B

Committee Biosketches

Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A. (Chair), is a professor in the Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott-Conner received her undergraduate training in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked as an engineer before attending medical school at New York University (NYU). She received her M.D. from NYU in 1976 and completed a residency in surgery there at 1981. After leaving NYU, she joined the faculty at Marshall University and then moved to the University of Mississippi. During her tenure there, she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky and an M.B.A. In 1995, she became professor and head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards and has written more than 200 original papers, abstracts, reviews, and book chapters. She is certified by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Surgery and has a certification of added qualifications in surgical critical care. Dr. Scott-Conner has served on a number of Institute of Medicine (IOM) committees, and she chairs the IOM Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments.

Daniel R. Masys, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is an affiliate professor of biomedical and health informatics at the University of Washington School of Medicine, joining the Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education in 2011. Previously, he served as professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics and professor of medicine at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Ohio State University College of Medicine, he completed postgraduate training in internal medicine, hematology, and medi-



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B Committee Biosketches Carol E. H. Scott-Conner, M.D., Ph.D., M.B.A. (Chair), is a professor in the Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City. Dr. Scott- Conner received her undergraduate training in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked as an engi- neer before attending medical school at New York University (NYU). She received her M.D. from NYU in 1976 and completed a residency in surgery there at 1981. After leaving NYU, she joined the faculty at Marshall University and then moved to the University of Mississippi. During her tenure there, she earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Kentucky and an M.B.A. In 1995, she became professor and head of surgery at the University of Iowa. Dr. Scott-Conner has been active on 22 editorial boards and has written more than 200 original papers, ab- stracts, reviews, and book chapters. She is certified by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the American Board of Surgery and has a certification of added qualifications in surgical critical care. Dr. Scott- Conner has served on a number of Institute of Medicine (IOM) committees, and she chairs the IOM Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments. Daniel R. Masys, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is an affiliate professor of biomed- ical and health informatics at the University of Washington School of Medicine, joining the Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medi- cal Education in 2011. Previously, he served as professor and chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics and professor of medicine at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. An honors graduate of Princeton University and the Ohio State University College of Medicine, he com- pleted postgraduate training in internal medicine, hematology, and medi- 45

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46 REVIEW OF NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS cal oncology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and the Naval Regional Medical Center, San Diego. He served as chief of the International Cancer Research Data Bank of the National Cancer Insti- tute, National Institutes of Health, and was director of the Lister Hill Na- tional Center for Biomedical Communications, which is a computer research and development division of the National Library of Medicine. He also served as director of Biomedical Informatics at the UCSD School of Medicine, director of the UCSD Human Research Protections Program, and professor of medicine. Dr. Masys is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). He is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine in medicine, hematology, and medical oncol- ogy. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and fellow and past president of the American College of Medical Informatics. Dr. Masys served as a member of the IOM Committee on Aerospace Medi- cine and Medicine of Extreme Environments and chaired the 2008 IOM review of NASA’s Human Research Program evidence books. Susan A. Bloomfield, Ph.D., earned her B.S. in biology at Oberlin Col- lege (Ohio) and her M.A. in physical education (exercise physiology) at the University of Iowa. After completing a Ph.D. (exercise physiology) at Ohio State University, Dr. Bloomfield joined the faculty in the De- partment of Health & Kinesiology at Texas A&M University in 1993, where she currently holds the rank of professor and is director of the Bone Biology Laboratory. In addition, she serves as assistant provost in the Texas A&M Office of Graduate and Professional Studies. Her re- search interests focus on the integrative physiology of bone, with specific reference to adaptations to disuse, microgravity, and caloric deficiency and how the sympathetic nervous system, altered blood flow, and endo- crine factors modify those adaptations. More recent work has focused on the independent and combined effects of partial weight bearing and simulated space radiation on the integrity of bone and muscle, involving several experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Collaborations with muscle biologists have enabled definition of concurrent changes in muscle-bone pairs with disuse and/or radiation exposure. Her work has been funded by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the Department of Defense, and, currently, NASA’s Space Bi- ology Program. From 2000 to 2012, Dr. Bloomfield served as the associ- ate lead for the Bone Loss (later, Musculoskeletal Alterations) Team within the NSBRI, and she has served on numerous NASA and European Space Agency review panels during the past 14 years. She is a member

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APPENDIX B 47 of the Texas A&M Department of Nutrition & Food Sciences graduate faculty and is an associate member of the Texas A&M University Health Sciences Center School of Graduate Studies. Karen S. Cook, Ph.D., is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociolo- gy, director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, and vice provost of the Faculty Development and Diversity Office at Stanford University. She conducts research on social interaction, social networks, and trust. She has edited and coedited a number of books in the Russell Sage Foundation Trust Series, including Trust in Society (2001); Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives; eTrust: Forming Relationships in the Online World; and Whom Can We Trust? She is co- author of Cooperation Without Trust?, and she co-edited Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. In 1996 she was elected to the Amer- ican Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2007 to the National Acade- my of Sciences. In 2004 she received the Cooley-Mead Award from the American Sociological Association’s Social Psychology Section for ca- reer contributions to social psychology. Eleanor A. O’Rangers, Pharm.D., is president, chief executive officer, and co-founder of Space Medicine Associates, LLC, which provides multidisciplinary space medicine and bioastronautics consultation, train- ing, and oversight for both the commercial launch industry and the per- sonal space traveler. Dr. O’Rangers has worked in the pharmaceutical industry as a medical director for a major pharmaceutical brand and also served as a field-based scientist. Currently, she consults for the pharma- ceutical industry primarily on cardiometabolic drug development. A clin- ical pharmacist by training, with a subspecialization in cardiovascular pharmacology, Dr. O’Rangers maintains an active interest in microgravi- ty pharmacokinetics/dynamics and has lectured and published on the subject. She has served as a pharmacology member of the Nutrition and Clinical Care Integrated Projects Team at the NASA–Johnson Space Center, whose mission is to provide a nonagency perspective on pharma- cology and nutrition research needs for the U.S. manned spaceflight pro- gram. She was involved in the development of monographs for space shuttle and ISS medications. In addition, Dr. O’Rangers serves as the sole civilian pharmacist specialist for the Curriculum and Examination Board, U.S. Special Operations Command, Department of Defense. She has also organized a number of space medicine program tracks and space

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48 REVIEW OF NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS medical emergency simulations for the National Space Society’s Interna- tional Space Development Conference. James A. Pawelczyk, Ph.D., is associate professor of physiology, kine- siology, and medicine at The Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Pawelczyk served as a payload specialist on STS-90 Neurolab (April 17 to May 3, 1998); the experiments on-board the space shuttle Columbia flight focused on the effects of microgravity on the brain and nervous system. Dr. Pawelczyk is a former member of the NASA Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee, Office of Biological and Physical Research, and he served as a member of NASA’s ReMaP Task Force in 2002, which was charged with reprioritizing research on the space station. Dr. Pawelczyk’s research areas include central neural control of the cardio- vascular system and compensatory mechanisms to conditioning and de- conditioning. He received his M.S. physiology from The Pennsylvania State University and his Ph.D. in biology (physiology) from the Univer- sity of North Texas. He chaired the National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space: Integra- tive and Translational Research for the Human System Panel and chaired an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on NASA’s directed research pro- grams in 2012. He has served on several NRC and IOM committees and recently completed rotations on the IOM’s Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments and the NRC’s Space Studies Board. Robert L. Satcher, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., earned a Ph.D. in chemical engi- neering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993 and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1994. His medical specialties are orthopedics and oncology, and he has done much work in treating bone cancer in adults and children. Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 2004, he completed his training 2 years later. He was aboard the space shuttle Atlantis that journeyed to the International Space Sta- tion for almost 11 days in November 2009. Classified as a mission spe- cialist, he studied the influence of zero gravity on muscles and bone density as well as the effects of space on the immune system. He also used his surgical training to install an antenna and help repair two robotic arms on the space station. Dr. Satcher is an orthopedic surgeon at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas.

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APPENDIX B 49 Jack Stuster, Ph.D., is vice president and principal scientist of Anacapa Sciences, Inc., a human factors and applied behavioral sciences research firm. He received a bachelor’s degree in experimental psychology from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and master’s and Ph.D. de- grees in anthropology from the same institution. Dr. Stuster is a certified professional ergonomist, specializing in the measurement and enhance- ment of human performance in extreme environments. He has analyzed the tasks performed by U.S. Navy SEALs, SEAL delivery-vehicle pilots and navigators, explosive ordnance disposal technicians, crews of high- speed hovercraft, maintenance personnel, and military leaders. Dr. Stuster’s work for NASA began in 1982 with a systems analysis of space shuttle refurbishing procedures and has been followed by studies of con- ditions on Earth that are analogous to space missions. Dr. Stuster has been awarded Fellow status by the Human Factors and Ergonomics Soci- ety and the Borneo Research Society. He was a member of the Science Council of NASA’s Institute for Advanced Concepts and is now a mem- ber of the External Advisory Council of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. He has also served on several government advisory groups, including the standing committee of the National Academies Board on Army Science and Technology to support the efforts of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, for which he received a patriotic Civilian Service Commendation in 2011. He current- ly serves as principal investigator of the Journals Flight Experiment and of the development of the Cultural Depot, an information-sharing system for use by special operations personnel. Prem S. Subramanian, M.D., Ph.D., is an associate professor of oph- thalmology, neurology, and neurosurgery at the Wilmer Eye Institute, chief of the Neuro-Ophthalmology Division, and director of the Thyroid Eye Disease Center at Wilmer’s Bethesda office. He specializes in neuro- ophthalmology, with special interest in the treatment of thyroid eye dis- ease, disorders that cause double vision in adults, and orbital and skull base tumors. His clinical practice includes patients with all types of dis- orders of the optic nerve and orbit, including disorders of intracranial pressure and cerebral venous sinus disease. Dr. Subramanian is the prin- cipal investigator in clinical trials on treatments for thyroid eye disease and idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Dr. Subramanian received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Princeton University and his M.D. and Ph.D. (in molecular and human genetics) from the Baylor College of Medicine. He completed an internship and ophthalmology residency at

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50 REVIEW OF NASA’S EVIDENCE REPORTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISKS Walter Reed Army Medical Center and then completed a fellowship in neuro-ophthalmology at the Wilmer Eye Institute. Dr. Subramanian served as director of neuro-ophthalmology at Walter Reed for 4 years before joining the Wilmer faculty and maintains a faculty appointment at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Gayle E. Woloschak, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Radiol- ogy, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University. Her re- search interests include studies of the molecular biology of lymphocyte and motor neuron abnormalities in DNA repair–deficient mice, studies of radiation-inducible nanoparticles, and analysis of molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in radiation-induced tumors. She received her Ph.D. in medical sciences (microbiology) from the Medical College of Ohio and did postdoctoral training in the Departments of Immunology and Molec- ular Biology at the Mayo Clinic. Dr. Woloschak was a senior molecular biologist and group leader of the Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, and a senior fellow at Nanosciences Consortium, Argonne National Laboratory–University of Chicago. She has served as a member on the National Institutes of Health’s radiation study section and on the National Research Council’s Committee on the Evaluation of Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration and has chaired NASA’s peer-review radiation biology committee. Laurence R. Young, Sc.D., is the Apollo Program Professor of Astro- nautics and professor of health sciences and technology at the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology (MIT). He was the founding director (1997– 2001) of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. Dr. Young is a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics. He received an A.B. from Amherst College; a certificate in applied mathematics from the Sorbonne, Paris, as a French government fellow; and S.B. and S.M. degrees in electrical engineering and an Sc.D. degree in instrumentation from MIT. He joined the MIT faculty in 1962 and co-founded the Man- Vehicle Laboratory, which does research on the visual and vestibular systems, visual-vestibular interaction, flight simulation, space motion sickness, and manual control and displays. In 1991 Professor Young was selected as a payload specialist for Spacelab Life Sciences 2. He spent 2 years in training at the Johnson Space Center and served as alternate pay- load specialist during the October 1993 mission. He was chairman of the Harvard–MIT Committee on Biomedical Engineering and Physics and the interdepartmental Ph.D. Program in Biomedical Engineering, and he

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APPENDIX B 51 directs the Harvard–MIT Program in Bioastronautics. Dr. Young is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Academy of Engineering and has served on many IOM and National Research Coun- cil committees, including current service on the IOM Committee on Aer- ospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments.

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