He holds a Ph.D. in mathematics, which he received from MIT in 1967. Kenneth Oye is an associate professor of political science and engineering at MIT. After serving two terms as director of the MIT Center for Inter- national Studies (1992-2000), he is now forming a political economy and technology policy program within the center. He has taught on the facul- ties of the Kennedy School at Harvard University, the University of Cali- fornia, Princeton University, and Swarthmore College. He has published six books and numerous short studies in international relations, political economy, and science and technology policy. His books include Economic Discrimination and Political Exchange, Cooperation Under Anarchy, and a four-volume series on Carter, Reagan, and Bush administration foreign policies. His articles examine international export financing issues, regula- tory diversity and trade, and a range of science and technology issues. He is now completing books on environmental regulation and trade and on uses of compensation in political economy. He has launched two projects that apply theories of political economy to problems of science and tech- nology policy. With Lawrence McCray, he is studying knowledge assess- ment in areas marked by controversy over scientific issues. With Alliance for Global Sustainability and Finnish Environmental Institute support, he is examining the effects of environmental, health, and safety regulations on the competitive position of firms. Oye has served as a consultant to the U.S. Trade Policy Coordinating Committee on export financing issues (2002-2003), as a member of the Advisory Committee to the U.S. Export- Import Bank (1999-2001), as director of the Seminar XXI program (1994- 2000), as an editor of the journal World Politics (1983-1987), as a trustee of the World Peace Foundation (1997-present), and as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has been a co-principal investigator on a MacArthur Foundation Joint Harvard-MIT Transnational Security Program and on research projects on economic and environmental issues funded by the Alliance for Global Sustainability, the Center for Global Partnership, NEDO, MISTRA, and the Institute for International Econom- ics. He holds a B.A. in economics and political science with highest honors from Swarthmore College and a Ph.D. in political science with the Chase Dissertation Prize from Harvard University.

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278 ELSI FRAMEWORK FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker is the dean and a professor of law at the Uni- versity of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law. A noted expert on national security law and terrorism, Parker served 11 years in key federal govern- ment positions, most notably as general counsel for the National Security Agency; principal deputy legal adviser, Department of State; and general counsel for the CIA. In private practice, she has advised clients on public policy and international trade issues, particularly in the areas of encryp- tion and advanced technology. She began her career as a Reginald Heber Smith Fellow at Emory University School of Law and later served as the director, New Haven Legal Assistance Association, Inc. Early in her career she was active in litigating civil rights and civil liberties matters, with two successful arguments before the U.S. Supreme Court while a cooperating attorney for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund. Immediately before her arrival at McGeorge, she served as general counsel for the 26-campus University of Wisconsin system. A member of the American Bar Foundation and the Council on Foreign Relations, Parker is a frequent speaker and lecturer. Her academic background includes teaching as a visiting professor at Case Western Reserve Law School and Cleveland- Marshall State School of Law. Currently, Parker serves on two committees of the National Research Council, holds a presidential appointment to the Public Interest Declassification Board, and is a board member of the Sacramento Region Community Foundation. Parker received her B.A. and J.D. from the University of Michigan. Sarah Sewall teaches international affairs and directs the Program for Human Rights and National Security at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. She is a member of the U.S. Depart- ment of Defense’s Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee. Sewall is also the founder and faculty director of the Mass Atrocity Response Operations (MARO) Project and for 3 years was faculty director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy. She led the Obama Transition’s National Security Agency Review process in 2008. During the Clinton Administration, Sewall served as the inaugural deputy assistant secretary of defense for peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance. From 1983 to 1996, she was senior foreign policy advisor to Senate Majority Leader George J. Mitchell, serving on the Democratic Policy Committee and the Senate Arms Control Observer Group. Before joining Harvard, Sewall was at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, where she edited The United States and the International Criminal Court (2002). Her more recent publications include a comprehensive DOD study on efforts to mitigate civilian casualties, Parameters of Partnership: U.S. Civil-Military Relations in the 21st Century (2009), and the introduction to the U.S. Army and Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Manual (2007). She attended Harvard College and was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University.

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APPENDIX A 279 Alfred Spector is the vice president of research and special initiatives at Google, Inc. He was recently vice president of strategy and technology and CTO of IBM’s Software Business. Prior to that he was vice president of services and software at IBM Research. He was also founder and CEO of Transarc Corporation, a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide-area file systems, and was an associate professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. While at CMU he did fundamen- tal work in a number of areas, including the Andrew File System that changed the face of distributed computing. Spector received his Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University and his A.B. in applied mathematics from Harvard University. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the IEEE and the ACM, and the recipient of the 2001 IEEE Computer Society’s Tsutomu Kanai Award for work in scalable architectures and distributed systems. John H. Tilelli, Jr., is the chairman and chief executive officer of Cypress International, Inc. He is a retired United States Army four-star general who served as vice chief of staff of the United States Army from 1994 to 1995; commanding general, United States Army Forces Command from 1995 to 1996; and commander-in-chief, United Nations Command, Repub- lic of Korea/United States Combined Forces /United States Forces Korea from 1996 to 1999. Tilelli retired from the army on January 31, 2000. He graduated from Pennsylvania Military College, now Widener University, with a degree in economics in 1963 and was commissioned as an armor officer. He earned a master’s degree in administration from Lehigh Uni- versity in 1972 and graduated from the Army War College in 1983. He was awarded honorary doctoral degrees by Widener University and the University of Maryland. Tilelli served two combat tours in Vietnam, com- manded the 1st Cavalry Division during Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, and served four times in Germany. Upon his retirement from the United States Army Tilelli was appointed president and CEO of the USO Worldwide Operations. Stephen J.A. Ward is professor and director of the George S. Turnbull Center of the University of Oregon in Portland. Previously he was direc- tor at the Center for Journalism Ethics at the University of Wisconsin- Madison, and before that he was director of the Graduate School of Jour- nalism at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. He is the author of the award-winning The Invention of Journalism Ethics: The Path to Objectivity and Beyond (2005). In addition, he is the author of Global Journalism Ethics (2010) and co-editor of Media Ethics Beyond Borders: A Global Perspective (2009). Ward is associate editor of the Journal of Mass Media Ethics. His articles and reviews have appeared in such journals as Journalism Studies; Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies; Harvard Inter-

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280 ELSI FRAMEWORK FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY national Journal of Press/Politics; and the Journal of Mass Media Ethics. He serves on many editorial and advisory boards for ethics organizations and for journals on media ethics and science. His research interests include the history of journalism ethics, ethical theory, global media ethics, and science journalism. Ward was a reporter, war correspondent, and news- room manager for 14 years. He covered conflicts in Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Northern Ireland. He then became the British Columbia bureau chief for the Canadian Press news agency in Vancouver. Ward has a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Waterloo, Ontario. A.2  STAFF Herbert S. Lin, Study Director, is chief scientist at the Computer Sci- ence and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council of the National Academies, where he has been the study director of major proj- ects on public policy and information technology. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Secur- ing the Information Society), a 1991 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future), a 1999 study of Defense Department systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realiz- ing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges), a 2000 study on workforce issues in high technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy), a 2002 study on protecting kids from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet), a 2004 study on aspects of the FBI’s information technology modernization program (A Review of the FBI’s Trilogy IT Modernization Program), a 2005 study on electronic voting (Asking the Right Questions About Electronic Voting), a 2005 study on computational biology (Catalyzing Inquiry at the Interface of Computing and Biology), a 2007 study on privacy and information technology (Engag- ing Privacy and Information Technology in a Digital Age), a 2007 study on cybersecurity research (Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace), a 2008 study on health care information technology (Computational Technology for Effective Health Care), a 2009 study on offensive information warfare (Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities), and a 2010 study on cyberdeterrence (Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He received his doctorate in physics from MIT. Avocationally, he is a long- time folk and swing dancer and a poor magician. Apart from his CSTB work, he is published in cognitive science, science education, biophysics,

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APPENDIX A 281 and arms control and defense policy. He also consults on K-12 math and science education. Rachelle Hollander directs the Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Soci- ety (CEES) at the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), which man- ages the NAE Online Ethics Center (www.onlineethics.org), a widely used resource for engineering and research ethics education. She is a princi- pal investigator on several National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded projects and several subcontracts. For many years Hollander directed science and engineering ethics activities at NSF, where she was instru- mental in the development of the fields of research ethics and professional responsibility, engineering ethics, and ethics and risk management. She has written articles on applied ethics in numerous fields and on science policy and citizen participation. Hollander is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and a member of the Governing Board of the Association for Practical and Professional Ethics (APPE). In 2006, Hollander received the Olmsted Award “for innovative contributions to the liberal arts within engineering education” from the American Society of Engineering Education’s Liberal Education Division. She received her doctorate in philosophy in 1979 from the University of Maryland, College Park. Frazier Benya is a program officer in the National Academy of Engineer- ing’s Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society (CEES). She manages the projects run by CEES and assists with the Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research Web site. Her work at the NAE has focused on three areas in particular: education on climate change, engineered systems, and society; energy ethics education in science and engineering; and ethical and social issues with advancing military technologies. She received her Ph.D. in the history of science, technology, and medicine from the University of Minnesota in 2012 and her M.A. in bioethics, also from the University of Minnesota, in 2011. Her Ph.D. thesis focused on the history of bioethics and scientific social responsibility during the 1960s and 1970s that led to the creation of the first federal bioethics com- mission in 1974. Her M.A. work analyzed different types of institutional methodologies for considering the social implications of science with a focus on those that integrate scientific research with ethics research in the United States and Canada. During graduate school she worked on a project to create an online bioethics resource Web site, EthicShare.org, which indexed resources from multiple databases. Jo L. Husbands is a scholar/senior project director with the Board on Life Sciences of the National Research Council, where she manages studies

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282 ELSI FRAMEWORK FOR EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY and projects to help mitigate the risks of the misuse of scientific research for biological weapons or bioterrorism. She represents the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), on the Biosecurity Working Group of IAP: The Global Network of Science Academies, which also includes the acad- emies of Australia, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Nigeria, Poland (chair), Russia, and the United Kingdom. From 1991 to 2005 she was director of the NAS Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and its Working Group on Biological Weapons Control. Husbands is cur- rently an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at George- town University. Before joining the National Academies, she worked for several Washington, D.C.-based nongovernmental organizations focused on international security. She is a member of the Temporary Working Group on Education and Outreach in Science and Technology of the Orga- nization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and is a member of the Global Agenda Council on Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons of the World Economic Forum. She is also a fellow of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota and a master’s in international public policy (international economics) from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Anne-Marie Mazza joined the National Academies in 1995. She has served as senior program officer with both the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy and the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Sci- ence, Technology, and Law Program, a position she continues to hold. Between October 1999 and October 2000, she divided her time between the STL Program and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a senior policy analyst. She holds a B.A. in economics, an M.A. in history and public policy, and a Ph.D. in public policy from the George Washington University. Eric Whitaker is a senior program assistant at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Research Council. Prior to joining the CSTB, he was a realtor with Long and Foster Real Estate, Inc., in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. Before that, he spent several years with the Public Broadcasting Service in Alexandria, Virginia, as an associate in the Corporate Support Department. He has a B.A. in com- munication from Hampton University.