Index

A

N-Acetyl aspartate acid, 145

Acid rain, 181, 182, 188-189

Acromion, 137

Adams, Paul, 201, 204, 205, 209, 216

Adenine, 96, 97

Adenoviruses, transcription in, 105-106

Ahlfors, Lars, 61

Air pollution, 178

chemistry of, 184-187

compliance with air quality standards, 178

computer modeling of, 178-179, 190-191, 192-193

control, 178, 180-181, 196-197

detection limits, 187-188

diurnal cycling, 190

formaldehyde, 186, 187, 190

hydrocarbons, 180, 181-182

hydroxyl radicals, 185-186, 187

from leaded gas, 181

long-distance transport, 190

measurement of, 187-188

nighttime, 188-191

nitrogen oxides, 180, 182, 185, 188-190, 194, 195, 197

ozone, 184-187, 195, 196, 197

reactive organic gases, 181-182, 194-195, 197

smog, 180, 181, 182, 187, 190, 193

"tall stacks solution," 181

Allender, David, 243

Aluminosilicates, 38

Amino acids, 96-97, 107

Amphibians, DNA, 99

Anderson, Philip W., 244

Aneurysms, 140

Angiogenesis, 115-116

Angiography, 122, 139-140, 142, 147

Approximations, 64

Argonne National Laboratory, 35

Arizona State University, 3

Arnold, Vladimir, 48

Arteriovenous malformations, 140

Arthrography, 122

Arthroscopy, 136, 137

Asteroids, 49

Astronomy, 66, 79

Astrophysics, 66



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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Index A N-Acetyl aspartate acid, 145 Acid rain, 181, 182, 188-189 Acromion, 137 Adams, Paul, 201, 204, 205, 209, 216 Adenine, 96, 97 Adenoviruses, transcription in, 105-106 Ahlfors, Lars, 61 Air pollution, 178 chemistry of, 184-187 compliance with air quality standards, 178 computer modeling of, 178-179, 190-191, 192-193 control, 178, 180-181, 196-197 detection limits, 187-188 diurnal cycling, 190 formaldehyde, 186, 187, 190 hydrocarbons, 180, 181-182 hydroxyl radicals, 185-186, 187 from leaded gas, 181 long-distance transport, 190 measurement of, 187-188 nighttime, 188-191 nitrogen oxides, 180, 182, 185, 188-190, 194, 195, 197 ozone, 184-187, 195, 196, 197 reactive organic gases, 181-182, 194-195, 197 smog, 180, 181, 182, 187, 190, 193 "tall stacks solution," 181 Allender, David, 243 Aluminosilicates, 38 Amino acids, 96-97, 107 Amphibians, DNA, 99 Anderson, Philip W., 244 Aneurysms, 140 Angiogenesis, 115-116 Angiography, 122, 139-140, 142, 147 Approximations, 64 Argonne National Laboratory, 35 Arizona State University, 3 Arnold, Vladimir, 48 Arteriovenous malformations, 140 Arthrography, 122 Arthroscopy, 136, 137 Asteroids, 49 Astronomy, 66, 79 Astrophysics, 66

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Big Bang theory, 67-70, 74-79, 82, 90, 93 blue curtain, 85-87, 88 computer applications, 71-72, 77, 86-88, 90, 92, 149 dark matter, 67-72, 80, 84-91 gravitational lensing, 84-91 gravity's role, 68-71, 79, 87-91 imaging technology, 67, 85-90 measurements (basic) in space, 72-73, 76-77 omega, 68-69, 80 quasar studies, 73, 78, 80-84 redshift data, 70, 71, 77-82, 91, 92, 93 star formation, 91-93 universe texture, 69-74 AT&T Bell Laboratories, 67, 75, 153, 244, 245 Atmospheric science chemistry of atmosphere, 182, 183-191 chlorofluorocarbons, 179, 184 computational experimentation, 191 computer simulations, 178-179, 191-194 definition of problems, 180-181 historical perspective, 187 measurement of pollutants, 187-188 nighttime chemistry, 188-191 ozone layer, 179, 183-184 ozone pollution, 184-187 pollution control laws, 194-197 public interests of, 197-198 regulatory issues, 179, 181-183 role of, 179 see also Air pollution Atomic theory of matter, 26 B Bacteria, photosynthesis in, 32 Balaban, Robert, 120, 132 Balance scale, 26 Bancel, Peter, 247 Bardeen, John, 155, 156, 235, 243 Baryons, 76 Bechtold, Jill, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, 91 Bednorz, J. Georg, 233 Berger, Robert, 248 Berk, Arnold, 99, 105, 111 Bertschinger, Edmund, 70, 90-91 Big Bang theory, 3-4, 70, 77 evidence for, 74-75, 77, 79 formation of heavier elements, 82 galaxy formation, 90 microwave background radiation and, 75 missing-mass problem, 67-68 and Omega, 69 redshift and, 78, 93 relativity and, 76 series of events, 75-76 Binary systems, 153-154 Biology central dogma of, 101-103 data compressibility in, 58-60 dynamical systems in, 57-60, 94, 100, 113, 216 neural networks, 201 Bipolarons, 244 Birkhoff, Garrett, 150 Birkhoff, George, 48, 49 Black holes, 81-82, 85 Bloch, Felix, 123, 124 Bloembergen, Nicholaas, 129 Blood-brain barrier, 143 Blood flow and vessels, imaging of, 139-140 Bloxham, Jeremy, 3, 20, 22 Blueshifted light, 79 Body waves, 10 Bohr, Niels, 123 Bones, magnetic resonance imaging of, 134-137 Boole, George, 153 Boolean logic, 154 Born, Max, 123 Boson, 244

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Boston University, 47 Bower, James E., 175, 201 Boyle's gas law, 211 Bradley, William G., Jr., 119, 122-125, 127-129, 132, 136, 138-141 Brahe, Tycho, 68 Brain algorithms for vision enhancement, 223-228 chemistry, 207-208 computer modeled on, 175-176, 213-214 cortex, 206, 210 electrical source and circuitry, 206-208 evolution of, 206, 216, 221, 224 feedback information, 226-227 information processing, 153, 203, 224 magnetic resonance imaging, 119, 138-139, 143, 145 memory, 216 mind and, 215-216 models of, 209-211 motion detectors, 218-228 neural networks, 203-209 perception, 216, 223-224, 228-230 signal transmission, 206-207 structure, 201 see also Nervous system Brattain, Walter, 155, 156 Bray, James, 243 Butterfly effect, 55, 57 Bydder, Graeme, 120, 145, 146 C California Altamont Pass, 40 ozone levels, 185 South Coast Air Quality Management District, 170, 194 Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, 187 California Institute of Technology, 2, 26, 32, 35, 41, 68, 70, 120 , 175, 192, 201 Cambridge University (Great Britain), 70 Cancer and gene regulation, 114-117, 144 magnetic resonance imaging of tumors, 128, 138 Carbon dioxide emission reduction, 27-28 sunlight and, 30 Carnegie Institution of Washington, 3, 11, 68 Carnegie Mellon University, 178, 180 Cartilage tears, 136, 137 Catastrophe theory, 163 Cells differentiation, 113-114, 116 electrical behavior, 201 He-La, 111 signal processing by, 101, 103 transduction pathways, 116 Cellular automata, 171-173 Center for Complex Systems, 170 Central nervous system, 143, 204 Cerebrospinal fluid, 138, 140 Cerro Tololo Observatory, 85 Chaotic behavior, 46, 47, 150 biological implications, 57-60 cellular automata applied to, 171-172 computer applications, 49, 60-65, 163, 171 determinism and, 55-57 Feigenbaum-Cvitanovic cascade, 53-54 instabilities and real-world systems, 54-57 Julia sets as, 48, 58 onset of, 53-54 public visibility of, 62-63 sensitivity to initial conditions, 49-54 shadowing lemma theorem, 56

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Charge-coupled devices (CCD), 86, 88, 90 Chemistry of air pollution, 183-187 atmospheric, 182, 183, 188-191 birth of, 26 of brain electricity, 207-208 of oxidant production, 182 of ozone production, 185-187 Chlorofluorocarbons, 179, 183-184 Choline, 145 Chromosomes, 95 Chu, Paul, 238 Churchland, Patricia, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 225 Codons, 97, 98 Cohen, Marvin, 240 Colds, 105 Complex numbers, 50-52 Compressional waves, 10 Computational science algorithms, 162-164, 174 cellular automata, 171-173 experimental, 168-170, 191 importance of, 149-152 nervous system studies, 202-203 neural networks, 199-230 theory, 213, 219 see also Mathematics; Neuroscience, computational Computerized tomography, 10, 120, 121, 123, 125, 130, 138, 142, 147 Computers/computer applications algorithms, 162-164, 170, 174, 187, 214, 219, 221 architecture, 154, 158, 160, 175-176, 211-212 artificial intelligence, 160, 201, 212-215 in atmospheric science, 190-194 as a blueprint for brain function, 213-214 brain as a model for, 175-176 central processing unit, 213-214 chess programs, 154 circuitry, 154, 155-156, 158 components, 175, 213-214 dark-matter simulation, 71-72, 87-88, 90 defined, 202 density field simulation in early universe, 92 digital electronics, 153-155, 214 digital optical processor, 157-158 in dynamical systems, 49, 50, 57-65 faint object classification and analysis system (FOCAS), 86-88 historical background, 151-152, 155-156 importance to science, 151, 173-174, 215 innovations in hardware, 156-162 lasers in, 160, 161 learning networks with interneurons, 228 logic gates, 154, 158, 160, 161, 225 machinery, 153-156 Mandelbrot sets, 57-59 Mathematica software, 170-171 mathematics, 47, 50, 62, 162-164, 168-170 measurements in space, 77 in medical diagnostic imaging, 121, 124, 126; see also Computerized tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging Multiple-Instruction Multiple-Data operating mode, 175 networks, 151, 156 neural systems modeling on, 214-215, 223-228 optical lens construction, 160-161 optics technology applied to, 155, 156-162 parallel processing, 157, 160, 175-176, 216-218

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I programming languages, 170-171 quasicrystal simulations, 248, 251-252 scientific visualizations, 153-154 seismic tomography, 10-11 serial, 154-155, 159, 175, 214, 225 signal processing, 165 Single-Instruction Multiple-Data operating mode, 175 software for scientists, 162, 163, 170-171 sound processing, 165, 167 speech recognition, 165 speed/power of, 151, 162, 175-176, 225 Turing test, 202, 212, 214 universal machine, 172 universe formation simulation, 71-72 video presentations, 191, 193-194 von Neumann machine, 213-214 wavelet transforms, 163, 164-168 see also Supercomputers Conservation of energy, 26, 35, 36 Continental drift, 2, 7, 9, 21 Cooley, J.W., 163 Cooper, Leon N., 235 Copernicus, 74 Cornell University, 45, 62 Cosmology, history of, 74 Cray, Seymour, 175 Creatine, 145 Crick, Francis, 95, 96, 101, 102, 117, 213, 217 Crues III, John, 120, 134-137 Crystals equilibrium and growth shapes of, 168 growth, 251 properties, 246-247 symmetry, 234 see also Quasicrystals Cybernetics, 211 Cysteine, 107 Cytosine, 96, 97 D Dalton, John, 26 Dark matter clusters, 91 computer simulations, 71-72, 87-88, 90-91 defined, 67 evidence of, 70 in galaxies, 88-89 gravitational effect of, 68-69, 84-91 and omega, 80 shape and composition, 88 types of, 72 universe of, 90 Darwin, Charles, 7, 117 Darwin Rise, 16-17 Data compressibility, 58 Daubechies, Ingrid, 164 Davis, Marc, 71 de Gennes, P.-G., 243 Deoxyhemoglobin, 139 Dervan, Peter, 119-120, 124 Determinism, 46-47, 55-57 Devaney, Robert, 47, 62, 64 Developmental embryology, transcription in, 111, 113-114 Diagnostic contrast media, 142-144 Diamond-anvil cell experiments, 2, 3, 9, 11-12, 19-20 Dimethyl sulfide, 189-190 Dinitrogen pentoxide, 187 DiVincenzo, David P., 251 Djorgovski, S. George, 70, 72, 83, 86, 91, 92, 93 DNA affinity columns, 107 binding proteins, 106-107, 109-110, 112 central dogma of biology, 101-103 codons, 97, 98 functions, 96, 97 location, 95 mapping, 100

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I neuronal networks and, 206 noncoding, 99-101, 105 probes, 105 promoter region, 106 radioactive labeling, 107, 108, 109 replication, 103, 106 role of, 99-103 structure, 95-97 synthesis, 106-107 units of information in, 59 Doppler effect, 78 Douady, Adrien, 54-55, 63 Douglas, Jesse, 168 Drosophila, 113, 114 Dynamical systems angle doubling, 56 biological, 57-60, 94, 100, 113, 216 butterfly effect, 55, 57 complexity of, 45-49 computer applications, 49, 150, 153, 174, 226 education aids, 62 historical insights, 47-49 hyperbolic, 56 Julia sets, 48, 50, 58 KAM theorem, 48-49 Mandelbrot set, 57-60 mathematics of, 46-54, 150, 171, 193 sensitivity to initial conditions, 49-54 simplest, 49-50 three-body problem, 47-48 uncertainties, 56 see also Chaotic behavior E Earth age, 7 asthenosphere, 6, 14, 16 atomic process, 4 continental drift, 2, 7, 9, 21 core-mantle boundary, 3, 5-6, 19-21 core thermodynamics and agnetohydrodynamics, 1-23 cross-section, 4, 5 crust, 6, 21 Darwin Rise, 16-17 D-double prime region, 6 formation of, 3-4 fossil record, 21-22 geological models, 1-23 geomagnetic field, 19-20 gravity, 13 hot spots, 15-17 inner core, 4-5 internal temperature and pressure, 4-5, 6, 9, 12 lithosphere, 6, 8, 14, 16-17 lower mantle, 5, 12, 19-20 magnetic field, 3, 5, 18-21 mantle, 3, 6, 11, 12, 13-14, 21-22 Marianas Trench, 9 Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 7-8 most common mineral, 11 North Pole, 20-21 outer core, 5, 10, 18, 19 plate tectonics, 2, 7-8, 13-18, 21-22 sea level changes, 21-22 South Pacific Superswell, 16-17 upper mantle, 5, 10, 12 Earthquakes, 9-10 Eddington, Arthur, 84 Einstein, Albert, 28, 123, 158 space-time fabric, 76 theory of general relativity, 69, 76, 79, 81, 84, 85 Einstein ring, 84 Electroencephalogram, 138 Electromagnetic radiation, 72, 150 Electron holes, 32, 38, 39, 41, 42 Electron microscope, 104, 111 Electron transfer back, 33, 34, 35, 39, 42 in chlorophyll, 32 multistep mechanism, 37, 38-39 rate, 35 Electrons, 76, 121, 236

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Energy artificial photosynthesis and, 26-27 quantum of, 29 reorganization, 36 solar, 40 theory of quantization of, 29 Estermann, I., 123 Eukaryotes, transcription and translation in, 102, 104 Euler, Leonhard, 150 Evolution, 60, 100-101, 116, 117, 206, 216, 221, 225 F Fast Fourier transform, 125, 163, 165 Fatou, Pierre, 48, 50, 61 Feigenbaum, Mitchell, 63 Feigenbaum-Cvitanovic cascade of period doublings, 53-54 Fermions, 244 Ferritin, 139, 142 Ferrocene, 42 Fiber-optics telecommunications network, 156 Fields Medal, 61, 168 Fischer, Karen M., 16 Fisher, Daniel, 233 Fisher, Matthew, 245-246 Fluid motion, magnetic resonance imaging of, 139-142 Food and Drug Administration, 142 Formaldehyde, 186, 187, 190 Formic acid, 187 Fossil fuels, 26 Fourier, J.B.J., 163 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 187 Fractal geometry, 57, 58, 61, 63, 64, 163 Free induction decay, 127-128 Free will, 55-56 French Polynesia, 16 Fresnel zone plate, 161 Frontiers of Computational Science Award, 192 Fuzzy sets, 163 G Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid, 142 Galaxies age of, 73-74, 78 Andromeda, 71, 73, 78 blue curtain, 85-87, 88 clusters, 68, 70, 71, 72, 77, 78, 79, 82, 88, 90 collapse of protogalaxies, 72, 82, 84 collisions and mergers, 72 Coma cluster, 68 cosmological color conundrum, 80 cosmological count conundrum, 80 dark matter in, 88-89 discovery of, 71 distances of, 70 distribution of, 72, 74 formation and evolution of, 82, 88, 90 as gravitational lenses, 84-85 halos, 82, 91 Local Group, 71 Local Supercluster, 71 magnitude of images, 85-86 Milky Way, 71, 73, 79 primeval, 72, 93 spectrographic signatures, 77-78, 79, 81, 83 spherical shells of, 71 superclusters, 70, 71, 73, 82, 90 velocities, 68 Galileo, 86-87 Gallium arsenide, 161 Gammel, Peter, 245, 246 Gauge theory, 65 Gel electrophoresis, 107, 108 Geller, Margaret, 67, 68, 70

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Gene regulation cancer and, 114-117 DNA role, 99-103 see also Transcription factors and mechanisms Genes function, 116 human, 95 protein coding domain, 115 regulatory information domain, 115 replacement studies, 109 structure, 95, 100 TATA boxes, 111, 112 therapy, 116 Genetic code, 97 engineering, 33, 94, 106, 117 information, 60, 100, 102 studies of transcription, 107-110 Genome adenovirus, 105 human, 105 Genotypes, 100-101 Geochemists, 2 Geodesists/geodesy, 2, 13 Geoid, 13, 16-17 Geology fossil record, 21-22 historical background, 6-7 methods and tools, 9-13 modeling Earth's internal dynamics, 1-23 planetary (non-Earth), 22-23 and plate tectonics, 2 see also Earth Geometry, 48, 84, 168 Ginzburg, Vitaly, 243 Glasses, 246 Gleick, James, 49, 61 Glimm, James, 150 Glutamine, 110 Gondwanaland, 7 Gravitational lensing accuracy, 89-90 blue ''curtain'' discovery, 85-87 images, 88, 89 role of, 87-91 Gravity/gravitational effects anchors for galaxies, 71 Big Bang and, 75-76, 79 and dark matter, 68-69, 70, 84-91 data surveys, 9, 13 galaxy formation, 90 resonance and, 48 and space-time fabric of universe, 76 Guanine, 96, 97 Gunn, James, 85 Gurnis, Michael, 3, 21-22 Guth, Alan, 69, 90 H Haldane, Duncan, 242, 244, 245 Hammersmith Hospital (London), 120 Hanahan, Douglas, 95, 97, 99, 114, 115 Hardy, G.H., 65 Hartley transform, 163 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 67, 71 Harvard University, 3, 20, 85, 99, 120, 233, 248, 251 Heart, magnetic resonance imaging, 133 Hebb, Donald, 212 Heisenberg-Schrödinger pictures of the universe, 57 He-La cells, 111 Helium, 76, 77, 82 Helix-turn-helix, 107 Hematoma, magnetic resonance imaging of, 130-131 Hemley, Russell, 3, 11, 12-13, 19-20 Hemorrhage, 139 Hemosiderin, 142 Hillis, W. Daniel, 175 Hinton, Geoffrey, 228

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Hippocrates, 122 Histidine, 107 Histones, 104 Homeodomain, 107 Hooker telescope, 79 Hopfield, John, 217 Hot spots, 3, 15-17 Hounsfield, Godfrey, 121 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 94, 200, 201 Hoyle, Fred, 67 Huang, Alan, 153, 155, 156-161 Hubbard, John, 45, 46, 47, 50, 54-57, 61-62, 63 Hubble constant, 79-80 Hubble, Edwin, 71, 79 Hubble Space Telescope, 165 Huchra, John, 71 Hydrocarbon emissions, 180, 181-182 Hydrocephalus, 138 Hydroelectric power, 40 Hydrogen component of universe, 76 as an energy source, 28 Lyman alpha absorption line, 82-83 metallic phase, 12-13 as MRI target, 124 star formation, 91 Sun composition, 77 Hydrogen peroxide, 186 Hydroperoxyl radicals, 186 Hydroxyl radicals, 185-186, 187, 188, 190 Hyperion, 49 I IBM, 233, 245, 247, 251 Imaging animations, 152 brightness magnitude of galaxies and, 85-86 charge-coupled devices (CCD), 86, 88, 90 color, 152-153 deep-space, 67, 87 diffusion-weighted, 145-146 Doppler ultrasound, 121, 122 faint object classification and analysis system (FOCAS), 86-88 ultradeep, 86-87 wavelet transforms applied to, 165 see also Magnetic resonance imaging Inositol aspartate, 145 Institute for Atmospheric Studies (Paris), 55 Integrated circuits, 155-156, 158 Internet system, 152 Isoprene, 189 Iterative processes, 49-52, 54, 63 J Jarvis, John, 86 Jeanloz, Raymond, 3, 13, 19-20 Joints, biomechanical, 135-137, 147 Josephson, Brian, 237 Julia, Gaston, 48, 50, 61 Julia sets as chaotic behavior, 48 disconnected, 58 and Feigenbaum-Cvitanovic cascade of period doublings, 53 purpose, 58 sensitivity to change in initial conditions, 54 in z-plane, 50, 51, 52 Jupiter, 13, 22, 48-49 K KAM theorem, 48-49 Kamerlingh Onnes, H., 234, 237 Kant, Immanuel, 64 Kelvin, William, 7 Kepler, Johannes, 68

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Kieffer, Sue, 3 Kitt Peak, 85 Kline, Morris, 64 Knittle, Elise, 3, 19-20 Koch, Christof, 199-204, 206, 210, 213-219, 221-224, 229 Kolmogorov, Andrei, 48 Koo, David, 69, 80 Krantz, Steven, 47, 61, 62-64, 171 L Lagrange, Joseph, 150 Lander, Eric, 94, 99-100, 117 Larmor equation, 124-125 frequency, 126, 127, 128, 129 Lasers, 11, 160, 161 Lauterbur, Paul, 124 Lay, Thorne, 3, 20 Lead, air pollution from, 181 Lehmann, Ruth, 99, 113, 117 Leptons, 76 Levine, Dov, 248, 249 Lewis, Nathan, 26, 41, 42 Lick Observatory, 70 Light, quantum mechanics, 84 Lily, DNA, 99 Linear systems, 45-46 Lisberger, Stephen, 225-226 Little, William, 243 Liver, magnetic resonance imaging, 120, 144 Lloyd, Alan C., 180, 192, 194, 197 Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, 119 Lookback time, 73, 75, 82 Lorenz, Edward, 49 Love waves, 10 Lyell, Charles, 6 M Macromolecules, 132 Magellan mission, 22 Magnesium silicate perovskite, 11 Magnetic field core dynamics and, 18-21 data surveys, 5, 9 historical data, 3, 20 Meissner effect, 235 satellite measurements, 20 of superconductors, 235, 237, 245 Magnetic moment, 124, 126-127 Magnetic resonance imaging advantages of, 120, 125 angiography, 139-142, 147 applications in medicine, 122, 124, 134-146 of biomechanical joints, 135-136 of blood flow and vessels, 139-140 of bones, 134-136 of brain, 119, 143 of cartilage tears, 136-137 of cerebrospinal fluid, 138 clinical efficacy, 147 contrast agents, 120, 122, 136, 139, 142-144, 147 costs, 122 diagnostic lens, 129-132 echo time delay, 129, 133 enhancement of signal intensity, 141-142 fast-scanning techniques, 146, 167 of fluid motion, 139-142 fluoroscopy, 136, 147 gating techniques, 141, 146 growth of, 119 guided/assisted interventional diagnosis and therapy, 147 of heart, 133 of a hematoma, 131 of hemorrhages, 139 of kidney, 143 of liver, 120, 144 multiplanar display capabilities, 130-131 of musculoskeletal system, 120 in neurology, 138-139, 143 physics of, 120, 121, 123-134

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I portable receivers (surface coil), 136 precision, 125, 138 problems and limitations, 120, 122, 141 process of information generation, 121, 124-126 prospects, 146-147 relaxation behavior and, 126-134, 142, 143 of rotator cuff tears, 137 spin-echo technique, 128-129, 132, 140-141 of tumors, 128, 138, 144 see also Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Magnetization, 127, 133 Magnons, 143 Mallouk, Thomas, 26, 36, 37, 38, 39 Mandelbrot, Benoit, 57, 61, 63, 64 Mandelbrot set, 57-60 Manganese-DPTP, 144 Mantle convection, 3, 12, 13-14, 17-18, 21-22 hot spot plumes from, 15-17 Marcus, Rudy, 35, 36 Marianas Trench, 9 Marine science, 189-190 Marr, David, 200, 212, 213 Mars, 22 Massachusetts General Hospital, 120 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 3, 25, 69, 70, 94, 154, 200 , 212 Materials science, 168 Mathematicians, 150, 164, 168, 169 Mathematics algorithms, 162-164, 170, 174 calculus, 47, 150, 170-171 cellular automata, 171-173 complex numbers, 50-52 Daub sets, 164 deterministic differential equations, 56-57 differential equations, 47, 62, 150, 172, 173 doubling times, 55-56 of dynamical systems, 46-54 experimental, 168-170, 174 Fields Medal, 61, 168 Fourier transform, 125, 150, 163, 164, 165 iteration of polynomials, 49-52, 54 Maxwell's equations in electrodynamics, 215 Navier-Stokes equations, 193 shadowing lemma theorem, 56 three-body problem, 47-48 wavelet transforms, 163, 164-168 Max Planck Institut, 114 McCulloch, Warren, 212 McLendon, George, 26, 33, 35, 36, 39 McMullen, Curt, 47, 49, 50, 53, 58, 61 McNutt, Marcia, 3, 7, 13, 16-17 McRae, Gregory J., 178-181, 183-185, 188, 190-193, 194-195, 197-198 Medical diagnosis technology development in, 120-123 see also Magnetic resonance imaging Meissner effect, 235 Mercury (planet), 22 Meteorites, 4 Meteorology, models, 191, 193 Methemoglobin, 139 Microwave background radiation, 75 Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 7-8 Miller, John, 35 Minsky, Marvin, 212 Mittag-Leffler, Magnus, 61 Mobilism, 7 Models/modeling Big Bang, 71-72 cell electrical behavior, 201

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I cellular automata in, 171-172 complexity accounted for, 215-216 dark-matter simulation, 71-72, 87-88, 90 geological, 1-23 Los Angeles weather and pollutant data, 179-180, 194-197 minimal surfaces, 168 neural networks, 199-200, 209-211, 214-216 probabilistic, 57 purpose, 210 quasicrystals, 248 seismic tomography, 10-11 simplification in, 210 snowflake formation, 172, 173 stereoscopic depth perception, 212 transcription, 104, 112 vision, 218-228 Molecular beam epitaxy, 160-162 Monoterpenes, 189 Moon, 22 Moser, Jürgen, 48 Mosley, Michael, 145 Mott-Hubbard insulator, 243-244 Mott, Nevill, 243-244 Mount Wilson Observatory, 79 Mueller, Karl Alex, 233 Multiple Mirror Telescope, 83 Multiple sclerosis, 138, 145-146 Mutation analysis, 108-109, 111, 113 N National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 152, 175, 192, 193 National Institutes of Health, 119, 120, 132 National Science Foundation, 152 Nebulae, cloudlike, 79 Neer, Charles, 137 Neptune, 22, 48-49 Nervous system analytical and organizational levels, 213 computation applied to studies of, 202-203 connectionism, 203-204 evolution of, 206 information processing, 200 ion channels, 205, 209, 211 mapping of, 145 neuromodulators, 209 synapses, 204-205 see also Brain Neural networks applications, 217-218, 230 brain, 203-209 defined, 199 Hopfield network, 217 and learning and memory, 212 learning networks with interneurons, 228 mind and, 214 models, 199-200, 209-211, 228-230 NETtalk system, 228 perceptrons, 212 vision models, 218-228 Neurology, magnetic resonance imaging in, 138-139 Neurons, 200-201, 203-209, 214, 225 Neuroscience, computational computationalism, 212 computer models, 204, 209-211 connectionism, 203-204, 211-212, 219, 228 dependence on computers, 215 experimental approach, 218 history of, 203 optical flow algorithms, 219, 221, 224-225 Neutrinos, 72, 76 Neutron stars, 84 Neutrons, 76 Newsome, William A.K., 201, 228-229 Newton, Isaac law of gravitation, 68

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I laws of motion, 47 Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica, 150 Nitrate radical, 187, 188-190 Nitric acid, 187, 188-189, 190 Nitric oxide, 185 Nitrogen, 28 Nitrogen dioxide, 185, 196 Nitrogen oxides, 180, 182, 195, 197 Nitrous acid, 187, 188, 190 Nobel prizes, 121, 156 Nonlinear systems, 45, 46; see also Dynamical systems Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 124, 144-145, 147, 242 O Omega, 68-69, 80 Oncogenes, 115, 116-117 Onoda, George Y., 250-251 Optics technology bandwidth and connectivity advantages, 159-160 in computers, 156-162 lens construction, 160, 161 molecular beam epitaxy technique and, 160, 161 quadrature filter mirrors, 165 Oxford University, 248 Oxidation-reduction reaction, 31, 34, 39, 41-42, 43 Oxygen, 28, 183 Ozone molecule, 183 National Ambient Air Quality Standard, 195 stratospheric layer, 179, 183-184 tropospheric pollution, 182, 183, 184-187, 190, 197 P Pagels, Heinz, 169-171, 173-174, 202, 211, 215 Paleontocosmology, 72, 91 Pangaea, 7 Papert, Seymour, 212 Parallax-second (parsec), 72 Paramagnetism/paramagnetic substances, 139, 142-143 Particle accelerator, 41, 49, 76, 237 Peacock, Simon, 3 Peebles, P. James E., 70 Penrose, Roger, 248, 249, 250 Penzias, Arno, 74 Perner, Uli, 187 Peroxyacetyl nitrate, 190, 196, 197 Petrologists, 2 Phenotypes, 100-101 Pheophytin, 33 Phonons, soft, 244 Photodiodes, 36-40 Photolithography, 156, 161 Photolysis and ozone production, 183-186, 190 and smog production, 190 Photons critical limit for communications, 156 harvesting and using, 29-32 and photosynthesis, 28-29 relativity applied to, 84 speed of, 72, 158-159 Photosynthesis, artificial back electron transfer in, 33 energy efficiency, 27, 30, 35 as an energy source, 26-27 excited-state electron transfer in, 34-36 first steps, 33-40 photoconversion systems, 30 photodiode construction and, 36-40 photovoltaic cells, 40-43 reaction centers, 38 self-assembly in, 37, 39 and semiconductors, 37 Z-scheme representation of apparatus, 31, 35

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Photosynthesis, natural in bacteria, 32 chlorophyll, 30, 31, 33 crystallographic studies, 33 electron transfer, 32 evolution of, 27, 32 genetic engineering and, 33 photon harvesting and use, 29-32 photosystems, 30-31 process, 25, 26, 33 quantum physics and, 28-29 reaction center, 31-33 Z-scheme, 31 Photovoltaic cells construction of, 41 cost barriers, 25-26, 40 energy efficiency, 27 gallium arsenide-gallium antimonide stacked junction cell, 27 liquid semiconductor junctions, 41-43 point-contact crystalline silicon cells, 27 strontium-titanate cell, 42-43 Physics condensed-matter, 13, 233-254; see also Quasicrystals; Superconducting/superconductors contributions to geology, 7, 11, 13 of light energy, 28-29 mathematics in, 65 of magnetic resonance imaging, 120, 121, 123-134 particle, 77, 149 quantum, 26, 29, 34, 36, 42, 78, 121 and photosynthesis, 29 solid state, 11 of water at critical temperatures, 172, 173 of x-ray systems, 121 Pick's disease, 145 Pitts, James N., Jr., 187, 188 Pitts, Walter H., 212 Planck, Max, 28-29, 123 Planck's constant, 29, 55 Planetesimals, 4 Planets, window of stability, 49; see also individual planets Plants aerobic, 29, 31 anaerobic, 27 chlorophyll, 30, 31 reaction center, 31 see also Photosynthesis, natural Plate tectonics, 2 basalt formation and, 18 colliding plates, 14-15 deformation of plate boundaries, 14-15 direction of plate movement, 8-9 distribution of major surface plates, 8 genesis of, 7 and mantle convection, 13-18, 21-22 process, 8-9 rate of movement, 8 on Venus, 22 and volcanism, 15-18 Platt, Uli, 187, 188 Poggio, Tomaso, 212 Poincaré, Jules Henri, 48, 150 Poisson's equation, 90 Polyribosomes, 98 Pool, Robert, 192 Porphyrin, 39 Positron emission tomography, 120, 121, 123, 138 Pound, R.V., 129 Press, William, 85, 153, 162-165, 167, 170, 174 Princeton University, 47, 70, 85, 242, 244 Principia Mathematica, 68 Probabilistic models, 57 Prokaryotes, transcription and translation in, 102

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I Proline, 110 Protons, 76 MRI interactions with, 120 P680 molecule, 32 Purcell, Edward, 124, 129 Q Quadratic bifurcation locus, see Mandelbrot set Quantum electrodynamics, 123 mechanics, 57, 62, 84, 90-91 numbers, 29 physics, 26, 29, 34, 36, 42, 78, 121, 126 theory, 237 wells, 161 Quarks, 76 Quasars, 73, 78 double image, 85 and galaxy formation, 82-84 identification of, 80-81 number per volume of space, optical spectrum, 83 redshifts, 81, 82 Quasicrystals, 233, 234 Bragg peaks, 250 computer simulations, 248, 251-252 discovery, 247-250 growth of, 251-252 Penrose rules, 248-252 properties, 247 symmetry, 248, 252 twinning, 249 Quinone, 33 R Rabi, I.I., 123 Radioactive dating methods, 8 Radioactive labeling, 107, 108, 109, 138 Radiology/radiologists, 122, 146 Ramón y Cajal, 203 Random behavior, 46 Rayleigh waves, 10 Reactive organic gases, 181-182, 194-195, 197 Real numbers, 52 Real-world systems, 50, 54 Recombinant DNA technology, 94, 113, 117; see also Genetic engineering Redshift data, 70, 71, 77-82, 91, 92, 93 Reductionism, 170 Rees, Douglas, 26, 32, 33, 34 Regulation, air quality, 180-183, 194-197 Relativity, 62, 69, 76, 79, 81, 84 Relaxation behavior, 126 BPP theory of, 129 complexities of, 132-134 contrast agents and, 143 pathway in biological tissues, 134 in solids and monomolecular solvents, 129 spin-lattice, 127 spin-spin, 128-129 T1 and T2 times as data, 126-129 T1 and T2 times as diagnostic lens, 129-132, 136-137, 139 in water, 129, 132 Renal systems, 143 Resonance and gravitational forces, 48 quantum physics of, 126 see also Magnetic resonance imaging Reverse biochemistry studies, 109 Rheology, 6, 14 Riemann, Georg, 150 RNA bicoid, 114 messenger (mRNA), 97-99, 101, 103, 104 polymerase, 103, 104, 105, 106 role of, 97, 103

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I transfer (tRNA), 98 translation, 102 Roentgen, Wilhelm, 121, 122, 134-135, 142 Rosenblatt, Frank, 212 Rotator cuff tears, 137 Rubin, Vera, 68 Rumelhart, David, 217 Russell, Armistead G., 184, 185, 192 Rutgers University, 153, 168 Ryle, Gilbert, 210 S Salk Institute, 200 Santa Barbara Cottage Community Hospital, 120, 132 Saturn, 13, 22, 48-49 Scanning microscopy, 111, 205 Schmidt, Maarten, 81 Schrieffer, Robert, 235 Schwarzschild radius, 81 Segev, Idan, 210, 214 Seismic tomography, 9-10 Seismic waves collection centers, 9 information gained from, 2, 4-5, 9, 10 formation process, 9-10 propagation, 11 surface, 10, 16 Seismologists/seismology, 2, 13 Seitzer, Pat, 87 Sejnowski, Terrence, 200, 201, 211, 213, 214, 217, 225, 227-229 Self-similarity, 57, 61 Semiconductors and computer development, 158 construction of, 156, 160-162 electrical conductivity, 155 interfacial reactions, 42 liquid, junction, 41-42 molecular beam epitaxy and, 160-162 and molecule-based electronic devices, 37 n-type, 41, 42 photoelectrochemical cells, 40, 43 p-type, 41, 42 Shane, Donald, 70 Shannon, Claude, 154 Shear waves, 10 Shechtman, Dany, 247-248 Sherrington, Charles, 200, 210 Shockley, William, 155, 156 Signal processing, 165 Silicates chemical reactions between iron and, 19 structural transformations, 11-12 Silicon dioxide, 28 oxidizers, 42 Silk, Joseph, 74, 75 Simulated annealing, 163 Smale, Stephen, 49 Smarr, Larry L., 149-152, 174, 175, 176, 192, 193 Smithsonian Institution, 83 Smog, 180, 181, 182, 187, 190, 193 Snowflake formation, 172, 173 Socolar, E.S., 251 Sodium chloride, 28 Soft tissues, magnetic resonance imaging of, 134-137 Solar technology, 40; see also Photovoltaic cells Sound waves, see Seismic waves South Pacific Superswell, 16-17 Space measurements in, 76-77 telescope, 79 Spectrographs, 77 Spectrometers/spectrometry, 77 Stanford University, 217, 243 Stark, David, 119-120, 142, 143 Starlight, 78 Stars blue, 80 Cepheid variable, 79 formation of, 91-93

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I heavier of, 82, 83 neutron, 84 State University of New York, Stony Brook, 201 Steinhardt, Paul, 248-252 Stern, Otto, 123 Stevenson, David, 2, 4-5, 9, 11-14, 17-20, 22-23 Stokes, George, 150 Stonehenge, 66 String theory, 65 Struhl, Kevin, 99, 107, 108 Suess, Eduard, 7 Sun, 72 composition, 77 gravitational field, 84 magnitude, 86 photosphere, 77, 81 Supercomputers centers, 152 Connection Machine, 175-176 costs, 176 Cray, 175, 192-193, 196 defined, 151 importance of, 149, 152-153 Internet system, 152 smog simulation, 178, 192-193, 196 spread of, 152 Superconducting Supercollider, 237 Superconducting/superconductors, 36 applications, 245-246 challenges posed by, 238-242 copper oxide, 245 dimensionality issue, 241 energy gap in materials, 241-242 high-temperature, 233-234, 238-246 history, 234-238 isotope effect, 237, 241 Josephson junction, 240 and magnetic fields, 235, 237, 245 properties of, 235, 237, 245 theories, 235-237, 242-245 tunneling by Cooper-pair electrons, 237, 238, 242 vortex glass theory, 246 yttrium-based, 246 Surfaces minimal, 168, 169 quantum physics at, 42 T TATA boxes, 111, 112 Taylor, Jean, 153, 168, 169 Telecommunications, 156-157, 160 Telescopes, 76-77, 79, 85-86, 165 Thermal electric generation, 40 Thermodynamics, laws of, 26 Thinking Machines Corporation, 175 Thurston, William, 47, 62 Thymine, 96, 97, 104 Tjian, Robert, 94, 99, 103, 105, 106, 110, 111, 116-117 Topology, of transcription factors, 110-111 Transcription factors and mechanisms activation role, 110-111, 112, 114 in adenoviruses, 105-106 binding domains, 106-107 creation of proteins, 103-104 in development, 111, 113-114 in Drosophila fruit fly, 113 experimental quantities, 106-107 genetic studies of, 107-110 histone clearance, 104 hybrid proteins, 110 messenger RNA role, 97-99, 101, 104 model, 104 as oncogenes, 116-117 process, 104 promoter region, 106 RNA polymerase II role, 104 role, 94, 113 sequence of steps, 101-103 topology, 110-111

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I transduction pathways in cells, 116-117 in yeast, 107-108 zinc finger proteins, 107 Transform fault, 9 Transgenic mice, 114 Transistors, 155, 156 Tukey, J.W., 163 Tumorigenesis, 115-116, 145; see also Cancer Turing, Alan, 202, 211, 212 Turner, Edwin, 85 Tyson, J. Anthony, 67, 73, 79, 84-91 U Ullman, Shimon, 200, 201, 210, 221, 223-225 Ultrasound imaging, 121, 122, 147 Ultraviolet radiation, 183 Uncertainties, doubling time, 56 Uniformitarianism, 6-7 Universe age of, 80 black holes, 81-82, 85 computer simulation of formation of, 71-72 critical density (omega), 69 dark-matter problem, 68-69 density field simulation, 92 evolution of, 67, 70, 75; see also Big Bang theory filaments, 72 halos, 82, 91 inhomogeneities in, 71, 85 interstellar gases, 82, 91 map, 70 observable, 72-73 singularity, 75, 79 space-time fabric, 76 steady-state theory of, 67 texture of, 69-74 voids, 71, 72, 73 see also Galaxies University of Alabama, 238 University of Arizona, 73, 83 University of California Berkeley, 3, 47, 49, 74, 94, 233 Los Angeles, 99, 120, 134, 180 Riverside, 187 San Diego, 200, 217 San Francisco, 95, 145, 225 Santa Cruz, 3, 69 University of Chicago, 79 University of Houston, 238 University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, 149, 152, 170, 192, 243 University of Maryland, 46 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 3 University of Paris-XI, 54 University of Rochester, 26, 35 University of Texas, Austin, 26, 36 Uracil, 104 Uranus, 22, 48-49 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 181-182 V Vacuum tubes, 155-156 Valdes, Frank, 86 Venus, 22 Very large-scale integrated circuits, 155, 199, 200 Viologen, 39 Viruses, 100 Visible light speed of, 72, 77-78 wavelengths, 66-67, 78 Vision models algorithms, 223-228 illusions in, 222-223, 224-225 motion detectors in the brain, 218-223 smooth pursuit of targets, 226-228 vestibulo-ocular reflex system, 225-227 Volcanism anomalous plate margin, 15

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Science at the Frontier: Volume I hot spot, 15-17 intraplate, 15 and mantle convection, 17-18 and plate tectonics, 15-18 Volcanologists, 2 von Neumann, John, 150, 151 Voyager spacecraft, 22 W Walsh functions, 163 Washington University (St. Louis), 47 Water anisotropically weighted, 145 interaction on macromolecular surfaces, 132-133 and magnetic resonance imaging, 121-122, 129 physics of, at critical temperatures, 172 relaxation times in, 129, 132-133 silicon oxidation, 42 SrTiO3-semiconductor-based cell for photoelectrolysis, 43 sunlight and, 30 Watson, James, 95, 96, 101, 117 Wave packets, 237 Wavelet concept, 163, 164-168 Weather doubling times for equations involving, 55 models, 192, 193 White, Simon, 70, 90 Whitehead Institute, 94, 99 Wiener, Norbert, 211 Wilson, J. Tuzo, 15 Wilson, Robert, 74-75 Wind turbines, 40 Winer, Arthur, 180, 187, 188, 189-190, 197 Wirtanen, Carl, 70 Wolfram, Stephen, 153, 168-173, 174 Wolfram Research, Inc., 153, 170 Wrighton, Mark S., 25-28, 30-35, 39, 40, 41-42, 43 Wu, Maw-Kuen, 238 X X-ray systems, 134-135 angiography, 139-140 disadvantages, 120, 121, 139-140 physics of, 121 Y Yeast protein GCN4, 117 transcription process in, 107-108 Yorke, James, 46 Z Zeolites, 38, 39 Zettl, Alex, 233, 240-242, 245, 246 Zeugmatography, 124 Zinc finger proteins, 107 Zwicky, Fritz, 68, 84, 85

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