UNDERGRADUATE
CHEMISTRY EDUCATION

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Keegan Sawyer and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs


Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

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UNDERGRADUATE CHEMISTRY EDUCATION A WORKSHOP SUMMARY Keegan Sawyer and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-07ER15872, the National Institutes of Health under Contract HHSN263201200074I (Task Order 25), and the National Science Founda- tion under Grant CHE-1231459. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or useful- ness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to a specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommenda- tion, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or agency thereof. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-29586-4 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-29586-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of ­ ciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in S the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE CO-CHAIRS WILLIAM F. CARROLL, JR., Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas JENNIFER S. CURTIS, University of Florida MEMBERS MICHAEL R. BERMAN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research CAROLE BEWLEY, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases DONNA G. BLACKMOND, Scripps Research Institute PAUL BRYAN, University of California, Berkeley EMILIO BUNEL,* Argonne National Laboratory ALLISON CAMPBELL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory A.WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., Pennsylvania State University RICHARD R. CAVANAGH, National Institute of Standards and Technology JOAN FRYE, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy MIGUEL GARCIA-GARIBAY,* University of California, Los Angeles JACK KAYE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration JOHN KOZARICH, ActivX Biosciences, Inc. LUIS E. MARTINEZ, Rollins College KENNETH G. MOLOY, DuPont Company Experimental Station ROBERT PEOPLES, Carpet America Recovery Effort TANJA PIETRASS, National Science Foundation MICHAEL E. ROGERS, National Institute of General Medical Sciences ERIC ROHLFING, U.S. Department of Energy JAMES M. SOLYST, ENVIRON International Corporation KATHLEEN J. STEBE, University of Pennsylvania PATRICIA A. THIEL,* Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer ELIZABETH FINKELMAN, Administrative Assistant SAYYEDA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant JOE ALPER, Consulting Science Writer * These members of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable served as members of the planning committee of the Workshop on Undergraduate Chemistry Education, but were not involved in the writing of this workshop summary. v

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY CO-CHAIRS DAVID WALT, Tufts University TIMOTHY SWAGER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MEMBERS DAVID BEM, The Dow Chemical Company ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley JOAN BRENNECKE, Notre Dame University HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company DAVID CHRISTIANSON, University of Pennsylvania RICHARD EISENBERG, University of Rochester MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC CAROL J. HENRY, Independent Consultant JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc. SANDER G. MILLS, Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corporation DAVID MORSE, Corning Incorporated ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Aligent Technologies JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF TERESA FRYBERGER, Director KATHRYN HUGHES, Senior Program Officer DOUGLAS FRIEDMAN, Program Officer CARL GUSTAV-ANDERSON, Research Associate ELIZABETH FINKELMAN, Administrative Assistant NAWINA MATSHONA, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council. It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the chemical sciences to discuss chemistry-related issues affecting government, industry, and universities. Organized by the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations— spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. One way it does this is by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national or more widespread attention. On May 22-23, 2013, the CSR held a 1.5-day workshop on undergraduate chemistry education that focused on identifying potential drivers for change, barriers to curricular modifications, and new results from large-scale innovations with special emphasis on those that are transferable, widely applicable, and/or proven successful. The workshop featured both formal presentations and panel discussions among participants from academia, industry, and funding organizations. The workshop program consisted of three themes: • Drivers of change in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; • Innovations in chemistry education; and • Challenges and opportunities in chemistry education reform. The workshop was intended to provide participants from a spectrum of the chemistry and chemistry education communities with an introduction to some of the work being done in this area, to stimulate further discussions, and to serve as a complement to other forums conducted by organizations such as the American Chemical Society, the Biennial Conference on Chemical Edu- cation, Gordon Research Conferences, and studies on undergraduate education conducted within the National Research Council. The Statement of Task for the workshop organizing committee is provided in Appendix A. This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclu- sions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers and workshop participants. In addition, the organizing committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. The workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteurs Keegan Sawyer and Joe Alper as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse per- spectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purposes of this review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this summary: Diana Glick, Georgetown University John Kozarich, ActiveX Biosciences, Inc. David K. Lewis, Connecticut College (retired) Marcy H. Towns, Purdue University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and sugges- tions, they were not asked to endorse, nor did they see, the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Edwin P. Przybylowicz, Eastman Kodak Company (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authors and the National Research Council. ix

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1 Organization of the Workshop Summary, 2 2 DRIVERS AND METRICS 3 Is American Science in Decline?, 3 A PCAST Perspective on STEM Education in the New Millennium, 5 Role of the ACS Guidelines for Bachelor’s Degree Programs, 7 Chemistry and the Pre-medical Curriculum: Impact of MCAT2015, 9 Lessons Learned at NSF, 11 Discussion, 12 3 INNOVATIONS AND BARRIERS 15 Propagating Meaningful Reform in Chemistry Education and the Relative Roles of Enthusiasm and Evidence, 15 Large-Classroom Reforms: Five Best Teaching Practices, 16 Teaching Introductory Chemistry with a Molecular and Global Perspective, 18 Today’s Students and Tomorrow’s Leaders: Integrated Concentration in Science, 20 Online Education and MOOCs, 22 Dealing with Risk, Failure, and Uncertainty, 23 What Gets Measured Is What Gets Learned: Assessing Student Understanding, 25 4 INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVES 27 Preparing Students for the Industrial Laboratory, 27 Discussion, 28 5 FINAL THOUGHTS AND DISCUSSION 29 The Case for Change, 30 Flexibility and Subject Mastery, 31 Taking Action, 31 General Observations, 32 REFERENCES 35 xi

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xii CONTENTS APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 37 B Workshop Agenda 39 C Biographical Information 43 D Workshop Attendees 51

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Acronyms AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AAMC Association of American Medical Colleges ACS American Chemical Society BOSE Board on Science Education CPT ACS Committee on Professional Training CSR Chemical Sciences Roundtable DBER discipline-based education research GDP gross domestic product HHMI Howard Hughes Medical Institute iCons Integrated Concentration in Science program MCAT Medical College Admission Test MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MOOC massive open online course NMR nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation PCAST President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology STEM science, technology, engineering, and math WIDER Widening Implementation and Demonstration of Evidence-Based Reforms xiii

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