• Work sponsored by the International Society of Military Ethics (ISME), which was established to examine professional military ethics in all dimensions, including but not limited to military technology.41 Of particular note is a special issue of the Journal of Military Ethics (Volume 9, Issue 4, 2010), published by the ISME, entitled Ethics and Emerging Military Technologies, with articles such as:

—“Postmodern War,” by George R. Lucas, Jr.;

—“The Ethics of Killer Applications: Why Is It So Hard to Talk About Morality When It Comes to New Military Technology?,” by P.W. Singer;

—“Ethical Blowback from Emerging Technologies,” by Patrick Lin;

—“The Case for Ethical Autonomy in Unmanned Systems,” by Ronald C. Arkin;

—“Moral Predators: The Duty to Employ Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles,” by Bradley Jay Strawser;

—“Saying ‘No!’ to Lethal Autonomous Targeting,” by Noel Sharkey;

—“The Ethics of Cyberwarfare,” by Randall R. Dipert; and

—“‘Cyberation’ and Just War Doctrine: A Response to Randall Dipert,” by Colonel James Cook.

• A February 2012 publication by the Royal Society entitled Neuroscience, Conflict and Security.42 This study examined the ethics of neuroscience for military purposes and was charged with reviewing the current policy, legal, and ethical frameworks governing military applications of neuroscience.

• A RUSI publication, circa 2008,43 which addressed the ethics and legal implications of military unmanned vehicles.

• A framework outlined by the Consortium for Emerging Technologies, Military Operations and National Security (CETMONS) for assessing the implications of emerging technologies for military capability and national security.44 This framework considers issues related to a technology’s implications for civil society; civil reaction affecting military


41 See http://isme.tamu.edu. A European perspective on military ethics can be found at http://www.euroisme.org.

42 See http://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/brain-waves/conflict-security/.

43 Elizabeth Quintana, The Ethics and Legal Implications of Military Unmanned Vehicles, British Computer Society, Royal United Services Institute, available at http://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RUSI_ethics.pdf.

44 Consortium for Emerging Technologies, Military Operations, and National Security, “Framework for Assessing the Implications of Emerging Technologies for Military Capability and National Security,” 2013, available at http://lincolncenter-dev.asu.edu/CETMONS/index.php/research-areas/framework-assessment.

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