DEVELOPING NEW
NATIONAL DATA ON
SOCIAL MOBILITY

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Amy Smith, Rapporteur

Committee on Population

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

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DEVELOPING NEW NATIONAL DA A ON T SOCIAL MOBILITY A WO R K S H O P S U M M A RY Amy Smith, Rapporteur Committee on Population Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Steering Committee for the workshop were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation Award SES-1244655 to the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or rec- ommendations expressed in this publication are those of the rapporteur and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-29598-7 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-29598-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2013). Developing New National Data on Social Mobility: A Workshop Summary. Amy Smith, Rapporteur. Committee on Population and Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the ­ cademy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- A ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand- ing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its m ­ embers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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STEERING COMMITTEE FOR A WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPING A NEW NATIONAL SURVEY ON SOCIAL MOBILITY DAVID B. GRUSKY (Cochair), Department of Sociology, Stanford University C. Matthew Snipp (Cochair), Department of Sociology, Stanford University henry E. Brady, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley Michael Hout, Department of Sociology and Demography, University of California, Berkeley robert d. mare, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles sara s. mclanahan, Department of Sociology and Public Affairs, Princeton University sean reardon, Department of Education and Sociology (by courtesy), Stanford University timothy M. smeeding, Institute for Research on Poverty and Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin–Madison thomas J. Plewes, Study Director Natalie nielsen, Associate Study Director Danielle johnson, Senior Program Assistant v

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COMMITTEE ON POPULATION 2012-2013 LINDA J. WAITE (Chair), Department of Sociology, University of Chicago CHRISTINE BACHRACH, School of Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park JERE BEHRMAN, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia JASON H. BOARDMAN, Department of Sociology, University of Colorado, Boulder PETER J. DONALDSON, Population Council, New York, NY KATHLEEN HARRIS, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill MARK HAYWARD, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin CHARLES HIRSCHMAN, Department of Sociology, University of Washington HILLARD S. KAPLAN, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque WOLFGANG LUTZ, World Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria ROBERT D. MARE, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles SARA McLANAHAN, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, Princeton University BARBARA B. TORREY, Independent Consultant, Washington, DC MAXINE WEINSTEIN, Center for Population and Health, Georgetown University, Washington, DC DAVID WEIR, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JOHN R. WILMOTH, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley THOMAS J. PLEWES, Director vi

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Committee on National Statistics 2013-2014 LAWRENCE D. BROWN (Chair), Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania John M. Abowd, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Mary Ellen Bock, Department of Statistics, Purdue University David Card, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley Alicia Carriquiry, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University Michael E. Chernew, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School Constantine Gatsonis, Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University James S. House, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michael Hout, Survey Research Center, University of California, Berkeley Sallie Keller, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada Lisa Lynch, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University Colm O’Muircheartaigh, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago Ruth Peterson, Criminal Justice Research Center, The Ohio State University Edward H. Shortliffe, Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University and Arizona State University Hal Stern, Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine John H. Thompson, NORC at the University of Chicago Constance F. Citro, Director vii

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Acknowledgments T his report summarizes the proceedings of a workshop convened in June 2013 to consider options for a design for a new national survey on social mobility. The workshop was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and convened by the Committee on Popula- tion (CPOP) and the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE) of the National Research Council (NRC). The workshop was organized by a steering committee composed of expert social, behavioral, and economic scientists who study trends and issues in social mobility of the population. The steering committee provided invaluable guidance during the course of developing the work- shop, in the process of securing expert presentations, and in facilitating the conduct of the workshop. Although the steering committee members played a central role in designing and conducting the workshop, they did not actively participate in writing this summary. The presentations to the workshop meeting provided the basis for a lively and instructional discussion by the participants. We appreci- ate the contributions of Robert Hauser, executive director of the NRC’s DBASSE, Henry Brady, David Grusky, Michael Hout, Robert Mare, Bhash Mazumder, Chandra Muller, Timothy Smeeding, Matthew Snipp, Laura Tach, Florencia Torche, Steve Trejo, and Rob Warren. The steering committee acknowledges the excellent work of the staff of the NRC for support in developing and organizing the workshop and this report. The study director was Thomas J. Plewes, who serves ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS as director of CPOP. Constance F. Citro, director of CNSTAT, assisted in organizing the steering committee and setting the agenda for the study. The associate study director was Natalie Nielsen of the Board on Science Education. They provided valuable assistance to the steering committee in organizing the meetings. The steering committee was assisted by Danielle Johnson, on the staff of CPOP, who made arrangements for the steering committee’s planning meeting and this workshop, as well as playing a major role in preparation of this summary. Amy Smith ably served as rapporteur for the workshop. This summary was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that assist the institution in making its report as sound as possible, and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The panel thanks the following individuals for their review of this report: Thomas A. DiPrete, Department of Sociology, Columbia Univer- sity; Samuel R. Lucas, Department of Sociology, University of Califor- nia, Berkeley; Chandra L. Muller, Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin; and Timothy M. Smeeding, Institute for Research on Poverty and Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin–Madison. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many construc- tive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the con- clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Barbara Boyle Torrey. Appointed by the NRC, she was responsible for making certain that the independent examination of this report was carried out in accor- dance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the rapporteur and the NRC. David Grusky and C. Matthew Snipp Cochairs Steering Committee for a Workshop on Developing a New National Survey on Social Mobility

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Studying Social Mobility 5 Framing the Issues, 5 Social Mobility as a Current Concern, 8 Forerunners in the Study of Social Mobility, 10 3 Measurement Issues and Challenges 13 Family Structure, 13 Education, 21 Labor Markets, 23 Immigration, 25 Political Identification and Participation, 29 4 Implications for a New Study 31 Data Sources, 31 Data Gathering, 39 Appendixes A Workshop Agenda 45 B Participants 47 C Biographical Sketches of Steering Committee Members and Presenters 49 xi

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