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Ginther, D.K., and S. Kahn. 2006. Does science promote women? Evidence from academia 1973-2001. Science and Engineering Careers in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press for NBER Science Engineering Workforce Project, W129691.

This study evaluates whether gender differences exist in the likelihood of obtaining a tenure track job, promotion to tenure, and promotion to full professor using the 1973- 2001 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. Women were less likely to take tenure track positions in science, but this gender gap is entirely explained by fertility decisions. In science, there is no gender difference in promotion to tenure or full professor after controlling for demographic, family, employer, and productivity covariates. Single women do better at each stage than single men. Women with children are less likely to advance up the academic job ladder beyond their early postdoctorate years, while both marriage and children increase men’s likelihood of advancing.

Ginther, D.K., et al. 2009. Diversity in Academic Biomedicine: An Evaluation of Education and Career Outcomes with Implications for Policy. New York, NY: Social Science Network.

This study examines the educational transition rates from high school to academic careers in in the biomedical sciences by gender, race, and ethnicity using a number of educational databases. This was followed by a multivariate regression to examine faculty career outcomes using the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Doctorate Recipients. While transitions between milestones are distinctive by gender and race/ethnicity, the transitions between high school and college and between college and graduate school are critical points at which underrepresented minorities are lost from the biomedical pipeline, suggesting some specific targets for policy intervention.

Leggon, C. 2006. Women in science: Racial and ethnic differences and the differences they make. Journal of Technology Transfer, 31:325-333.

This review examines the underrepresentation of women of color and non-Hispanic white women in the scientific workforce by race and ethnicity. Aggregated data obscures significant differences that can result in ineffective policies. Female scientists are more likely to earn a bachelor’s degree at a research university and are only represented at 43 of the top 50 universities. Men are four times more likely to have full-time faculty positions in S&E positions, even as women’s representation in doctoral degree programs is increasing. There is an inverse proportion of institutional prestige and proportion of female faculty members, and URM women were less likely to be in tenured positions. Female faculty members have lower salaries than their male counterparts and are less likely to negotiate other factors of employment. Implementing institutional change requires cohesive and integral efforts of understanding the issues/problems, reviewing the most effective practices, reexamining tenure and hiring processes, and strong leadership within the institutions.

National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2011. Academic Institutions of Minority Faculty with Science, Engineering, and Health Doctorates. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

This study examines the characteristics of minority faculty with science, engineering, and health (SEH) doctorates in 2008, including the types of schools from which they earned their doctorates and in which they teach, and compares them with non-minority faculty. SEH fields include biological/agricultural/environmental life sciences, computer and information sciences, mathematics, statistics, physical sciences, psychology, social sciences, engineering, and health

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