4.4    Social and Behavioral Sciences

4.4.1    Sociology and Anthropology

4.4.2    Psychology

4.5    Scientific and Technological Framing

4.6    The Precautionary Principle and Cost-Benefit Analysis

4.7    Risk Communication

4.8    Using Sources of ELSI Insight

5    AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR IDENTIFYING ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIETAL ISSUES

5.1    Stakeholders

5.1.1    Those Involved in or Connected to the Conduct of Research

5.1.2    Users of an Application

5.1.3    Adversaries

5.1.4    Nonmilitary Users

5.1.5    Organizations

5.1.6    Noncombatants

5.1.7    Other Nations

5.2    Crosscutting Themes

5.2.1    Scale

5.2.2    Humanity

5.2.3    Technological Imperfections

5.2.4    Unanticipated Military Uses

5.2.5    Crossovers to Civilian Use

5.2.6    Changing Ethical Standards

5.2.7    ELSI Considerations in a Classified Environment

5.2.8    Opportunity Costs

5.2.9    Sources of Insight from Chapter 4

5.3    An Example of Using the Framework

5.3.1    A Hypothetical Scenario for Analysis

5.3.2    A Process for Identifying Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues

5.3.3    Questions Related to Stakeholders and Crosscutting Themes

5.3.4    Developing a Future Course of Action

5.4    The Framework in Context

5.4.1    A Summary of the Framework’s Questions

5.4.2    Utility of the Framework

5.4.3    Identifying Fraught Technologies

5.4.4    Frequently Heard Arguments



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