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References AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges). 2011. MCAT2015 NCES (National Opinion Research Center). 1972. National Longitudinal A Better Test for Tomorrow’s Doctors: Preview Guide for Study of the Class of 1972. ICPSR 8085. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university MCAT 2015 , November 2011. Available: http://lewisassoc.com/ Consortium for Political and Social Research. handouts/2015previewguide.pdf (accessed October 17, 2013). NCES. 1980. High School and Beyond, 1980: A Longitudinal Survey AAMC/HHMI (Association of American Medical Colleges and Howard of Students in the United States ICPSR 7896. Chicago, IL: National Hughes Medical Institute). 2009. Scientific Foundations for Future Opinion Research Center. Physicians. Washington, DC: AAMC. NCES. 1988. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. ICPSR 9389. ACS (American Chemical Society). 2008. Undergraduate Professional Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center. Education in Chemistry: ACS Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures NRC (National Research Council). 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, for Bachelor’s Degree Programs. Washington, DC: ACS. Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Brenner, C. 2013. Rethinking premedical and health professional curricula NRC. 2007. Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employ- in light of MCAT 2015. Journal of Chemical Education 90(7):807-812. ing America for a Brighter Future. Washington, DC: The National Brenner, C., and D. Ringe. 2012. Response to the new MCAT. ASBMB Academies Press. Today (March):12-14. NRC. 2011a. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross- Brower, A. M. 2009. From teaching to learning. Keynote address to 2009 cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National University of Wisconsin–Madison Teaching & Learning Symposium, Academies Press. May 20-22, 2009 [online]. Available: https://tle.wisc.edu/symposium/ NRC. 2011. Promising Practices in Undergraduate STEM Education. archive/2009/keynote-teaching-learning (accessed August 14, 2013). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Cabrera, A. F., and S. M. La Nasa. 2005. Classroom teaching practice: Ten NRC. 2012a. Discipline-Based Education Research: Understanding and lessons learned. Pp. 129-158 in Calidad, eficiencia y evaluación de la Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering. Wash- Educación Superior, W. de Vries, ed. Madrid: Netbiblo. ington, DC: The National Academies Press. Cooper, M. M., N. Grove, S. Underwood, and M. W. Klymkowsky. 2010. NPCAST (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology). Lose in Lewis structures: An investigation of student difficulties in de- 2010. Prepare and Inspire: K-12 Education in Science, Technology, veloping representational competence. Journal of Chemical Education Engineering, and Math (STEM) for America’s Future. Available: http:// 87(8):869-874. www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-stem-ed- Feuer, M. J., L. Towne, and R. J. Shavelson. 2002. Scientific culture and final.pdf (accessed June 7, 2013). educational research. Educational Researcher 31(8):4-14. PCAST. 2012a. Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional Col- Gerlach, K., P. Geissinger, and K. Murphy. 2011. Assessing and enhancing lege Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and students’ scale literacy in introductory chemistry. In Abstracts of Papers Mathematics. Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ of the 242nd Annual Meeting of the American Chemical Society. Wash- microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excel-final_2-25-12.pdf (accessed June ington, DC: American Chemical Society. 5, 2013). Gijbels, D., F. Dochy, P. Van den Bossche, and M. Segers. 2005. Effects of PCAST. 2012b. Transformation and Opportunity: The Future of the U.S. Re- problem-based learning: A meta-analysis from the angle of assessment. search Enterprise. Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/ Review of Educational Research 75(1):27-61. files/microsites/ostp/pcast_future_research_enterprise_20121130.pdf McCoy, A. B., and R. W. Darbeau. 2013. Revision of the ACS Guidelines (accessed June 7, 2013). for Bachelor’s Degree Programs. Journal of Chemical Education Rogers, E. M. 2003. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Ed. New York: Free Press. 90(4):398-400. Schwartzstein, R. M., G. C. Rosenfeld, R. Hilborn, S. H. Oyewole, and McNutt, M., ed. 2013. Grand Challenges in Science Education [Special K. Mitchell. 2013. Redesigning the MCAT exam: Balancing multiple Issue]. Science 340(6130):237-396. perspectives. Academic Medicine 88(5):560-567. 35

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36 UNDERGRADUATE CHEMISTRY EDUCATION Seymour, E., D. Wiese, A. Hunter, and S. M. Daffinrud. 2000. Creating a Treisman, P. U., and S. A. Surles. 2001. Systemic reform and minority stu- Better Mousetrap: On-line Student Assessment of their Learning Gains. dent high achievement. Pp. 260-280 in The Right Thing to Do, the Smart Paper presented at the National Meeting of the American Chemical Soci- Thing to Do: Enhancing Diversity in the Health Professions-Summary ety, March 27, 2000, San Francisco, CA. Available: http://www.salgsite. on Diversity in Health Professions in Honor of Herbert W. Nickens, M.D. org/docs/SALGPaperPresentationAtACS.pdf (accessed June 5, 2013). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shulman, G. I. 2013. Chemistry in the premedical curriculum: Considering University of Wisconsin–Madison. 2013. Education Innovation. Available: the options. Journal of Chemical Education 90(7):813-815. http://edinnovation.wisc.edu/content/uploads/2013/02/5_step3.pdf (ac- cessed October 17, 2013). Xie, Y., and A. A. Killewald. 2012. Is American Science in Decline? Cam- bridge, MA: Harvard University Press.