reasoning and that it does not matter as much what the topics or exemplars are in the curriculum. She stressed that what is important is that the students remember how to reason about issues associated with the work they are doing and the persons they work with, how to conceptualize their problems, and how to make tough judgment calls. Stephanie Bird made the point that the people with the best understanding of research ethics are those that regularly or frequently consider the implications of their work on both the small and large scale, and that this phenomenon reinforces the importance of using case studies as a way to develop reasoning skills because they allow students to practice considering the implications of actions.

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