Figure 8.2 Computer-generated simulation of the air over Los Angeles. (Courtesy of L.L. Smarr.)

and other atmospheric scientists venture forth from their laboratories into the pragmatic, political world of pollution control.

REFRAMING THE LAWS OF POLLUTION CONTROL

McRae's long history of involvement with colleagues in the field and regulators in Southern California, along with the demonstrable cogency of his methods and his model, have given him a role in recent regulatory reform. Said Lloyd, "His work gave technical credence to strong regulations that were needed to reduce emissions." The South Coast Air Quality Management District, said Lloyd, is well served by the views and resources provided by individuals like Winer and McRae, although Lloyd's premise is that "the scientists and the scientific community have to be more proactive." Thus, when the model McRae has spent nearly a decade developing and refining was finally put to the test, and its results suggested many fairly dramatic implications, the battle was just being joined. Industry and other interested parties suggested, supported, and then promoted alternative studies that turned out to contradict McRae's work, and a fairly heated political and media debate ensued, fueled by major lobbying interests that had a lot at stake.

Ultimately, the decisions to regulate ROGs and NOx that California's legislators and regulators had previously made were ratified by



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