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WHAT IS THE LEAD CONTENT OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE HOUSEHOLD PAINTS? The limit of 0.06 percent lead in paint was proposed to allow for trace amounts of lead present in the raw materials, for possible contamination during processing and for limits of precision in the analytical methods of determining the lead content of paint. An industry formulary indicates that alternative, less toxic substances such as zinc and calcium salts may be used in place of lead as auxiliary driers. A market place survey conducted by the CPSC found that 70.8 percent of oil-based paints and 96.1 percent of water-based paints con- tained less than the proposed limit of 0.06 percent lead in paint (see Appendix G). The four colored oil-based paints which consistently exceeded this limit were black, green, yellow, and white. Among these paint colors, 50% of the black, 76% of the green, 62% of the yellow and 81.5% of the white contained <0.06% lead. These figures strongly suggest that at least some paint manufacturers have found it techno- logically and economically possible to meet the proposed limit of 0.06 percent lead in most paints. None of the members of the ad hoc Committee on Lead in Paint are paint technologists. Therefore, we could reach no conclusions relative to any possible change in paint quality if lead levels are reduced to trace amounts. In addition, the Committee members did not have the expertise necessary to predict the economic impact of meeting the proposed limit of 0.06 percent lead in paint. Based on the evidence in children and experimental animals, this Committee concludes that 0.5 percent lead in paint represents a hazard to young children with pica for paint. WHAT FUTURE RESEARCH IS NECESSARY OR DESIRABLE? Numerous studies of lead's effects have been carried out in experimental animals and humans; nevertheless, no single study has provided a comprehensive model for establishing a "safe level" of lead intake in children. This Committee could arrive at estimates of safety only by collating the results of various studies. We feel that a comprehensive study, designed to determine the interrelationships between lead intake, absorption and effects would provide a more precise method for estimating a safe level of lead intake. Properly designed animal studies simulating conditions in human infants are needed to identify the relationships between external dose (dose of lead administered), absorption rate of various forms at various ages, internal dose, vul- nerability of the brain (at various ages), influence of nutritional factors, time between exposure and appearance of effects, and permanence or reversibility of effects. In addition, we feel that studies in preschool-age children are necessary to define more accurately the relationships between lead intake, absorption and effects and to provide more precise data regarding the amount of paint which a child with pica may ingest. Information 8