Assessment to Enhance Air Force and
Department of Defense Prototyping
for the New Defense Strategy

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Norman M. Haller, Rapporteur

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Norman M. Haller, Rapporteur Air Force Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This is a report of work supported by Grant FA9550-12-1-0413 between the U.S. Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-29677-9 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-29677-3 Copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Keck 360 Washington, DC 20001 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to as- sociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR A WORKSHOP ON ASSESSMENT TO ENHANCE AIR FORCE AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROTOTYPING FOR THE NEW DEFENSE STRATEGY LESTER L. LYLES, The Lyles Group, Chair CLAUDE M. BOLTON, JR., Defense Acquisition University KEITH A. COLEMAN, The Boeing Company JILL P. DAHLBURG, Naval Research Laboratory LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Titan Corporation (retired) BRIAN K. HERSHBERGER, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics WILLIAM L. MELVIN, Georgia Tech Research Institute PAUL D. NIELSEN, Software Engineering Institute Staff TERRY J. JAGGERS, Director, Air Force Studies Board CARTER W. FORD, Program Officer DIONNA ALI, Research Assistant v

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AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD GREGORY S. MARTIN, GS Martin Consulting, Chair DONALD C. FRASER, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (retired), Vice Chair BRIAN A. ARNOLD, Raytheon Company CLAUDE M. BOLTON, JR., Defense Acquisition University STEVEN R.J. BRUECK, University of New Mexico THOMAS J. BURNS, Independent Consultant FRANK CAPPUCCIO, Cappuccio and Associates, LLC BLAISE J. DURANTE, U.S. Air Force (retired) MICHAEL J. GIANELLI, The Boeing Company (retired) DANIEL HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RAYMOND E. JOHNS, JR., U.S. Air Force (retired) PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. ROBERT LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates NANCY G. LEVESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute LESTER L. LYLES, The Lyles Group MATT L. MLEZIVA, Wildwood Strategic Concepts C. KUMAR N. PATEL, Pranalytica, Inc. GERALD F. PERRYMAN, JR., Independent Consultant RICHARD V. REYNOLDS, The VanFleet Group, LLC J. DANIEL STEWART, University of Tennessee STARNES E. WALKER, University of Hawaii System DAVID A. WHELAN, The Boeing Company REBECCA WINSTON, Winston Strategic Management Consulting Staff TERRY J. JAGGERS, Director DIONNA ALI, Research Assistant GREGORY EYRING, Senior Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Program Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator vi

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Preface The committee was honored that so many expert speakers from the U.S. government, government-related entities, industry, and academia were available to discuss in detail their views regarding the very important subject of this 3-day workshop. In addition, the committee was especially pleased that Robert Whalen, a retired industry executive with several decades of experience in advanced tech- nology endeavors, shared his perspectives as our emeritus speaker. The committee also thanks the many guests who contributed immensely to this workshop. Finally, this report has been prepared by the workshop rapporteur as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. The planning committee’s role was limited to plan- ning and convening the workshop. The views contained in the report are those of individual workshop participants and do not necessarily represent the views of all workshop participants, the planning committee, or the National Research Council. Lester L. Lyles, Chair  Planning Committee for a Workshop on Assessment to Enhance Air Force and Department of Defense Prototyping for the New Defense Strategy vii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jill P. Dahlburg, Naval Research Laboratory, Paul G. Kaminski, Technovation, Inc., Gregory S. Martin, GS Martin Consulting, and Paul D. Nielsen, Software Engineering Institute. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Stephen M. Robinson, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Appointed by the NRC, he was re- sponsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. ix

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 OVERVIEW 3 Theme 1. Prototyping and Its Many Definitions, 3 Theme 2. The Value of Prototyping, 5 Theme 3. Tying Prototyping to Strategy, 7 Theme 4. Prototyping as an Agent for Change, 8 Theme 5. Prototyping as a Versatile Tool, 10 Theme 6. Prototyping as a Means to Empower People, 10 Theme 7. Funds and Incentives for Prototyping, 11 Theme 8. A Technology Development Strategy, 13 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 19 B Terms of Reference 24 C Workshop Agenda 25 D Workshop Participants 29 E Speaker Abstracts 31 xi

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Acronyms ACTD Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration ADP Advanced Development Programs CJCSI Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction CWMD counter weapons of mass destruction D2D data to decisions DoD Department of Defense ERS engineered resilient systems EW/EP electronic warfare/electronic protection LM Lockheed Martin OMB Office of Management and Budget R&D research and development S&T science and technology STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics TLAR “that looks about right” TOR terms of reference TRL technology readiness level xiii

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