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Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia


Karin Matchett, Rapporteur

Committee on Advancing Institutional Transformation for Minority Women in Academia

Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

Policy and Global Affairs

                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES


Washington, D.C.

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Karin Matchett, Rapporteur Committee on Advancing Institutional Transformation for Minority Women in Academia Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine Policy and Global Affairs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 1049637 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors who provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-29591-8 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-29591-2 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON ADVANCING INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION FOR MINORITY WOMEN IN ACADEMIA FLORENCE B. BONNER, Cochair, Senior Vice President, Research and Compliance, Howard University LYDIA VILLA-KOMAROFF, Cochair, Chief Scientific Officer, Cytonome/ST, LLC JOAN W. BENNETT (NAS)*, Professor, Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, and Associate Vice President, Office for Promotion of Women in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics, Rutgers University ALICIA CARRIQUIRY, Distinguished Professor of Liberal Arts & Sciences, Professor of Statistics, Iowa State University ANTHONY DEPASS, Assistant Vice President, Research Development, and Director, MBRS Program, Long Island University JOSEPH M. DESIMONE (NAS and NAE)*, Director, Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise; Chancellor’s Eminent Professor of Chemistry, University of North Carolina; and William R. Kenan, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University JOSEPH S. FRANCISCO, William E. Moore Distinguished Professor of Physical Chemistry, Purdue University SYLVIA HURTADO, Professor and Director, Higher Education Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles VIVIAN W. PINN (IOM)*, Senior Scientist Emerita, Fogarty International Center, and Former Associate Director for Research on Women’s Health (Retired), National Institutes of Health STAFF CATHERINE DIDION, Director DONNA K. GINTHER, Consultant SHULAMIT KAHN, Consultant WEI JING, Research Associate SARA FRUEH, Communications Writer * Denotes members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and Institutes of Medicine (IOM). v

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COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE POLICY AND GLOBAL AFFAIRS DIVISION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL RITA R. COLWELL (NAS)*, Chair, Distinguished Professor, University of Maryland, College Park and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University ALICE AGOGINO (NAE)*, Roscoe and Elizabeth Hughes Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley JOAN W. BENNETT (NAS)*, Professor, Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, and Associate Vice President, Office for Promotion of Women in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics, Rutgers University JEREMY M. BERG (IOM)*, Associate Senior Vice Chancellor for Science, University of Pittsburgh ROBERT J. BIRGENEAU (NAS)*, Chancellor Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley VIVIAN PINN (IOM)*, Senior Scientist Emerita, Fogarty International Center, and Former Associate Director for Research on Women’s Health (Retired), National Institutes of Health PATRICIA TABOADA-SERRANO, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, and Early-Career Representative, Women for Science Working Group, InterAmerican Network of Academies of Sciences LYDIA VILLA-KOMAROFF, Chief Scientific Officer, Cytonome/ST, LLC SUSAN WESSLER (NAS)*, Distinguished Professor of Genetics, University of California, Riverside STAFF CATHERINE DIDION, Director WEI JING, Research Associate SARA FRUEH, Communications Writer * Denotes members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and Institutes of Medicine (IOM) vi

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Preface and Acknowledgments Over the past two centuries, advances in science and technology have transformed human existence. For example, advances in energy, transportation, information and communications technology, and the biological sciences have extended human life span, greatly improved the standard of living, and raised the educational level in much of the world. The tools and knowledge that have emerged promise to bring even more benefits. Yet many of the most urgent challenges faced by human society are caused by the misapplication of science and technology— and their potential misapplication in the future. Fully realizing the potential of science and technology to improve human life, and reducing any threats to life that accompany those advances, will require a greater push to increase science literacy and engagement and the wisdom to place limits on technologies when necessary. All of this requires the nation and the world to heed the "all hands on deck" call that led to this conference—a strategy for involving every person of talent, regardless of ethnicity, race, or gender, in the effort to maximize the promise and confront the threats of contemporary science and technology. We must eliminate barriers that prevent the full mobilization of our nation’s talent in addressing the challenges before us. Over the last decade there has been increasing worldwide recognition that discrimination based on race or gender in any endeavor limits the pool of talent for that endeavor. This recognition has led to a corresponding increase in attention throughout the globe of the need to more fully incorporate women and people of color into all endeavors. For instance, on March 9, 2013, the Queen of England signed a new charter for the 54 members of the British Commonwealth that asserts," We are implacably opposed to all forms of discrimination, whether rooted in gender, race, colour, creed, political belief or other grounds," and "We recognize that gender equality and women's empowerment are essential components of human development and basic human rights." The March 7, 2013, issue of Nature featured a special section on the gender imbalance in science. There is general agreement that while much progress has been made, there is a long way to go: Equality has not been reached for women or for people of color. Since the publication in 1976 of “The Double-Bind: The Price of Being a Minority Woman in Science,” one of the most cited reports that first addressed issues of women of color in science— and co-authored by Shirley Malcom, the closing speaker at the conference—it has been clear that women from racial minorities face even more pronounced barriers. Under the auspices of the standing Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Medicine (CWSEM), we were privileged to chair an ad hoc committee to plan a conference “to discuss the current status of women of color in academia and explore the challenges and successful initiatives for creating the institutional changes required to increase representation of women of color at all levels of the academic workforce.” The Committee on Advancing Institutional Transformation for Minority Women in Academia was constituted in recognition of the fact that while the number of women, including women of color, pursuing higher education in science, engineering, and medicine has grown, the number of women of color faculty in all institutions of higher education has remained small and has grown less rapidly than the numbers of white women or men of color. vii

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The charge to the National Academies’ ad hoc Committee on Advancing Institutional Transformation for Minority Women in Academia was to “organize and conduct a two-day public conference to review the existing research on education and academic career patterns for minority women in science, engineering, and medicine.” Specifically, the conference was to focus on:  A systematic review of relevant research literatures to enhance understanding of the barriers and challenges to the full participation of all women of color in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) and academic careers  Model practices and programs that recruit, retain, and advance women of color  The identification of reliable and credible data sources and data gaps  The identification of the key aspects of exemplary policies and programs that are effective in enhancing the participation of women of color in faculty ranks The committee, composed of accomplished scientists and engineers with a shared passion for expanding participation in STEM fields, held bi-monthly conference calls and convened meetings at the Beckman Center in California and at the NAS building in Washington, D.C., to consult experts and discuss the existing data and important gaps. Two papers were commissioned to examine and summarize the available data, and those papers are included as appendices in this report. On June 7 and 8, 2012, the committee hosted a public conference in the newly renovated NAS building in Washington, D.C. Over 150 people from academic institutions, funding agencies, and professional societies came together to explore relevant data and discuss possible solutions. Discussion varied from dispassionate dissection to impassioned argument. Participants discussed the available data, the limitations of the data, and the gaps in the data. Individual stories brought data to life. Legal avenues and options, and institutional best practices were summarized, and avenues for the dissemination of these findings were discussed and debated. The tools and factual information from professional organizations and societies, government agencies, academic institutions can be found in Appendix E. Among the many important insights voiced during conference sessions were the following:  An important factor in the slow integration of women of color into academia is the structural impediments built into current institutions, particularly in the United States. There cannot be full participation by women of color in academia until policies and expectations for work-family balance are addressed (see Stephanie Coontz, Why gender equality stalled, New York Times, Feb. 16, 2013).  One of the most striking realizations was the recognition that a major issue is the innate biases that all humans carry (see, for example, Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman). This innate bias leads us all—men, women, people of color—to make snap judgments that, unrecognized and unchecked, will contribute to perpetuating the status quo. In many ways, this recognition frees institutions and individuals from blame and may make it easier for all to join forces in an attempt to fully marshal the talent of the nation in STEM endeavors. This report has been prepared by the conference rapporteur as a factual summary of what occurred at the conference. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the conference. The views contained in the report are those of individual conference viii

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participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all conference participants, the planning committee, or the National Research Council. The ad hoc committee decided to keep the “Seeking Solutions” website up as long as possible to act as a catalyst for continued discussion. The committee is also dedicated to finding ways, in addition to publishing this report, to disseminate the suggestions and useful practices identified by conference participants as widely as possible. The difficulties faced by the nation are urgent and require all the talent we can muster. We are grateful to our colleagues who served as members of the committee, to Karin Matchett, who ably captured and summarized the conference sessions, and to all of the speakers and participants in the conference. We also thank Victoria Gunderson and Mahlet Mesfin, Mirzayan Fellows who assisted the ad hoc committee. The conference could not have occurred without the professional and tireless efforts of Catherine Didion and Wei Jing. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Christine Grant, North Carolina State University; Peter Kozel, National Institutes of Health; Cheryl Leggon, Georgia Institute of Technology; Ernest Steele, Morgan State University; and Abigail Stewart, University of Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1049637. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Cochair Florence Bonner, Cochair ix

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CONTENTS Introduction 1 Chapter 1: Statistics on the Career Pathways of Women of Color Faculty in 4 Academia Chapter 2: People Behind the Statistics 18 Chapter 3:MultipleMarginality Gender, Race, and Equity in Science education and 22 Research Chapter 4: The Key Role of Professional Societies 27 Chapter 5: Impact of Federal Agencies: Leading by Example 32 Chapter 6: Successful Practices and Strategies for Institutional Transformation 37 Chapter 7: Successful Strategies and Resources for Moving Ahead 42 Chapter 8: Moving Forward 67 APPENDIXES A Commissioned Papers A-1 Education and Academic Career Outcomes for Women of Color in Science and 71 Engineering A-2 Women of Color among STEM Faculty: Experiences in Academia 93 B Agenda and List of Participants 108 C Biographies of Speakers 117 D Annotated Bibliographies 135 E Written Testimonies E-1 Call for Written Testimony and A Summary of Programmatic Efforts and 151 Recommendations from Written Testimonies E-2 American Association for the Advancement of Science 155 E-3 American Astronomy Society 160 xi

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E-4 American Chemical Society 166 E-5 American Indian Science & Engineering Society 168 E-6 American Institute of Physics 170 E-7 American Mathematical Society 173 E-8 American Meteorological Society 183 E-9 American Physical Society 188 E-10 American Political Science Association 195 E-11 American Psychological Association 198 E-12 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 204 E-13 American Society for Civil Engineering 207 E-14 American Society for Engineering Education 211 E-15 American Society for Mechanical Engineering 217 E-16 American Society for Microbiology 219 E-17 American Sociological Association 224 E-18 Association for Women in Mathematics 229 E-19 Biomedical Engineering Society 234 E-20 Computer Research Association 237 E-21 Geological Society of America 242 E-22 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 244 E-23 National Institutes of Health 249 E-24 National Organization for the Professional Advancement of Black Chemists and 256 Chemical Engineers E-25 National Postdoctoral Association 260 E-26 National Society of Hispanic Physicists 265 E-27 National Society of Black Physicists 271 E-28 Rutgers University Women of Color Scholars Initiative 273 E-29 Society for Neuroscience 277 xii