protégés have participated in SOARS, 90 percent are members of ethnic minorities, and over 50 percent are women. Most SOARS protégés have presented their work at AMS-sponsored meetings and participated in the AMS events described above.
• The incoming president of AMS, Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd, is co-PI along with two women of color, on an NSF-funded grant called the Diversity Climate Network. The goal of the program is to use longitudinal tracking of Earth Science students from Grade 9 through graduate studies to pinpoint effective practices for student recruitment and retention in the climate sciences.
• Howard University, a Historically Black University, has an active graduate program in the atmospheric sciences, and has contributed substantively both to the overall diversity of the field as well as to the number of women of color to enter the atmospheric sciences. In addition to close to ties to AMS, with faculty members serving on AMS Boards and faculty and students active in AMS meetings, Howard is the primary impetus behind the AMS-supported Color of Weather reception.
• The AMS has been an organizational partner in the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) initiative since its inception.
Lessons learned and overall policy recommendations to increase the representation and career satisfaction of women of color
• Engage women of color in leadership positions. While the number of women of color in the AMS is small overall, they are well-represented in leadership positions within the society. This provides role models, visibility, improved decision making via the inclusion of diverse perspectives, and facilitates responsiveness to a diverse set of communities and issues.
• Focus on the overall climate of meetings and society efforts. AMS, like many historic societies, has practices that date back to its time as a male, majority dominated society. It has been in the process of revising those practices with input from its newer members. Examples include the proposed statement on professional and welcoming conduct, the increased number of networking and career-oriented receptions, outreach events that target local communities, a prestigious award for diversity, and an active Board on Women and Minorities.
• Expand the scope of research to address issues related to gender and ethnicity. While it is tempting to believe that a predominantly physical science is independent of gender, ethnicity or socio-economic consideration, it is clear that the impact of meteorological events and climate variability and change has components along these axes. Making this a legitimate field of research, through additions to the scientific program and special meetings, has made the science relevant to a more diverse audience, including women of color. Similarly, as outreach and community engagement have been increasingly embraced as an AMS priority, we have welcomed and honored a diversity of skills and an accompanying diversity of people.
• Build a community for women of color, even if it requires combining with other disciplines. The small size and relative lack of diversity of the AMS makes it difficult, currently, to offer a robust professional network for women of color. By joining with other societies in complementary disciplines, it might be possible.