Index

A

Accountability, 263-268

Activity mix, 23-24

Adhocracy, 112, 113

Adoption. See Innovation adoption

Ambulatory care unit case

diagnostic technology in radiology and pathology in, 168-169

establishment of short procedure unit in, 162-165

health care cost payments in, 159-160

key points raised by, 153-155

and laser use in outpatient surgery, 166-168

obstetrics and gynecology technology in, 166

and payment system changes, 160-162

results of new technology in, 169-170

Argyris, C., 149-150

Arthroscopic techniques, 161-162

Attitude, 246-247

Audit trail, 264

Authority, employee, 95

Automated Nurse Scheduling System (ANSOS) computer program, 197

B

Bernheimer, Martin, 293

Blume, David, 293-294

Boeing, William E., 90

Boeing Company

future steps in organizational design at, 100-101

lessons learned by, 99-100

organizational redesign within, 90-92

overview of, 89-90

Boundary phenomena, 240-242

Boundary spanners, 242

Breadth strategy, 148

Bryson, J., 150

Bull's-eye concept, 95-96

Business mix, 20-23



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People and Technology in the Workplace Index A Accountability, 263-268 Activity mix, 23-24 Adhocracy, 112, 113 Adoption. See Innovation adoption Ambulatory care unit case diagnostic technology in radiology and pathology in, 168-169 establishment of short procedure unit in, 162-165 health care cost payments in, 159-160 key points raised by, 153-155 and laser use in outpatient surgery, 166-168 obstetrics and gynecology technology in, 166 and payment system changes, 160-162 results of new technology in, 169-170 Argyris, C., 149-150 Arthroscopic techniques, 161-162 Attitude, 246-247 Audit trail, 264 Authority, employee, 95 Automated Nurse Scheduling System (ANSOS) computer program, 197 B Bernheimer, Martin, 293 Blume, David, 293-294 Boeing, William E., 90 Boeing Company future steps in organizational design at, 100-101 lessons learned by, 99-100 organizational redesign within, 90-92 overview of, 89-90 Boundary phenomena, 240-242 Boundary spanners, 242 Breadth strategy, 148 Bryson, J., 150 Bull's-eye concept, 95-96 Business mix, 20-23

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People and Technology in the Workplace C CAD/CAM. See Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) Cataract surgery, 165 Cherry, Richard, 92-95 Chief technology officer (CTO) position, 77 Collaboration across work units, 40-41 complexities of, 50-52 interorganizational. See Interorganizational collaboration Collocation, and cross-functional teams, 32 Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center implementation of ECMO in, 178-183 key points raised in case of, 153-155 motivation for change in, 174-178 overview of, 171-174 results of ECMO program in, 183-187 social effects of ECMO in, 187-188 Commitment, employee, 37-38 Communication cross-function and cross-level, 33-37 innovation and linkages in, 30-33 training programs to improve, 113 Community role, 129 Compensation system, 79. See also Salary Competition, global, 90, 91 Competitive advantage and implementation of innovation, 27-28 manufacturing as element of, 76, 77 Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) integration efforts in, 64 trends in, 67-69 Computer networks. See also Information technology benefits of, 114-115 implementation of, 106 software selection for, 115 Computerization. See also Information technology diffusion status and, 246 planning for, 243-244 point of adoption in, 230-231 as technological innovation, 229 Consolidated Diesel Company (CDC) overview of, 119-121 role of people in development of, 124-127 strategy of, 129-130 teamwork used by, 128-129 use of technology by, 122-124 Cost-displacement benefits, 261 Cray, Seymour, 15 Cross-functional teams, 31-32 Customers focus on, 143 role of, 128 as stakeholders, 95 D Data communication standards, 61 Data manipulation, 62 Data presentation, 62 Decentralization effects on staff of, 212 as trend in technology strategy, 77 Department of Defense, U.S., 63 Depth strategy, 148-149 Design engineers CAD/CAM integration by, 67-68 status of, 78, 79 Deskilling, employee, 8 Diagnostic related groups (DRGs), 159, 184, 197-198 Diffusion, innovation, 133-136

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People and Technology in the Workplace Diffusion status, 246 Diversified organizations, 20-23 Drafting technicians, 67-68 Dynamic model of technology, 7 E Economic Development Administration, 145-146 Education, technical, 65. See also Training Electronic mail, 259 Employee participation in design and decision processes, 245 in implementation process, 7-8, 29-30 opposition to, 75-76 organizational culture and, 78 prevalance of, 74-75 productivity and, 75, 94 Employee resistance to computerization, 274-275, 277-278 due to fear of displacement, 78 explanation of, 7-8 organizational vs., 249 Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs), 74-75 Employee training as aspect of implementation, 8-9 for beginning level users, 245-246 need assessment for, 9 programs established for, 66, 106-107 Employees adaptation to organizational change by, 111 impact of CAD/CAM on manufacturing, 68 innovation and commitment of, 37-38 layoffs of, 81, 92, 106 opinion surveys for, 197 out-of-community recruitment of, 126 performance appraisals for, 105-106 redeployment of, 92 reward systems for, 10-11, 24-27 skill levels of, 65-67 as stakeholders, 124 stress in, 114 Engineers design, 67-68, 78, 79 manufacturing, 68, 78, 79 skills of U.S., 65 status differences among, 78 system development, 68-69 Evaluation of reward system, 11 self-, 108-109 Evolutionary innovation, 16 Expert systems, 63 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) description and use of, 175-176 development of policies and procedures for use of, 178-183 financial aspects of adoption of, 177-178, 186 implementation of, 171 introduction of, 174 results of use of, 183-187 social effects of use of, 187-188 staff concerns regarding use of, 176-177 F Flexibility across work units, 40-41 in manufacturing technologies, 62 project, 41-44 at work unit level, 38-40 Flow cytometry, 168-169 Focused organizations activity mix and, 23-24 business mix and, 20-23 reward system and, 24-27 Forecasting, 42-44

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People and Technology in the Workplace Forest Service distribution of data within, 262 evolution of information environment in, 255-258 implications of trends shaping information environment of, 268-270 structure of, 253-255, 263 trends affecting information environment in, 266-268 Forest Service information system cost savings from, 259-261 forest-level information processing system in, 258 future goals for, 270-271 principles developed in, 261-263 role of personal identity and accountability in, 263-266 systematic approach to automation in, 256-258 G Goals, short-term vs. long-term, 10 Gott, Steve, 301, 307 Government, role in promotion of innovation, 47-48 Gynecology technology, 166 H Health care payment system redefinition of, 159-160 role of technology in changes in, 160-162, 169-170 Hierarchical cluster analysis, 201-202, 217-218 Human element in technological implementation, 4-5, 244-245 Human resource strategies, 77-78 Humanware, 245 I Immunocytochemistry, 168 Implementation. See Technological implementation In vitro fertilization/gamete intrafallopian transfer (IVF/GIFT), 166 Incentives. See Reward systems Infant respiratory failure, 174-175, 185 Information classification of, 265 framework for access to, 265-266 Information capture trends, 62 Information representation, 62 Information security, 264 Information technology. See also Computerization adaptability of, 235-236 characteristics of, 232-233 integration of, 261 packaging of, 236-237 scope, testing, and scale of, 234-235 utilization of, 231 validity and efficiency of, 233-234 Innovation. See also Technological innovation alternative strategies for adopting and implementing, 148-149 attitudinal factors in, 246-247 characteristics of, 17-20 developed elsewhere, 147-151 radical vs. incremental, 152 rewards for, 25 shocks to trigger, 141-143, 154 size and scope of, 153 stages of, 134-135 temporal duration of, 152-153 territorial barriers to, 33-37 traditional, 230 types of, 16-17 Innovation adoption implementation and, 231 key points raised by case studies in, 153-155 reinvention and, 146-151 relationship between performance and, 135 success of, 133-134, 154-155

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People and Technology in the Workplace temporal and contextual preconditions for, 138-141 Innovation adoption model explanation of, 134-137 revisions needed by, 137-138, 153 Innovation adoption process contingencies in, 151 nature of activities in, 143-144, 154 setbacks during, 145-147, 154 Interaction, 114 International Bio-Synthetics (IBIS, Inc.) approach to system change within, 104 organizational renewal within, 105-114 overview of, 102-104 technological change within, 114-117 Interorganizational collaboration capability expansion through, 45-46 as means of stimulating new uses for technology, 44-45 technology dependent upon, 46-48 J Job loss fear, 8 Job turnover, nursing, 189-193, 198, 199, 205-206, 210 Joint ventures. See Interorganizational collaboration Just-in-time inventory, 70 K Kiesler, Sarah, 275 Klammer, Franz, 155 L Labor unions business partnerships with, 46-47 contracts having new technology clauses, 78 fear of job loss by, 8 participation in plant design and production process, 93, 99 view of structural changes by, 75-76, 81 Laser, use in surgery, 166-168 Layoffs based on performance appraisals, 106 redeployment to avoid, 92 and worker trust, 81 Leadership, for technological change, 5-6 Lindquist, K., 148 Los Angeles Times computer system development of, 288-291 future outlook for, 294-295 implementation of, 291-294 motivation for, 282-284 overview of, 280-282 planning for, 284-288 M Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 168 Management challenges to roles and power within, 34-36 downsizing of, 12, 73 as employee responsibility, 95 participative, 12 static vs. dynamic model of, 60 Managers status differences within, 78, 80 Manufacturing engineers, 68, 78, 79 Manufacturing industries competitive advantage and, 82-84 cultural challenges in, 78-82 resistance to use of technology in, 59-60 role of procedures in, 70-73 skill levels in, 65-70 state of technology in, 61-65 strategy in, 76-78 structure of, 73-76

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People and Technology in the Workplace Marcus, A., 151 Mauriel, J., 148 Mayo Clinic, 190, 192, 198 McKelvey, William, 155 Medicaid, 159 Medicare, 159, 160 N Neonatal intensive care unit case background information regarding, 171-174 implementation of ECMO in, 178-183 key points raised by, 153-155 motivation for change in, 174-178 results of ECMO program in, 183-187 social effects of ECMO in, 187-188 New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI), 71-72 Newsroom telecommunications. See Los Angeles Times computer system, and Washington Post computer system Nurse scheduling case background information regarding, 189-191 and current situation, 211 difficulties in, 194, 196-198 discussion of, 206-213 findings in, 203-206, 220-225 and issue of nurse turnover, 191-193 key points raised by, 153-155 nature of, 198-199 policy implications of, 210-211 research methods used in, 149, 199-203, 217-220 schedule choice in, 193-195, 215-216 Nurses role of preoperative, 164 turnover of, 189-193, 198, 199, 205-206, 210 O Object-oriented programming, 63 Obstetrics technology, 166 Operations research in nurse scheduling. See Nurse scheduling case Opinion surveys, employee, 197 Organizational structure changes in, 11-12, 73-76 during innovation process, 43 team concept in, 112, 126-129 technology transfer and, 238-240, 248 Organizations collaboration between. See Interorganizational collaboration culture within, 78-82 diversified, 20-23 focused, 20-27 influence of information environments on, 270-271 innovation adoption and performance of, 135 life cycles of, 17 politics within, 235 technology transfer and properties of, 237-238 Outpatient surgery. See Ambulatory care unit case P Participation, 8. See also Employee participation Participative management, 12 Partnerships. See Interorganizational collaboration Pathology, 168-169 Pennsylvania Hospital establishment of short procedure unit in, 162-165 health care cost payments in, 159-160

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People and Technology in the Workplace key points raised by, 153-155 laser use in outpatient surgery in, 166-168 obstetrics and gynecology technology in, 166 payment system changes in, 160-162 radiology and pathology technology in, 168-169 results of new technology in, 169-170 Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS), 166 Performance appraisals, 105-106 Pressman, J. L., 145-147 Printed circuit boards (PCBs), 64 Proceduralization levels of, 70-72 worker participation in, 72-73 Process control systems, 116 Process innovations, 16 Process performance, 106 Producer services, 23-24 Product innovations, 16 Pulmonary brachytherapy, 167-168 Q Quality circle (QC) programs at International Bio-Synthetics, 104, 105 participation in, 74 Quality Work Life (QWL) programs, 74 R Radiology technology, 168 Recruitment, out-of-community, 126 Redeployment, 92 Reinvention of innovations developed else-where, 147-151, 154 as learning process, 146-147 Relational data bases, 63 Research and development role, 63 Resistance. See Employee resistance Respiratory failure, infant, 174-175, 185 Return on investment (ROI), 25 Reward systems development of, 10-11 importance of, 24-27 Risk taking, 176-177 Rochester Methodist Hospital, 189-191, 198. See also Nurse scheduling case Roering, W., 150 Rogers, Everett, 134-137 S Salary, 26-27, 75. See also Compensation system Self-evaluation programs, 108-109 Shearson Lehman Commercial Paper Inc. (SLCPI) climate for achievement in, 307 overview of, 296-298 processing problems facing, 298-301 results seen by, 308 solution for, 301-307 Skill levels as area of concern, 65-67 impact of CAD/CAM on, 67-69 Socio-Technical System (STS), 93 St. Mary's Hospital, 190, 198 Stakeholders employees as, 124 identification and input of, 94-95, 100 Statistical process control, 70 Status, between various engineers, managers, and blue-collar workers , 78-80 Status barriers, to innovation, 33-37 Stress, employee, 114 Sunshine concept, 107-108 Surgery, outpatient. See Ambulatory care unit case

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People and Technology in the Workplace Synergies, search for, 40-41, 98 System development engineers, 68-69 System environments, 63 T Teams concept of, 126-129 cross-functional, 31-32 employee skills for participation on, 126 organization of, 105-114 Technological change considerations when designing, 3 effect on quality of patient care, 163-164 flexibility as element in successful, 41-44 leadership for, 5-6 management structure and, 73 in patient care, 169-170 planning for, 243-244 Technological implementation development of consensus prior to, 186 human factor in, 4-5 impediments to, 61-65 properties of, 242-247 speed of, 27-28 stages of, 230-231 training as aspect of, 8-9 United States and, 16, 90 Technological innovation. See also Innovation; Innovation adoption channels for, 28-30 collaborative relationships and, 44-52 communication linkages and, 30-33 flexibility and, 38-44 focus and, 20-27 likelihood of, 16 role of government in promotion of, 47-48 speed in implementation of, 27-28 Technology adaptability of, 235-236 competitive advantage and new, 82-84, 238-239 dynamic model of, 7 packaging of, 236-237 problems in use of, 2-5 scope, testing, and scale of, 234-235 selection of, 13-14 social roles and, 35-36 strategic management of, 76-78 utilization of, 231 validity and efficiency of, 233-234 Technology transfer boundary phenomena and, 240-242 framework of, 229, 231-232, 247-249 mechanisms for, 48-50 organizational level and, 238-240 Training as aspect of implementation, 8-9 for beginning level users, 245-246 need assessment for, 9 programs for, 66, 106-107 technical, 65 Tubal ligations, 166 U Unions. See Labor unions United States engineering skills in, 65 labor productivity in, 60 resistance to new manufacturing technology in, 59-60 United Way design and implementation of system for, 275-278 information system needs of, 273-274 overview of, 272-273

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People and Technology in the Workplace strategy for technology introduction in, 274-275 success of system used by, 278 V Value-added benefits, 261,270 Values, 79-80 Vocational education, 65 W Washington Post computer system, 290-291 Weber, M., 151 Wildavsky, A. B., 145-147 Work force characteristics of, 90-91 overeducation of, 66 Work units collaboration across, 40-41 flexibility at level of, 38-40 technology transfer and, 239-240 Workplace, integrative, 32-33