Click for next page ( 73


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 72
6 A Comparison of NAVSATCOM-21 With Current Navy Communications Architecture 6.1 THE COPERNICUS ARCHITECTURE The description below of the Copernicus architecture is very abbreviated. More information can be found in recent articles in Signal magazine.1-2 In this report, the panel emphasizes the Tactical Information Exchange System (TADIXS), primarily because it contains the communications systems that use space assets. The subarchitecture that achieves the aims of the Copernicus architecture is the Communications Support System (CSS). This system will provide the flexibility, survivability, and connectivities needed to implement the TADIXS pillar and the intra-battle force segment of the Copernicus architecture. The Copernicus architecture3 is a restructuring of the Navy's command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4!) system to take maximum advantage of commercially developed communications and computer technologies, allow for transition from present communications systems so that available capacity can be flexibly used and controlled by operational forces, standardize services and formats, and make Navy C4I systems jointly interoperable with capabilities of DOD services and allied forces. In an effort to give substance to the visionary goals of the Copernicus architecture, it can be described in terms that include operational employment, connectivities and information flow paths, and investment strategies and decisions. 6.1.1 Operational Employment It is recognized that the Navy carrier battle group is limited in its surveillance capabilities. The volume that the battle group is capable of observing is called the battle space. Using today's surveillance systems organic to the battle group, this volume is on the order of a 500-nmi surface on the earth with a zenith of about 35,000 ft. This space would extend considerably if the battle group had near-real-time access to so-called nonorganic sensor information. Such information comes from shore-based surveillance systems such as the high- frequency direction finding (HFDF) sites located around the globe, sensors in space, and theater assets such as maritime patrol aircraft (P-3s) and DOD surveillance aircraft (U-2, Rivet Joint, and Senior Span). The possibility enabled is access to information about a theater of operations 'Loescher, LCDR M.S. "Navy Reshapes, Develops Copernicus Architecture," Signal, pp. 58-63. July 1990. 2"New Intelligence Networks Improve Command and Control," Signal, pp. 45-47, August 1990. 3CNO Document, Director, Space and Electronic Warfare, "Phase I: Requirements Definition, The Copernicus Architecture," August, 1991. 72

OCR for page 72
on a near global scale. The promise of this capability is realized if the communications resources are available to provide this information to the JTFC in a usable form at the quality and quantity wanted by the forces afloat. The new warfare area of Space and Electronic Warfare (SEW) and the associated SEW Commander (SEWC) have been established, and a doctrine for this warfare area is emerging. The SEWC will use the C4I system to systematically use the sensors, communications circuits, and information fusion capabilities ashore and afloat to dynamically support operations under the CWC concept. 6.1.2 Connectivities Copernicus will provide four "pillars" (GLOBIXS, CCC, TADIXS, and TCC) in the information flow architecture. The GLOBIXS connects the shore establishment to the CINC Command Complex (CCC). The CCC serves as an information and command and control gateway to the deployed forces, such as carrier battle groups or joint tactical forces. Finally, TADIXS is the information flow from the CCC to the Tactical Command Complex (TCC). It is composed of deployed or afloat intelligence and command centers. Another way of looking at this is to label TADIXS as the shore-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications medium. By extension, one can complete the picture by including a battle group IXS (BGIXS) for the information flow required for ship-to-ship within the deployed forces. The Copernicus systems for connectivity and information flow are depicted in Figure 6.1. Copernicus Systems COMMAND SUPPORT FOSIC FIC CSG ASW SEW Watch Research C2 Center RADAR SONAR OUTBOARD EP-3 ES-3 E2-C ISAR RPV ESM SURTASS sosus ROTHR MARREPS HFDF TERS OTH-B Logistic Supl WWMCCS DoDIIS Defense Information System Network (DISN) DIRECT TARGETING FORCE OPERATIONS Organic Sensors Non-Organic Sensors FIGURE 6.1 Copernicus systems for connectivity and information flow. 73

OCR for page 72
6.1.3 Investment Strategy The Navy Copernicus community has articulated an investment strategy that determines what course the six-year development plan will take. Underpinning this strategy is the use of commercially developed technology, rapid reaction in procurement to forestall technological obsolescence, recognition of budgetary constraints, and building a C4I system that reflects the perceived threat. 6.2 COMMUNICATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEM (CSS) CSS provides the hardware and software that allows users of Navy communications to share communications resources, including transmission systems. In this system, one user has, in theory, access to all available communications channels. It also provides the capability for multiple users to share a common communications channel. This system gives the nodes in the Navy communications system (i.e., surface ships, planes, submarines, and shore stations) the ability to participate in a dynamic adaptive system that is responsive to the needs of the high- burst-rate data transmission user as well as the voice and large-continuous-stream data users. Figure 6.2 is a graphic description of the operational goals. RdUbto, »urvlnbto oomm. In • riiMMd KiYlronnMnt Tlnwly Intonratlon dl««nln«tlon In S«curt communlorttora RADtO ROOM AUfo« ATtON Sharvd UM el rMouroM bu*d on SEWCdtraetton Ulnlmla m»itm opvnrton knprer* Hnln (o R^ourc. U»«(ji™nt Pynamte bmuWklUi RUMO*RMnt Full Sfwetmm UufffwKfli Contra! Autonuod mnrark nMnag«mMlt FIGURE 6.2 CSS operational goals. The Navy views this system as a basis for providing reliable, survivable communications services in a stressed environment. By exercising control and management, CSS allocates 74

OCR for page 72
capacity where it is needed to achieve timely information dissemination in a stressed environment. CSS uses a common hardware suite and a standard human-to-machine interface so that it can be readily adapted to a large set of users and service requirements without altering the architecture or requiring additional systems. Many problems associated with joint and coalition force interoperability can be overcome by internetworking the Navy communications systems using CSS and gateways to connect to other systems. 6.2.1 Concept of Operation The goal of CSS is to operate all available communications capability as a service to users. It will serve each communications need based on quality of service required by the user, the priority and precedence of traffic, and the destination of the traffic. It can be compared to a utility such as the public switched telephone network. The utility serves all users, regardless of data type. It has the same interface with each user, and it is centrally managed and operated to provide the quality of service needed by the consumer. Ownership of transmission resources belongs to the utility, but access is provided to all. 6.2.2 Functional Requirements Functionally, CSS provides the following: • Automated network management • Dynamic management of bandwidth/capacity of the communications resources • Minimal need for human operators • Information security (COMSEC, TRANSEC, and COMPUSEC) • Voice, data, imagery, facsimile, and message services to all Navy users. 6.2.3 Technical Requirements CSS will serve as the information exchange system essential to support warfighting operations of naval forces. It will provide an evolutionary architecture, system engineering support, and an integration framework to develop the required capabilities. The resulting system must meet the information exchange requirements for all naval missions. The system will also have the system characteristics needed, including security, anti-interference, and low probability of detection or intercept. The system must support all naval platforms and be interoperable with that of other services, allied forces, and coalition forces. System development must be affordable and take maximum advantage of planned and fielded equipment of the Navy and other DOD forces. It should use commercial off-the-shelf and nondevelopmental items to achieve maximum cost savings as technology is inserted. 75

OCR for page 72
CSS capability will support user-prioritized, multi-net controlled, and multimedia shared information exchange resources. For satellite communications, this means that available channels will be under centralized management and used to support the priorities of the task force commander. As previously stated, the EHF, low-data-rate MILSTAR capability will be primarily for nuclear command and control, a hard-core warfighting function. SHF, EHF medium-data-rate MILSTAR, and EHF packages on UFO will be for soft-core functions when some robustness is required, but not as severe a penalty is paid in throughput as in hard-core functions. UHF will be for general-purpose communications and warfare support operations. These capabilities will constitute the communications channels of CSS. A general representation of the CSS architecture is given in Figure 6.3. The previously described satellite capabilities, and others, will be interconnected to multiple users to form a fully integrated system as depicted in Figure 6.4. COPERNICUS CSS SERVICES RECORD DATA BASE EXCHANGE VOICE GRAPHICS DATA FACSIMILE IMAGERY TELE- CONFERENCING INTER-UNIT NETWORK MANAGEMENT CSS ROUTING FUNCTION UNIT LEVEL LEGEND INFORMATION .- CONTROL RESOURCES HF 1 ...N UHF LOS 1 . . N UHF SATCOM 1 ...N SHF SATCOM 1 ...N EHF SATCOM 1 ...N Com1 SATCOM 1 ...N PIERSIDE PSTN FUTURE FIGURE 6.3 CSS architecture. 76

OCR for page 72
SATCOM .ARCHITECTURE INTERFACE TO THE DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEM (OK) (GLOB1XS) COMMAND CENTER EXPEDITIONARY SOB ARCHITECTURE FIGURE 6.4 A fully integrated naval communications architecture. 6.3 NAVSATCOM-21 GOAL ARCHITECTURE The NAVSATCOM-21 goal architecture is composed of four segments: the UHF, SHF, EHF, and commercial SATCOM segments. These segments are expected to serve the mission needs from strategic connectivity, with high survivability requirements, to general-purpose communications, with low survivability requirements. The different segments will be allocated to carry traffic that matches the quality of service associated with that segment. A given segment's quality of service is usually described by the throughput achievable at specific bit error rates. Other terms descriptive of quality of service are latency of information flow, connectivity, availability, and area of coverage. The information that must be transported over these segments has some associated attributes. These are usually quantified in terms of timeliness, accuracy, and reliability. These attributes are descriptors of information types such as imagery, voice, teleconferencing, record messages, database transfers, and facsimile, to name a few. The technological challenge is to assemble the data so that the high-capacity links associated with the segments are used most productively. This is a design and implementation issue that bears directly on the achievement of interoperable communications, efficient use of scarce resources, user flexibility, and system 77

OCR for page 72
responsiveness. There are a number of technical approaches for solving this problem, including multiplexers, multiple access schemes, and frame relays, or asynchronous transfer mode devices. 6.4 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Given that the quality-of-service issue is adequately addressed, one can compare the NAVSATCOM-21 goal architecture with the Navy's Copernicus/CSS architecture. The findings from such comparison are included in Table 6.1. Note that selected features of the goal architecture have been highlighted and contrasted to the manner in which Copernicus/CSS addresses this feature in its architecture. Based on this comparison, recommendations applicable in the near, mid, and far term are provided, as follows: • Near Term (1992 to 1997) — Expand the Copernicus architecture to be consistent with NAVSATCOM-21. Extend it to cover the complete scope of Navy communications requirements, including the full dimensions of communications at the tactical level. — Continue engineering and development efforts to fully implement Copernicus/CSS principles as discussed in the above comparison. • Mid Term (1997 to 2005) — Develop guidelines for fleet users on quality of service offered by Copernicus/CSS engineering initiatives. — Implement network management techniques to provide optimal network employment. — Implement programs to correct shortfalls in effective use of capacity, SATCOM coverage robustness of links, tactical throughput, and utilization of GPS. • Far Term (2005 to 2015) — Continue heavy Navy involvement in definition of new satellite payloads to achieve Copernicus-like information flows. 78

OCR for page 72
TABLE 6.1 Comparison of NAVSATCOM-21 With the Copernicus/CSS Architecture NAVSATCOM-21 COPERNICUS AND CSS GOAL ARCHITECTURE ARCHITECTURE FINDINGS Adaptable global GLOBIXS and TADIXS user Copernicus/CSS are conceptual communications network transparency approaches to a baseline adaptable global communications network MDR interoperable backbone SHF/EHF TADIXS CSS concept includes gateways and information security architectures needed for true interoperability CSS network management Gateways to interconnect Network management and interface architecture has the potential for backbone to WANs standards (OSI) automated network management CSS does not include links to Automated network management Dynamically switched radio network weapons such as CMs and tactical and integrated services digital surveillance assets network (ISDN) CSS extension to aircraft and Small terminals for AC and submarines is planned CMs Integration of GPS into all Full implementation of GPS Current implementation limited; platform systems GPS needs to be more substantively addressed by CSS 79