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Appendix G Lead Contents of Current Household Paints In 1974, CPSC conducted a market place survey to evaluate the for- mulations of paint on the retail market.101 Five hundred selected house- hold paint samples were collected by ten state agencies under contract to the CPSC. The paints selected for the survey were representative of the types and colors in current usage. Table I gives the annual percentage of sales for each type of paint. Table I Household Paint Marketing Data 1. Interior Finishes (wall, ceiling, trim, etc.) 60 Percent Water Emulsion (latex), acrylic, vinyl acetate, etc. Oil or alkyd based (including enamels) Metal enamels, etc. Primers and/or sealers Stains and/or varnishes 2. Exterior Finishes (house, etc.) Percent 25 20 5 5 5 40 15 Water Emulsion (latex), acrylic, vinyl acetate, etc. Oil or alkyd based (including enamels) 15 Metal enamels, stains, varnishes, 10 primers, sealers, etc. TOTAL 100 percent tent. Four hundred and eighty-nine samples were analyzed for lead con- The results of paint analyses are given in Table II (See next page). Ninety-two percent of oil based paints and 99 percent of water based paints contained less than the current statutory limit of 0.5 per- cent lead. In addition, 70.8 percent of oil based paints and 96.1 percent of water based paints contained less than the proposed limit of 0.06 per- cent lead. Four colored oil based paints (black, green, yellow and white), consistently exceeded the 0.5 percent lead limit. Table III shows the results of lead analyses for these colors. 51

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Table II Lead Content of Household Paints Oil Baaed Latex Total Percent Lead* Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Do not cor fo rm to 197.; Statutory Limit >1. 50 1-1.49 6 2.11 3 I.I1 o o ;6 1 percent 3 16 1.2) 0. 6V 5 percent 3.3J 0. 50-0.99 14 4.9 •8 percent 0 0 2 1.0 Conform to 1974 Statutory Limit 0. 25-0. 49 0. 10-0. 24 0. 06-0. 09 <. 0', 11 7. 4 34 12.0 5 1.8 201 70.8 1 0. 5 92 percent 3 1. 5 2 1.0 197 96.1 22 4. 5 7. 6 95 percent 1. 4 81.4 . 99 percent 37 7 398 TOTALS 284 100 205 100 'Percent by weight based on final dried solid*. 489 100 Percent Lead* Table III Lead Content of Oil Based Household Paints Black** Green Yellow White Per Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent f Cent f * f >1.0 3 12. 5 2 8. 0 3 19 .0 1 1.2 0.50-0.99 3 12. S 0 0. 0 1 6 .0 1 1.2 0.06-0.49 6 25. 0 4 16. 0 2 13 .0 13 16.0 >0.06 Total 12 50. 0 19 76. 0 .0 10 62 .0 66 81.5 24 100. 0 25 100 16 100 .0 81 99.9 •Percent by weight based on final dried solids. "Including charcoal The proposed limit of 0.06 percent lead in paint was originally intended to allow for variations due to impurities in raw materials, con- tamination during processing and detection limits for the analytical methods used in determining the lead content of paints. The proposed limit does not allow a margin for lead additives, including dryers. An industry formulary-^ indicates that trace amounts of cobalt and manganese are used as essential driers and that lead is used as an auxiliary dryer. Zinc and calcium are listed as alternative auxiliary dryers. 52

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This Committee has no expertise in either paint technology or economics; therefore, no conclusions could be reached relative to either a change in the quality of paint or the economic impact which might re- sult from reducing the level of lead in paint to trace amounts. Never- theless, the data from Tables II and III clearly demonstrate that the production of paint with <0.06 percent lead is possible. More importantly, a large proportion of paints sold in the current retail market already meet the proposed limit of 0.06 percent lead. 53