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XOWARD an UNDERSTANDING of METROPOLITAN AMERICA Report of the Social Science Panel on the Significance of Community in the Metropolitan Environment of the Advisory Committee to the Department of Housing and Urban Development Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences National Research Council National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering Washington, D.C. 1974 NAS-NAE JUN3 1975 Canfield Press, San Francisco A Department of Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. i IDDADV New York, Evanston, London UDUfWI

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Cover Design: Jaren Dahlstrom Sponsoring Editor: Howard Boyer NOTICE: The project which is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, acting in behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. Such approval reflects the Board's judgment that the project is of national importance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and the resources of the National Research Council. The members of the committee selected to undertake this project and prepare this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the-balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. Responsibility for the detailed aspects of this report rests with that committee. Each report issuing from a study committee of the National Research Council is reviewed by an independent group of qualified individuals according to procedures established and monitored by the Report Review Committee of the National Academy of Sciences. Distribution of the report is approved, by the President of the Academy, upon satisfactory completion of the review process. This is a report of work prepared under Contract No. H-1077 between the National Academy of Sciences and the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Inquiries concerning this report should be directed to: The Executive Director, Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF METROPOLITAN AMERICA Copyright © 1975 by the National Academy of Sciences Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. However, this work may be reproduced in whole or in part for the official use of the U.S. Govern- ment on the condition that copyright notice is included with such official reproduc- tion. For information address Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. 10 East 53rd Street, New York, N.Y. 10022 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data National Research Council. Social Science Panel on the Significance of Community in the Metropolitan Environment. Toward an understanding of metropolitan America. "Prepared under Contract no. H-1077 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. Bibliography: p. 147. Includes index. 1. Cities and towns—United States. 2. Community life. I. Title. HT123.N33 1975 301.36'0973 75-2097 ISBN 0-06-385492-9 75 76 77 78 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Preface The Advisory Committee to the Department of Housing and Urban Development (ACHUD) of the National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering requested that the Division of Behavioral Sciences of the National Research Council, superseded in February 1973 by the Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, initiate a "study of the signifi- cance of community in the metropolitan environment." The Assistant Secre- tary for Research and Technology of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Harold B. Finger, concurred in the necessity for scien- tific and technical advice to assist HUD in rationalizing housing policy with urban growth patterns and objectives. To provide the assistance requested, the Division of Behavioral Sciences in December 1971 established a Panel on the Significance of Community in the Metropolitan Environment, which undertook to set forth in the clearest way possible the present knowledge of urban organization and life. Recognizing the deficiencies in knowledge relating to the task, the Panel sought to reduce them by commissioning a series of state-of-knowl- PREFACE iii

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edge papers. These papers, to be published separately under the title Metro- politan America in Contemporary Perspective, are: "Governance in a Metropolitan Society," by Alan K. Campbell, Dean, and Judith A. Dollenmayer, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University. "Beyond the Suburbs: The Changing Rural Scene," by Rex R. Campbell, Professor of Rural Sociology, University of Missouri. "The Metropolitan Experience," by Claude S. Fischer, Lecturer in Sociology, University of California at Berkeley. "Fiscal and Productive Efficiency in Urban Government Systems," by Lyle C. Fitch, President, Institute of Public Administration, New York, N.Y. "Accessibility for Residents in the Metropolitan Environment," by Donald L. Foley, Professor of City Planning and of Architecture, University of California at Berkeley. "Toward an Understanding of Community Satisfaction," by Robert W. Ma- rans and Willard Rodgers, Senior Study Directors, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. "Urban Concentration and Deconcentration," by Jerome Rothenberg, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mat- thew Edel, Professor of Urban Studies, Queens College, and John R. Harris, Professor of Urban Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy. "Community Design: The Search for Participation," by Gerald D. Suttles, Professor of Sociology, State University of New York at Stony Brook. "The Urban Centrifugal Drift," by Basil G. Zimmer, Professor of Sociology, Brown University. "The Patchwork Approach: Adaptive Responses to Increasing Urbaniza- tion," by Joseph F. Zimmerman, Professor of Political Science, State University of New York at Albany. iv TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF METROPOLITAN AMERICA

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The Panel drew heavily on these state-of-knowledge papers in the course of its deliberations and in the preparation of this report. Moreover, it profited from the participation of the papers' authors in its discussions and from the comments by these individuals on earlier drafts of this report. However, the authors of the papers bear no responsibility for the final outcome of the Panel's work; that is the Panel's alone. From the outset, the Panel sought to understand the policy context of HUD and to secure relevant information from HUD representatives. Throughout the course of the study, ACHUD was kept informed of the Panel's progress. The state-of-knowledge papers were made available to ACHUD, and its comments on selected papers provided helpful guidance to the Panel. The Panel is indebted to the following HUD officials and to many of their associates in the Department for their generous cooperation: Harold B. Finger, Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology; Theodore R. Brit- ton, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology; and Wynd- ham Clarke, Director, Division of Community Planning, Development and Conservation, Office of Research and Technology. Vincent P. Rock, the Panel's Executive Secretary, was a tower of strength throughout the course of the study and played a key role in the preparation of the successive drafts of this report. Benjamin Caplan, who served as consultant, provided a valuable critical perspective. Kay C. Harris provided indispensable administrative support throughout the undertaking, and Linda J. Ingram, the Panel's Research Associate, was outstanding in assisting in the final preparation of the manuscript. The Panel also acknowl- edges the assistance provided by Henry David, Executive Director of the Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, and by John A. Laurmann, Executive Secretary of the ACHUD. Finally, the Panel wishes to express its appreciation for the critical comments and suggestions made by the group of reviewers established by the Executive Committee of the Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences. Amos H. Hawley Chairman September 1973 PREFACE

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Social Science Panel on the Significance of Community in the Metropolitan Environment Members AMOS H. HAWLEY, Kenan Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chair- man BRIAN J. L. BERRY, Irving B. Harris Professor of Urban Geography and Director of Training Programs in Urban Studies, University of Chicago ANGUS CAMPBELL, director, Institute for Social Research, Univer- sity of Michigan JOHN M. DeGROVE, director, Joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems, Florida Atlantic and Florida International Uni- versities MELVIN M. WEBBER, director, Institute of Urban and Regional De- velopment, University of California, Berkeley Staff VINCENT P. ROCK, Executive Secretary LINDA J. INGRAM, Research Associate KAY C. HARRIS, Administrative Secretary BENJAMIN CAPLAN, Consultant vi TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF METROPOLITAN AMERICA

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Contents Preface iii 1 Introduction: The Problem of Defining Community 1 2 Twentieth Century Metropolitanization 7 The Rise of Metropolitan Communities 8 Demographic and Governmental Attributes of Metropolitan Communities 13 Urbanization of Rural Areas 39 Benefits and Costs of Urban "Sprawl" 41 3 New Meanings of Community in the Metropolitan Context 47 The Metropolitan Experience 48 City-Suburban Differences in Behavior 54 CONTENTS vii

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Satisfaction with Residential Environments 56 Undifferentiated Living Space 64 4 The Microcommunity: Control of the Immediate Environment 67 Changes in the Microcommunity 68 Microcommunity Boundaries 75 Limited Microcommunity Participation 78 Enhancement of Microcommunity Influence 81 5 The Spatial Dimension of National Life 87 The Intermetropolitan Network 87 Three Significant Trends 91 Metropolitanization: Secondary Effects of Policy 96 6 Government of Metropolitan Communities 103 Intervention by the Federal Government 105 Limited Role of the States 108 Impact of the Federal Court 110 Metropolitan Reorganization 114 The Role of the Urban County 116 Councils of Governments: The Limits of "Carrot" Voluntarism 117 Intergovernmental Service Agreements 120 The Policy of Accommodation 122 Urban Localism and Metropolitan Decentralization 125 Urban Localism and Socioeconomic Stratification 128 7 Consolidated List of Findings 133 8 Research Problems in Metropolitanization and the Significance of Community 141 Demographic Movements 141 Metropolitan Governance 142 viii TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF METROPOLITAN AMERICA

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Intrametropolitan Circulation 143 Residential Choice 144 The Metropolitan Experience 144 Community Satisfaction 145 The Microcommunity 146 Additional Readings List by Topic 147 Index 191 CONTENTS ix

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Photo credits: Facing page 1: Mark Haven, Magnum. Facing page 7: Elliott Erwitt, Magnum. Facing page 47: Charles Harbutt, Magnum Facing page 67: David Powers, Jeroboam, Inc. Facing page 87: Elliott Erwitt, Magnum. Facing page 103: Russell Abraham, Jeroboam, Inc. Facing page 133: Russell Abraham, Jeroboam, Inc. Facing page 141: Hap Stewart, Jeroboam, Inc.

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TOWARD an UNDERSTANDING of METROPOLITAN AMERICA

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