Cover Image

HARDBACK
$69.95



View/Hide Left Panel

Index

A

Adams, Geoffrey K., 115-133

Aesthetic appreciation

adaptive issues, 299

amygdala and, 240, 268, 269, 276

architectural contour, 263-264, 267, 268, 269-271, 272-277, 278, 280

brain connectivity related to default mode network, 284-285

cognitive processes, 155, 227-233, 241, 264, 276, 283, 285-287, 292, 293, 294, 296, 299, 300-301, 302

default mode network and, 283, 284-285, 286, 292, 296-298, 299, 300-302

delayed network, 283, 286, 293, 295-296, 298, 302

executive tasks and, 285, 300-301

fMRI imaging studies, 263, 267-268, 269, 272, 280-281, 286, 300, 302-303

habitat theory, 266, 278

initial network, 286, 293-294

magnetoencephalography, 286-291

neural dynamics, 268-269, 272-274, 276-277, 287-298

pathologic alterations of cognition, 301-302

perception, 155, 241, 264, 285-286, 300-301, 302

prefrontal cortex and, 237, 239, 299

processes related to, 285-286

resting-state issue, 292-293

reward value and processing, 236-237, 241, 264, 268, 272, 275, 278, 284, 294, 296

sensu lato, 286, 293, 295, 298, 301, 302

sensu stricto, 286, 293, 294, 296, 298, 301, 302

subjectivity of, 302-303

two-fold model, 293

Alkire, Michael T., 37-56

Allegiance bias, 170, 178, 188

Allen Timothy A., 95-114

Altruism (see also Empathy; Pathological altruism)

conceptual framework, 170, 184-185

and cooperative behavior, 173, 174-175

defined, 170

egoism and, 185

enculturation, 177

parochial, 177

prospect theory and, 185

Altruism bias

in academic disciplines and the scientific enterprise, 182-183, 187-188

allegiance bias, 170, 178, 188

broad-scale studies, 186-188

mechanistic bases, 153



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 365
Index A prefrontal cortex and, 237, 239, 299 processes related to, 285-286 Adams, Geoffrey K., 115-133 resting-state issue, 292-293 Aesthetic appreciation reward value and processing, 236-237, adaptive issues, 299 241, 264, 268, 272, 275, 278, 284, 294, amygdala and, 240, 268, 269, 276 296 architectural contour, 263-264, 267, 268, sensu lato, 286, 293, 295, 298, 301, 302 269-271, 272-277, 278, 280 sensu stricto, 286, 293, 294, 296, 298, 301, brain connectivity related to default 302 mode network, 284-285 subjectivity of, 302-303 cognitive processes, 155, 227-233, 241, two-fold model, 293 264, 276, 283, 285-287, 292, 293, 294, Alkire, Michael T., 37-56 296, 299, 300-301, 302 Allegiance bias, 170, 178, 188 default mode network and, 283, 284- Allen Timothy A., 95-114 285, 286, 292, 296-298, 299, 300-302 Altruism (see also Empathy; Pathological delayed network, 283, 286, 293, 295-296, altruism) 298, 302 conceptual framework, 170, 184-185 executive tasks and, 285, 300-301 and cooperative behavior, 173, 174-175 fMRI imaging studies, 263, 267-268, 269, defined, 170 272, 280-281, 286, 300, 302-303 egoism and, 185 habitat theory, 266, 278 enculturation, 177 initial network, 286, 293-294 parochial, 177 magnetoencephalography, 286-291 prospect theory and, 185 neural dynamics, 268-269, 272-274, 276- Altruism bias 277, 287-298 in academic disciplines and the pathologic alterations of cognition, scientific enterprise, 182-183, 187-188 301-302 allegiance bias, 170, 178, 188 perception, 155, 241, 264, 285-286, 300- broad-scale studies, 186-188 301, 302 mechanistic bases, 153 365

OCR for page 365
366  / Index moral judgment and, 185 and neural processes, 268-269, 272-274, quantitative models, 153 276-277 in social sciences, 182-183 study methods, 279-282 Alzheimer’s disease, 99, 301, 302 Aristotelian biology, 13, 14 Amazonian Yąnomamö, 174-175 Arousal (brain activation), 38, 39-40, 43, Amygdala 44-45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 56, 131, 299 and aesthetic appreciation, 240, 268, Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia, viii, xiii, xv 269, 276 Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii and approach-avoidance behavior, 268, Artificial intelligence, 3, 4, 5 269, 275, 294 Ascending reticular activating system, 43 and consciousness, 30 Auditory cortex, 154, 163, 225, 228, 230, damage effects, 40, 65-66 231-232, 238, 240-241 and emotional arousal, 240, 268 Autism spectrum disorder, 22, 130, 166 empathy response, 22 Avian (see Birds) and fear conditioning, 275 Avise, John C., xiii-xiv hydrocortisone effects, 165 Awareness, xvi, 3, 7, 17, 21, 38, 39, 41, interaction with other brain systems, 44-45, 47, 51, 72, 73, 96, 279, 301 (see 123, 162-163, 164-165, 240, 294 also Self-awareness) and memory, 62, 65-66, 67, 153, 157, Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv 160-163, 164-165, 167 propranolol effects, 165 and social information processing, 122, B 123 Baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) yohimbine effects, 165 affiliative behavior in wild females, 1, Anterior cingulate cortex, 48, 49, 123, 240, 20-21, 23, 24-33, 34, 35-36 264, 268, 272, 273, 284-285 death of a close relative, 19, 28-30, 32, 33 Anterior cingulate gyrus, 119, 122, 125, 126 gaze, 30-31 Anterior cingulate sulcus, 119, 122, 125, 126 grooming behavior, 19, 24, 25, 28-30, 32, Anxiety, 8, 26 33, 34 Apes (see also Nonhuman primates; grunting, 26, 30-31 individual species) infanticide by males, 27-28, 29, 32, 35 brain size and development, 136, 148 longevity, 25, 129 consciousness, 52, 53, 54 male immigration challenges, 19, 27-28, empathy, 22, 34 29, 32, 33 future planning, 111 memory, 78 justice- and fairness-related behavior, personality style, 26-33 202, 203, 207, 210 playback experiments, 19, 30-33 memory, 81, 89, 90, 111 social bonds and reproductive success, ontogenetic neural development, 58 21, 24-27, 129 problem solving and insight, 90 social challenges, 27-33 social environment and cognition, study population, 35 148 Bajo, Ricardo, 283-303 Approach-avoidance decisions, 121, 130- Basal ganglia, 44, 63, 232, 239, 258, 268, 282 131, 155, 263, 264, 266, 267, 268-270, Bats, 101, 103 272, 274, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 Bauernfeind, Amy L., 135-152 Architectural contour Baze, Wallace B., 135-152 aesthetic appreciation, 155, 263-264, 267, Behavior (see also Social behavior) 268, 269-271, 272-277, 278, 280 approach-avoidance decisions, 263, 264, and approach-avoidance decisions, 155, 266, 267, 268-270, 272, 274, 277, 278, 263, 264, 266, 267, 268-270, 272, 274, 279, 280, 281 277, 278, 279, 280, 281 Behaviorism, 3, 4, 6, 11, 43 habitat theory, 266, 278

OCR for page 365
Index / 367 Bianchi, Serena, 135-152 Carruthers, Peter, 75-94 Binocular rivalry, 10 Caudate nucleus, 71, 124, 162, 239, 258 Biodiversity, defined, xiii Cela-Conde, Camilo J., 283-303 Birds (see also individual species) Cerebellum, 40, 61, 117 brain development, 53 Chalmers, David, 39 cognitive ability, 33, 50 Chang, Steve W. C., 115-133 consciousness, 40, 50-51, 53, 54, 56 Chatterjee, Anjan, 263-282 dorsal ventricular ridge, 102, 104, 109, Cheney, Dorothy L., 19-35 112 Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) episodic memory, 50, 58, 81, 87, 95, 98, affiliative behavior, 20, 23, 24-25, 33-34, 100, 101, 102, 103-104, 105, 106, 109, 127 110-112, 113 call convergence, 23 fitness, 33 cooperative interactions, 33-34 future planning, 110-111 cortical development vs human homologies with mammals, 50-51, 58, development, 58, 135-152 81, 87, 101, 102, 103-104, 105, 109, grooming, 24, 34, 127 112 justice/fairness-related behavior, 196, nidopallium caudolaterale, 102, 104, 197, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204-205, 207- 105, 109, 112 208, 209, 210 pallium (hippocampus), 49, 50, 51, 53, long-term planning by, 88-89 101, 102 memory, 77, 78, 88-89, 91-92 parahippocampalis, 101-102 mind-wandering, 91-92 pathological altruism, 173-174 mirror self-recognition test, 52 social behavior, 51, 123, 173-174 oxytocin levels, 24, 34, 127 social information processing, 123 pyramidal neuron dendritic theory of mind, 50 morphology, 142-145, 147-149, working memory, 81, 87 151-152 Black-capped chickadees, 98 synaptogenesis, 138-141, 146-147, Bonobos, 52, 148, 200, 202, 203 150-151 Brain (see also specific structures and regions) understanding of others’ psychological damage/lesions, 18, 40, 62-64, 65-66, 67, states, 20 70, 71, 103, 104, 107-108, 126, 167, Chukoskie, Leanne, 243-261 230, 275, 301 Clark, Robert E., 59-73 evolutionary theories, 41-42 Cleaner fish, 208 homologies across species, 68 Cognitive abilities and processes (see also neural connectivity, 54-55 Perception) size/volume, 55, 116 aesthetic appreciation, 155, 227-233, 241, triune brain, 42 264, 276, 283, 285-287, 292, 293, 294, Brainstem, 22, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 296, 299, 300-301, 302 51, 54, 56, 160-161 and altruism bias, 188 Brent, Lauren J. N., 115-133 assessment, 99 Brorson Fich, Lars, 263-282 consciousness and, 18, 39, 43, 48, 49, 52, Brosnan, Sarah F., 191-210 53-54 Buzsáki, György, 46 computational theories, 18 emotional arousal and, 163, 299 and fitness, 33 C intelligence, 63, 76, 83, 84, 85-86, 93, 179, 187, 213 Calcarine sulcus, 61, 274 interwindows analyses, 292 Callithrichids, 205 intuitive fast and rational slow Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), 23, 199, processes, 178, 185 201, 202, 205, 206, 207, 209

OCR for page 365
368  / Index and justice- and fairness-related emergence on evolutionary timeline, 45, behaviors in nonhuman primates, 46, 50-52, 56 194-195, 202, 208-209 emotional arousal and, 43-45, 48, 49, 51 memory and, 63, 76, 96, 99, 158, 163, epiphenomenalism, 3, 4, 11-12, 16 301-302 epistemic objectivity, 1, 3, 6-7, 11 motivation, 21, 27, 33-35, 63, 110, 170, evolutionary function, 16-18 225, 269, 278 external, 39, 41, 44, 55, 106, 245, 256, musical cognition, 225, 226, 227-233, 258, 300 236-237, 238, 239 false theories, 3, 4-6, 10-13 neocortical maturation and, 137, 146 human uniqueness, 46, 54-55 neural biology and processes, 40, 227- in hydranencephalic children, 51 233, 276, 283, 285-287, 292, 293, 294, integrated information theory of, 40-41, 296, 299, 300-301 54-55, 56 ontogeny, 148 intentional causation, 3, 9 and pathological altruism, 170, 173, 180, intentionality of actions, 3, 8-9 182 internal, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 52, 55, 99, pathologic alterations, 301-302 104, 108, 227, 245, 256, 258, 302 personality, 26-27, 28-29, 33, 63, 129, language and, 18, 49 130, 172, 177, 184, 186 levels of, 39 pleasure and reward processing, 225, materialism, 3, 5-6, 12, 13 238, 239 mind-body problem, 9-10, 46 social behavior and influences, 25, mirror self-recognition (MSR) test, 52, 34-35, 132-133, 236-237 53-54, 55 species differences, 45, 48-49, 53, 148 motility/motricity and, 44, 45, 46-47 and theory of mind, 20 neocortical view, 40-42, 51 Cognitive bias, 170, 173, 180, 182, 225 neural core of, 47-50, 54, 56 Cognitive science, 18 neurobiological structure and processes, Collins, Zachary, 135-152 9, 37, 38, 40 Coma, 16, 43 in nonhuman species, 45-47 Computationalism, 3, 4, 11, 18 objective/subjective argument, 1, 3, 5, Confirmation bias, 178-179 6-7, 8, 13, 38 Consciousness (see also Theory of mind) observer relativity, 6-7, 11 access, 18, 21, 38, 39, 49, 64, 78, 84-85, ontogeny, 51-52, 55 87, 232, 294 ontological subjectivity, 1, 3, 6-7, 8, 13, analysis of, 7-9 38 anesthesia model, 2, 37, 38, 40, 41, 47-50, phenomenal, 38, 39, 47, 54, 56 51, 56, 91 Phi metric, 41, 48 anterior-to-posterior connectivity and, phylogeny of, 37, 38, 47, 48, 50-52, 54 54-55 qualitativeness, 3, 5-6, 7-8, 9, 12, 13, 17, arousal (brain activation), 38, 39-40, 52 43-45, 47, 48, 49, 51, 56, 131, 299 readiness potential, 3, 4-5, 12-13 awareness and, 3, 7, 17, 21, 38, 39, 41, research techniques, 9-10 44-45, 47, 51, 72, 73, 96, 279, 301 responsiveness and, 39, 48, 116 behaviorism, 3, 4, 6, 11 self-awareness, 52-54, 56, 96, 111, 153 birds, 50, 53 sleep and, 7, 18, 39, 40, 41, 43, 48, 49, Cambridge Declaration, 37, 45, 46 51-52, 55 capacity for, 41-42, 45, 53, 54 sociobiology movement, 3, 14-16, 182 computationalism, 3, 4, 11, 18 unconscious mental state and, 7, 9, 18 contents of, 39, 40, 47 unity of conscious states, 3, 4, 7, 8, 17-18 Darwinian revolution and, 3, 4, 13-14 wakefulness and, 7, 10, 39, 40, 51, 243, definitions relevant to, 39 284, 299

OCR for page 365
Index / 369 Cooperation Douglas, Robert, 64 with conspecifics, 18, 116 Dreaming/dream state, 7, 39, 41, 55 direct reciprocity, 175, 176, 212, 213 Dualism, 3, 12, 13, 17 evolution of, 175-176, 212 Duka, Tetyana, 135-152 foraging, 116 group selection, 175, 176, 212 guardian systems, 169, 175-176 E indirect reciprocity, 154, 175, 176, 178, Electroencephalography, 48, 285 211-224 Elephants, 53, 149 inequity and, 193-194, 205-206, 208 Emotional arousal justice- and fairness-related behaviors animals, 43 and, 193-194, 205-206 brain areas activated, 22, 24, 43, 48, 49, kin selection and, 175, 212 240, 241 models, 213-214 and adrenal stress hormones, 160, 161, network reciprocity, 175 163-165 nonkin, 202 and consciousness, 43-45, 48, 49 Prisoner’s Dilemma framework, 212, grooming and, 24, 127 221 measure of, 234 public goods game, 154, 211, 214-224 and memory, 51, 153, 154, 157, 158-159, punishment and, 121, 208 160, 161, 163-165, 168 reputational concerns and, 130, 154, motoric behavior and, 45 176, 203-204, 210-215, 217-218, music and, 154, 234, 240, 241 219-222 oxytocin and, 22, 24, 127-128 reward and, 121 primordial/primitive, 43, 44, 48, 49 social norms and, 213-214 reward and, 22, 24, 234, 241, 268, 272, species-specific approaches, 205-206 275 social relationship and, 202, 204 trust, 22, 119, 127-128 Cornu ammonis (CA), 67, 69, 70, 101, 102, Empathy (see also Altruism) 104, 105, 107, 108 affiliative social bonds, 1, 20-21, 23, Corpus callosum, 8 24-33, 34, 35-36, 192 Corticocortical network, 41 allegiance bias, 170, 178, 188 Corticosterone, 157, 160, 161 baboons, 1, 20-21, 23, 24-33, 34, 35-36 Cortisol, 23, 128, 160, 161, 163, 164 brain activity, 22, 23 Corvidae, 53, 87, 88, 89, 98 and cooperation, 173 Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus), 24, emotional distancing, 179 201, 236 episodic memory and, 111 gaze direction and, 20 mimicry and, 22, 23, 24, 25, 34 D oxytocin and, 24, 177 Darwin, Charles, xv, xvi, 38, 43-44, 45, 60, pathological/misplaced, 170, 172-173, 61 177-178, 188 del-Pozo, Francisco, 283-303 reflective, 19, 20, 21-23, 34 Dentate gyrus, 62, 67, 69-70, 101, 102, 104 reflexive, 1, 19, 20-24, 34, 118, 121 Descartes, René, 5, 46 reward value, 23, 24 Diencephalon, 43, 50, 54, 56 and reproductive success, 21 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv understanding of others’ psychological Dogs, 81, 207 states, 20 Dolphins, 24-25, 53 Entorhinal cortex, 62, 67, 68-69, 70, 101, 102, Dopamine and dopaminergic system, 22, 103, 104, 105, 106 154, 225, 233, 234-235, 238, 240, 241, Epinephrine, 157, 160, 161, 163, 164 258, 268-269 Epiphenomenalism, 3, 4, 11-12, 16

OCR for page 365
370  / Index Episodic memory Foraging behavior in animals, 50, 81, 86, 87, 91, 95, 96-100, Charnov’s Marginal Value Theorem, 119 109-112 cooperative, 117 behavioral tests, 97-100, 107-108 economic models, 244 Bischof-Köhler hypothesis, 110 Herrnstein’s matching law, 257 brain structures important for, 100-106 and human search performance, 154, capacity across species, 95, 96-100 244, 246-247, 248, 255-256 and declarative memory, 110 information foraging, 119-121, 243, 244 emergency in evolution of, 112-114 Lévy flights, 255-256 events-in-context approach, 97-100, 107- matching behavior, 257 108, 112 memory and, 247 functions across species, 109-112 modeling, 247 future planning function, 110-111 neural correlates, 119, 257-258 hippocampus and, 101-103 nonsocial functions, 118, 119 homologous structures, 95, 96, 101-102, social functions, 118 104, 105, 106, 109, 112 theory, 117, 119 integrating event and context, 107-108 Forebrain, 42, 43, 116, 122 neural organization and processes, 81, Frontal lobes, 48, 54, 55, 76, 81, 126, 148, 101-109, 104-105 225, 228, 229, 231, 232, 235, 238, 239, parahippocampal region and, 103-105 240, 284, 286, 291, 293-294, 295-296, and predictions to support adaptive 297 behavior, 109-110 Frontoparietal network, 41 prefrontal cortex and, 100-101, 102, 104, Frontopolar cortex, 272-273 105, 106, 108-109, 112 Fortin, Norbert J., 95-114 processing events and context, 106-107 Functional magnetic resonance imaging recall and response selection, 108 (fMRI), 10 receiver operating characteristics aesthetic appreciation, 263, 267-268, 269, approach, 97, 100 272, 280-281, 286, 300, 302-303 and social relationship and network emotional arousal, 49, 164-165, 235, building, 111 237-238 spatial context, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 107, music reward value, 235, 237-238 109, 112-113 species-specific uses, 111-112 subjective measures of recall, 96-97 G what-when (temporal context), 99-100, Galago, 55 107-108, 112 García-Prieto, Juan, 283-303 what-where, 99, 107, 112 Gaze (see also Target location) what-where-when, 98-99, 112 aversion, 118, 121 working memory and, 76-77, 78, 81, 86, brain areas activated, 21, 122 87, 91 direction and duration, 31, 118, 121 Epistemic objectivity, 1, 3, 6-7, 11 and empathy, 20, 21-22 following, 118, 123-124, 128 neural circuits, 118, 123-124 F perception and response, 20, 21-22, 118, Face identification/recognition, 22, 77, 86, 123-124 117, 123, 130-131, 213 social status and, 121 Fairness-related behaviors (see Inequity; threat response, 118 Justice- and fairness-related Globus pallidus, 272, 273 behaviors ) Glucocorticoid (GC) levels, 27-28, 29-30, Feynman, Richard, 169 32, 161 Flexas, Albert, 283-303 Gordon, Kate, 265-266

OCR for page 365
Index / 371 Gorillas, 52-53, 148, 200, 203, 208 gene pool, 14 Guth, Werner, 195 imitation, 22, 23 infant memory, 81, 87, 121 learning by memorization, 63 H mirror self-recognition by children, 53 ontogeny of consciousness, 51-52 Habit learning, 63 Owen’s reclassification, 57, 60-61, 62 Haeckel’s theory of recapitulation, 38 pyramidal neuron dendritic Haidt, Jonathan, 172 morphology, 142-145, 147-149, Haig, David, 213 151-152 Hildebrand, Grant, 266 social bonds and reproductive success, Hippocampus 24-25 and aesthetic appreciation, 284-285 synaptogenesis, 138-141, 146-147, anatomy, 67-69, 70, 101-103 150-151 associative structures, 103-105, 112, 113, visual recognition test for infants, 66-67 162 Hummingbirds, 111-112 and behavior, 64 Huxley, Thomas Henry, 61-62 and consciousness, 40 Hydranencephaly, 51 damage effects, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 103, Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) 107-108 axis, 119, 128 and declarative memory, 62-64, 66, 67, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) 71, 87, 110, 165 axis, 110, 128-129 and emotional arousal, 164, 165, 240 Hypothalamus, 48, 51, 240 and episodic memory, 100, 101-103, 104, 106-109, 110, 112-113 homologies across species, 101-103 I neural circuitry, 101 place cells, 92, 101 Imagination, 17, 22, 77, 79, 81, 86-88, 89, 90, and prospection capacity, 87 91, 92, 110-111, 232-233, 241, 300 sensory processing, 69, 70 Imitation/mimicry, 22, 23, 24, 25, 34, 116 and spatial memory, 70, 101, 103, 112- Incest taboo, 3, 14-16 113, 162 Inequity species comparisons, 59-73, 92, 101-109, and contrast effects, 208-209 112-113 and cooperation, 193-194, 205-206, 208 and visual discrimination, 164 evolutionary function of, 193 and working memory, 87, 92 in experimenter interactions, 206-207 Hippocampus minor, 57, 59, 60-62 interaction with other behaviors, Hof, Patrick R., 135-152 208-209 Hoffman, Moshe, 211-224 procedural, 209-210 Homo erectus, 116 and punishment, 208 Homo habilis, 116 recognition of, 209 Hopkins, William D., 135-152 research needs, 209-210 Horses, 24-25, 82 in social interactions, 207-208 Humans (Homo sapiens) Inferior parietal lobule, 21, 284-285 comparative neuroanatomy, 60-62, 68, Insular cortex, 123, 132 135-152 Intelligence, 63, 76, 83, 84, 85-86, 93, 179, cooperative interactions, 33-34 187, 213 cortical development vs chimpanzee Intentional behavior, 21 development, 58, 135-152 Intentional causation, 3, 9 nondeclarative learning, 70, 71, 72-73 Intentionality of actions, 3, 8-9 empathy, 21, 22, 23, 33-34 Interoceptive systems, 44, 125, 268, 296 gaze following, 21, 22 Ioannidis, John, 187

OCR for page 365
372  / Index J social, 58, 117, 118, 119, 120, 124, 135, 146-147, 149, 237 Jacobs, Bob, 135-152 spatial, 101, 162, 244, 245, 252 James, William, 159, 165 synapse and neuronal maturation time Janssen, William G. M., 135-152 and, 135, 146-147 Jays, 53, 98, 110, 111 target location, 154, 243-244, 247, Justice- and fairness-related behaviors (see 248-266 also Inequity) trial-and-error, 72-73 and cooperation, 193-194, 205-206 working memory and, 75, 83, 85, 90 evolution of, 192, 193, 210 Leder, Helmut, 263-282 and fitness, 192 Limbic system, 44, 125, 240 game theory applied to, 194-208 Lingual gyrus, 274 Impunity Game, 197-204 Lipovich, Leonard, 135-152 in nonhuman primates, 191-210 Llinás, Rudolfo, 46 prosocial games, 204-205 Locus coeruleus, 48, 160-161 reputation and, 192, 203-204, 210 Long-tailed macaques, 205 species-specific approaches in Lyell, Charles, 61-62 cooperation context, 195, 205-206 Ultimatum Game, 195-197 M K Maestú, Fernando, 283-303 Magpies, 53, 98 Klein, Jeffrey T., 115-133 Marmoset, 201, 230, 236 Krauzlis, Richard J., 243-261 Mashour, George A., 37-56 Kuhn, Thomas, 172 Materialism, 3, 5-6, 12, 13 Kuzawa, Christopher W., 135-152 McArthur, Mark J., 135-152 McGaugh, James L., 157-168 Meadow voles, 98, 111 L Medial entorhinal cortex, 70, 103, 104, 105, Lamprey, 44 106 Language, 7, 18, 49, 58, 111, 123, 135, 136, Medial temporal lobes, 40, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 192, 213 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 161 Larsen, Michael D., 135-152 Medial temporal polar cortex, 62 Lateral intraparietal (LIP) area, 118, 122, Memory (see also Episodic memory; 124, 257, 258 Working memory) Learned negative associations, 23 adrenal stress hormones and, 157, 160, Learning 161, 163-165 concurrent discrimination, 71, 72 amygdala and, 62, 65-66, 67, 153, 157, emotional arousal and, 158, 164-165 160-163, 164-165, 167 epigenetic changes and, 133 animal models of amnesia, 59, 60, 64, episodic memory and, 94, 107, 166-167 65-67, 70-73, 158 habit learning, 63 in animals, 64, 65-67, 70-73, 158 memory and, 63, 66, 71, 158, 159, 161, baboon, 30-31 163, 164-165, 167 and cognitive functions, 63 mnemonic tricks, 167 consciousness and, 17-18 and motor effort, 247 consolidation, 92, 157, 159-162, 163, 164, one-trial, 94 165, 167, 258, 292 reward and, 118, 119, 120, 124 cross-species comparison, 62, 63-64, reinforcement-learning model, 154, 243- 70-73 244, 247, 249-255, 294 delayed matching to sample task, 65 statistical, 231, 238 delayed nonmatching to sample task, 65-67

OCR for page 365
Index / 373 dual-trace hypothesis of formation, 159 Morality emotional arousal and, 51, 153, 154, 157, and aesthetic appreciation, 285, 294, 298 158-159, 160, 161, 163-165, 168 and altruism bias, 186-187 exceptional human memory, 157, incest taboo and, 3, 15-16 165-167 and pathological altruism, 172, 178, 182, highly superior autobiographical, 153, 185, 186 157, 166-168 sociobiology and, 14 hippocampus and, 62-67, 71 Mormyrid fish, 117 impairment, 59, 62-64, 65-66, 67, 70, Mossy fiber connections, 70, 101 71, 73, 103, 159, 161, 162, 167, Motivation, 21, 27, 33-35, 63, 110, 170, 225, 301-302 269, 278 long-term declarative, 17-18, 51, 59, 62, Motor cortex/regions, 4-5, 12, 22, 90, 105, 63, 64, 67-70, 71, 76-77, 87-88, 110, 108, 136, 137, 138, 140, 143, 149, 232, 157, 159, 163, 165 269, 278 modern research, 62-64 Mozer, Michael C., 243-261 monkeys, 63, 64-66, 78, 81 Munar, Enric, 283-303 multiple systems and network Munchausen by Internet, 185-186 structure, 63, 64-67, 73, 110 Music neural organization, 62-70, 157, 162-163 emotional arousal, 154, 234, 240, 241 nondeclarative, 64-65, 70, 71, 72-73, 110 neurobiology of cognitive novel object recognition task, 67 representations, 154, 227-233 playback experiments, 30-31 origins, 226-227 for rewards, 160 and pleasure, 234-240 rodents, 63, 64, 66-67, 78 reward value and neurobiology and, serial position, 78 225, 227, 233, 235, 236, 237-238, 239, short-term, 63, 78 240 spatial, 70, 78, 84-86, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 107, 109, 112-113 unusual, 168-169 N visual discrimination tasks, 63, 65, 66-67 Nadal, Marcos, 263-282 visual recognition, 65, 66-67 Navarrete, Gorka, 263-282 Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 46 Neocortex Mice, 67, 84, 85-86, 98, 159 associative, 51, 102, 103 Midbrain, 22, 40, 42, 43, 44, 51, 238, 268-269 avian pallium compared, 49, 50, 51, 102 Middle frontal gyrus, 272, 273, 276 and consciousness, 40-42, 49, 51 Middle occipital gyrus, 272, 273, 276 evolution of, 42 Milner, Brenda, 62 Hebbian cell assembly requirements, 50 Mind-body problem, 9-10, 46 mammalian structure, 50, 51 Mind wandering, 91-92, 299, 300 and memory, 102, 104, 106, 108-109 Mirasso, Claudio R., 283-303 synaptogenesis and neuronal Mirror self-recognition (MSR) test, 52, arborization, 135-152 53-54, 55 Neural plasticity, 58, 136, 147, 148, 149, 162, Modroño, Cristián, 263-282 163 Monkeys (see Nonhuman primates; NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery, 100 individual species) Nonhuman primates (see also Baboons; Moral Chimpanzees; Rhesus macaques; disgust, 123, 185 other individual species) heuristics, 178, 186 comparative neuroanatomy, 60-62, 101, intuition, 185, 294 105 judgment, 185, 285, 298 empathy, 23, 24 reasoning, 185, 298 evolutionary perspective on social righteousness, 185 behavior, 116-120

OCR for page 365
374  / Index grooming, 19, 24, 25, 28-30, 32, 33, 34, Parietal cortex, 41, 48, 55, 70, 92, 148, 228, 116, 123, 127, 129, 131, 132, 146 229, 284-285, 288, 289, 291, 292, 295, hippocampus form and function, 59-73, 296, 297 101 Pathological altruism memory, 59-73, 80, 81-82, 98, 100, 101, codependency and, 171, 177, 179, 186 105, 107 confirmation bias, 178-179, 180 neuroethology of social behavior, defined, 170-171 115-133 empathy and, 178 self-awareness, 52-53 evolutionary considerations, 172-176 social bonds, 1 federal budgetary policies, 181-182, 183 justice- and fairness-related behaviors, foreign aid, 181 154, 191-210 home ownership programs, 180-181 tool use, 88-89, 111, 137, 146-147, 148 implications, 171-172, 176-180 Norepinephrine, 157, 161, 162, 165 motivation and, 172 Nowak Martin A., 211-224 narcissism and, 171, 181, 184, 186 Nucleus accumbens, 124, 154, 225, 238, personal-scale studies, 173, 185-186 268-269 policy aspects, 173, 180-183 teen pregnancy prevention, 180 unscientific approaches to helping, O 182-183 Pearson, John M., 115-133 Oakley, Barbara A., 169-189 Perception Observer relativity, 6-7, 11 aesthetic, 155, 241, 264, 285-286, 300-301, Ontogeny 302 cognitive abilities, 148 and altruism bias, 186 consciousness, 48, 51-52, 55 brain regions, 105, 122, 124 neural, 51, 58, 137, 138, 146, 149 and consciousness, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 44, sensory development in utero, 51 54-55 social, 201 of gaze, 118, 122, 124 theory of REM sleep, 51-52 of inequity/inequality, 154 Ontological subjectivity, 1, 3, 6-7, 8, 13 memory and, 63, 91 n.2 Orangutans, 52, 148, 200, 202, 203 mind-wandering, 300 Orbitofrontal cortex, 118, 122, 124-126, 155, musical, 154, 225-241 268, 275, 278, 288, 293, 294, 296, 302 neural substrates, 105, 122, 124, 230, Owen, Richard, 57, 60-61, 62 231, 232, 238, 241, 264, 284 Owl monkey, 201 nonconscious feedback mechanisms, 18 Oxytocin, 22, 24, 34, 117, 119, 126, 127-128, phenomenological experience of, 232 177 and pleasure/reward, 225-241, 268 visual, 16, 91 n.2, 155, 264, 300-301 Perforant pathway, 68, 70 P Perirhinal cortex, 62-63, 67, 68-69, 70, 102, Parahippocampal cortex 103, 104, 106 and aesthetic appreciation, 272, 273, 276 Personality, 26-27, 28-29, 33, 63, 129, 130, damage effects, 70 172, 177, 184, 186 and declarative memory, 67, 68-69 Pigs, 98, 101 and episodic memory, 100, 102, 103-105, Platt, Michael L., 115-133 106-109, 112 Positron emission tomography, 47, 49, 51, spatial memory, 70 165, 234, 235, 284 species homologies, 58, 69, 81, 102, 104, Posterior parietal cortex, 55 105, 112 Posterior superior sulcus, 118, 122, 123-124 Paramecium, 46, 47 Postrhinal cortex, 67, 68, 69, 102, 103, 104, 106

OCR for page 365
Index / 375 Posttraumatic stress disorder, 165, 182 episodic memory, 98, 99, 103, 107-106 Precuneus, 272, 273, 276, 284, 299 maternal behavior, 127 Prefrontal cortex reward neurobiology, 233 and aesthetic appreciation, 237, 239, 299 spatial memory/learning, 101, 162 avian nidopallium caudolaterale, 53, working memory, 84, 87, 92 102, 105 Readiness potential, 3, 4-5, 12-13 and cognitive abilities, 53, 56, 149 Reproductive success cross-species comparisons, 55, 56, 105, episodic memory and, 109 137 problem-solving ability in birds and, 33 empathy response, 22 personality and, 26-27 executive functions, 239 social bonds and, 1, 19, 21, 24-25, 26, 27, humans, 55, 56, 102, 135, 137, 138, 146, 28, 34, 115, 116, 119, 129, 132, 133, 147 192, 212 maturation, 137, 138-139, 141, 142, 146, Reptiles, 50, 51, 101, 106, 113, 114 147-149 Reward memory-related activity, 80, 91, 92, 100- aesthetic appreciation, 236-237, 241, 264, 101, 102, 104, 105, 106, 108-109, 112, 268, 272, 275, 278, 284, 294, 296 239 cooperation and, 121 neuronal arborization, 135, 137, 142, emotional arousal and, 22, 24, 234, 241, 146, 147-149 268, 272, 275 nonhuman primates, 102, 135, 137, 138, and empathy, 23, 24 139, 141, 142, 146, 147-149 imitation and, 23 rat, 102 learned negative associations, 23 synaptogenesis, 138, 139, 141, 146, 147 and learning, 118, 119, 120, 124 Premotor cortex, 90, 231-232 memory for, 160 Prestriate visual cortex, 136, 138, 140, 141, music value, 225, 227, 233, 235, 236, 237- 143 238, 239, 240 Primates (see Humans; Nonhuman neural substrates, 22, 23, 24, 118, 119, primates; individual species) 123, 124-126, 225, 227, 236, 238, 239, Propranolol, 160, 161, 164, 165 240, 268, 275, 284, 294, 296 Prospection capacity, 57, 75, 86, 87, 91, 93 perception and, 225-241, 268 Pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology, pleasure and, 227, 238, 240, 284 142-145, 147-149, 151-152 prediction, 238, 239, 240, 241 sensory processing, 268, 275 and social behavior, 118, 119, 123, 124- Q 126, 131, 233 and target location, 243, 244, 245, 246, Qualitativeness, 3, 5-6, 7-8, 9, 12, 13, 17, 52 247, 248, 251-252, 253, 254, 256, 258, 259 Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) R brain structures and functions, 20, 55, Ramasco, José J., 283-303 58, 122, 124, 257-258 Ramón y Cajal, Santiago, 187 empathy in, 20, 21, 23, 24, 33 Rand, David G., 211-224 gaze direction/perception, 20, 21, 121, Rats 122, 124, 130-131 brain size and anatomy, 55, 67, 68, 69, genetic regulation of social behavior, 102 129, 130-131, 132 consolidation of memory, 159, 160, 161 justice/fairness-related behavior, 201, declarative memory/amnesia model, 202, 203, 207-208 63-64, 66, 67, 69, 73, 92, 102, 159 memory, 81-82 empathy in, 24 mimicry, 21 mirror self-recognition, 53

OCR for page 365
376  / Index neuroethology of behaviors, 121, 122, reward processing, 268, 275 124, 127, 129, 130-131, 132, 133 short-term memory, 77, 78, 79-80, 81, 86 neuronal arborization, 58, 135-136, 137, and working memory, 76-77, 79, 91 n.2 138, 147, 148 Serotonin, 120, 130, 132 oxytocin effects, 127 Seyfarth, Robert M., 19-35 prefrontal cortex, 58, 147 Sherwood, Chet C., 135-152 social behaviors, 33, 121, 127, 129, 130- Skov, Martin, 263-282 131, 132, 133 Sleep, 7, 18, 39, 40, 41, 43, 48, 49, 55 synaptogenesis, 135, 136, 146 ontogenetic theory of REM sleep, 51-52 testosterone effects, 129 Snider, Joseph, 243-261 visual search behavior and foraging, Social behavior (see also Cooperation; 257-259 Justice- and fairness-related Rodents (see also Mice; Rats; other species) behaviors) consciousness, 55-56 affiliative relationships, 1, 20-21, 23, hippocampal form and function, 60, 62 24-33, 34, 35-36, 117, 119, 127, 132 memory, 62, 67, 78, 87, 91, 92, 96, 98, 99, aggression, selective, 26, 30, 88, 111, 119, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 111 120, 121, 127, 129, 207 social bonds and fitness, 24-25 and brain volume, 116 social processing, 121, 123 challenge hypothesis, 129 Rostrup, Nicolai, 263-282 chameleon effect, 22-23 Composite Sociality Index, 25, 27 competitive interactions, 116, 132, 208, S 212 complex social interactions, 125-126 Sackler, Arthur M., vii-viii. See also Arthur courtship and mating behavior, 116, M. Sackler Colloquium 126, 129 Sackler, Jillian, vii, viii distress response, 23-24 Salimpoor, Valorie N., 225-241 dominance status and, 25-26, 30, 116, Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway, 121, 126, 130-131, 199, 205 70, 101 episodic memory and, 111 Schapiro, Steven J., 135-152 empathy and, 1, 20-21, 23, 24-33, 34, Scoville, William Beecher, 62, 63 35-36 Scrub jays, 98, 110, 111 evolutionary perspective, 116-117 Sea squirt, 46-47 face identification/recognition and, 22, Searle, John, 3-18 77, 86, 117, 121, 123, 130-131, 213 Seizures, 41, 62, 63 foraging and, 116, 117, 118, 119-121, Sejnowski, Terrence J., 243-261 132-133 Self-awareness, xvi, 52-54, 56, 96, 111, 153 gaze direction/perception, 20, 21-22, Self-reflection, xvi, 46 118, 121, 122-124, 128, 243, 244, 245- Sensory cortices and pathways 246, 248, 259-260 aesthetic appreciation, 275, 294 generosity, 119, 127 consciousness and, 17, 41, 44, 45, 46-47 genetic regulation, 129-132 dendritic arborization, 137 grooming, 19, 24, 25, 28-30, 32, 33, 34, gaze following, 123-124 116, 123, 127, 129, 131, 132, 146, 233 information processing and, 41, 44, 106, group size effects, 116, 174-175 123 homologous neural mechanisms, motor inputs and outputs, 45, 46-47, 116-117 126, 137, 138 image category, 118 neural pathways, 69-70, 103, 106, 108- imitation/mimicry and, 22, 23, 24, 25, 109, 123, 138 34, 116 ontogeny in humans, 51-52 information seeking/processing, 119- REM sleep and, 51-52 121, 124, 130, 132-133

OCR for page 365
Index / 377 integration in social networks, 120, 130 Synaptogenesis, chimpanzee vs. human, intraspecific variation, 115 138-141, 146-147, 150-151 and longevity, 25, 129 network/group size and, 118, 125-126, 133 T neural correlates, 118-120, 122-126 Target location by humans (see also Gaze) neuroethology of primate behavior, bimodal distribution of saccade lengths, 115-133 255 neuromodulators, 22, 24, 34, 117, 119, ideal-observer theory, 247, 249, 250-251, 126-129, 130, 132, 177 253, 256, 257 nonsocial behaviors paralleled with, learning where to look, 248-249 115, 117-121, 123, 133 in natural environments, 256-257 oxytocin and, 22, 24, 34, 117, 119, 126, neural basis of search, 257-258 127-128, 177 prior experience and saccade choice, parental care, 117, 119, 127, 202, 205 154-155, 244-245, 252, 254-255 Partner Stability Index, 25 reinforcement-learning model, 154, 247, postnatal development, 137-138, 146 249-255 punishment and, 208 reward and, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, and reproductive success, 1, 19, 21, 251-252, 253, 254, 256, 258, 259 24-25, 26, 27, 28, 34, 115, 116, 119, Teleost fish, 101, 106, 112 129, 132, 133, 192, 212 Temporal lobes, 69, 117, 228, 229, 294 (see reward and, 118, 119, 123, 124-126, 131 also Medial temporal lobe) salience and, 119, 240, 244, 245, 264, 268 Temporoammonic pathway, 70 same-sex, 24-25 Testosterone, 34, 129 social status and, 119, 128, 129 Thalamocortical system, 40-41, 51, 53 value associated with space, 118 Thalamus, 48, 51 Social learning, 58, 117, 135, 146-147 Theory of the mind (see also Consciousness) Sociobiology movement, 3, 14-16, 182 avian, 50 Somatosensory cortex, 136, 138, 140, 143, Darwinian revolution and, 3, 4, 13-14 149, 228 episodic memory and, 111 Soul, 5, 6 evolution of, 19-35 Spatial (see also Target location) false theories, 3, 4-6, 10-13 attention, 124 reflexive empathy and, 1, 19, 20-24, 34 foraging task, 257 selective factors, 20-21 learning/learned associations, 101, 162, 244, 245, 252 memory, 70, 78, 84-86, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 107, 109, 112-113, 162 U navigation, 264 Unconsciousness, 7 orienting, 118 neurobiological processes, 9 selection, 212 nonconscious neurobiological processes Squire, Larry R., 59-73 distinguished from, 18 Squirrel monkey, 201, 202, 209 vegetative states, 39 Stimpson, Cheryl D., 135-152 Striatum, 107, 118, 122, 124, 234, 235, 239, 240-241 V Subicular complex/subiculum, 62, 69, 70, 102, 104 Vartanian, Oshin, 263-282 Superior frontal gyrus, 272, 273, 276 Vasopressin, 119, 127 Superior temporal sulcus (STS), 21, 122, Vegetative state, 39 123-124 Vestibular ocular reflex, 16

OCR for page 365
378  / Index Visual frequency of use, 80, 90-92 aesthetic experiences, 155, 241, 264, 274, in humans, 76-79, 81, 83 276, 278, 282, 284, 285-286, 294, 300, imagination and, 79, 86-88, 89 302 and inner speech, xvi, 77, 80, 92-93 cortex, 136, 138, 140, 141, 143, 278, 294 and intelligence, 76, 83, 84, 85-86, 93 discrimination tasks, 63, 164 item limit, 76, 79, 81-83 imagination, 77 and learning, 57 memory, 65, 66-67, 70, 229, 245-246 and long-term declarative memory, 76, navigation, 277 78, 87 paired-comparison task, 66-67 long-term WM, 78-79, 80, 84, 85 perception, 264, 278 manipulative component, 79, 80, 89-90 processing, 9, 16, 44, 47, 70, 286-287 match-to-sample or non–match-to- search, 244, 245, 247, 248-255, 256, 257 sample tasks, 80, 81 rotation paradigm, 89-90 mental rehearsal of activities, 63, 76, 77, synaptogenesis and neuron dendritic 79-80, 82, 86-87, 88-89, 90, 92, 93 morphology, 136, 138, 140, 141, 143 mind wandering, 91-92 and motor processes, 77, 90 musical information in, 225, 229, 239, W 240 n-back tasks, 83 Wakefulness, 7, 10, 39, 40, 51, 243, 284, 299 neural organization, 76-77, 80-81, 105, Washburn, Sherwood, 14 229 Watson, John B., 6 object-displacement tests, 81 Watson, Karli K., 115-133 prospection capacity, 57, 75, 86, 87, 91, Wildman, Derek E., 135-152 93 Wilson, E. O., 14-16 radial-arm maze tests, 78, 80, 84-85, 87 Working memory resistance to interference, 78, 79, 84-86 and aesthetic appreciation, 285 and sensory short-term representations, in animals compared to humans, 78, 77, 79, 80, 81 79-93 serial recall tests, 81-82 attention dependence, 76-78, 79, 81, 86, span tasks, 83 87, 88, 91, 93 behavioral and conceptual resources, 92-93 Y capacity to refresh and sustain, 79, 80-81, 85, 86 Yawning, contagious, 22-23 comparative psychology, 79-93 Yellow-bellied marmots, 128 components, 76-77 Yoeli, Erez, 211-224 and consciousness, 76 as default network, 80, 91-92 and episodic memory, 76-77, 81, 86, 87, Z 91, 96, 105 Zatorre, Robert J., 225-241 evolution of, 75-94