Appendix D


Selected Surveys Measuring Rape:
An Overview

This appendix presents details, compiled by the panel, for eight surveys that have measured rape. Five of the surveys are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6:

•   National Crime Victimization Survey

•   National Women’s Study

•   National Violence Against Women Study

•   National College Women Sexual Victimization Study

•   National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey

The other three surveys are not discussed in the report:

•   National Survey of Inter-Gender Relationships

•   National Women’s Study: Replicate

•   Campus Sexual Assault Study

The material for each begins with a table that details the design and estimate(s). For most of the surveys, a second table shows the concepts and descriptions used in the survey. These one or two tables are followed by selected other information, such as the questions used.



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Appendix D Selected Surveys Measuring Rape: An Overview T his appendix presents details, compiled by the panel, for eight sur- veys that have measured rape. Five of the surveys are discussed in Chapters 5 and 6: • National Crime Victimization Survey • National Women’s Study • National Violence Against Women Study • National College Women Sexual Victimization Study • National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey The other three surveys are not discussed in the report: • National Survey of Inter-Gender Relationships • National Women’s Study: Replicate • Campus Sexual Assault Study The material for each begins with a table that details the design and estimate(s). For most of the surveys, a second table shows the concepts and descriptions used in the survey. These one or two tables are followed by selected other information, such as the questions used. 207

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208 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT TABLE D-1  National Crime Victimization Survey: Design and Estimates Design Data Collection Population/ Research Sampling Design, Framing of Design N (age range) Mode of Administration Survey Context Panel: Every Housing units in Wave 1 interview is face Criminal 6 months for the United States/ to face; remaining ones victimization up to seven stratified, multistage are through decentralized interviews cluster design telephone interview over a 3-year whenever feasible period n ≅ 80,000 households for each year First interview used for bounding purposes n ≅ 145,000 persons until 2006; since that for each year* time, the Census Bureau has included the first (All household interview in the estimates members ages 12 and with a special adjustment older) for potential telescoping Proxy interviews included *Number of households and persons interviewed changes slightly from year to year. SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (2008b). NATIONAL CRIME VICTIMIZATION SURVEY The National Crime Victimization Survey is an ongoing survey of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (see Chapter 4). Table D-1 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-2 shows the survey’s concept and its description. Following these two basic tables are excerpts from the victim- ization and incident screen questions.

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APPENDIX D 209 Forms of Sexual Victimization Operationalization Measurement Type(s) Process Screen Incident Definitions (reference frame) Question(s) Question(s) Estimate Rape: Two stages: (1) Multiple items Responses Annual rates completed, victimization with short from multiple per 1,000 attempted, screening cues used items used persons ages verbal threat questions and (2) 12 and older incident report Sexual assault: including (In past 6 months) verbal threats Hierarchical scoring procedure used in incident report to classify type of victimization, if any, that occurred TABLE D-2  National Crime Victimization Survey: Concept and Description Concept Description Rape and Rape includes psychological coercion as well as physical force. Forced attempted rape sexual intercourse means vaginal, anal, or oral penetration by the offender(s). It also includes incidents where the penetration is from a foreign object. It includes attempted rapes, male as well as female victims, and both heterosexual and homosexual rape. Attempted rape includes verbal threats of rape. Sexual assault Sexual assault included in this category includes a wide range of victimizations, separate from rape or attempted rape. These crimes include attacks or attempted attacks generally involving unwanted sexual contact between victim and offender. Sexual assaults may or may not involve force and include such things as grabbing or fondling. Sexual assault also includes verbal threats. SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-b).

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210 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT Example of Victimization Screen Question and Incident Screen Questions Example of Victimization Screen Question and Incident Screen Questions SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d). SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d). SOURCE: Data from Bureau Statistics (n.d.-d). SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d).

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APPENDIX D 211 SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d). SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d). SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d). SOURCE: Data from Bureau of Justice Statistics (n.d.-d).

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212 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT TABLE D-3  National Women’s Study: Design and Estimates Design Data Collection Population/ Sampling Design, Research Sample Size, Age Mode of Framing of Design Range Administration Survey Context 3-year Probability sample Telephone Preamble to questions: longitudinal interview Two stages: “Women do not always (1) geographic Wave 1: report such experiences regions; Initial interview to police or discuss (2) Random digit them with family or dialing to select Wave 2: friends.” households within 1-year follow-up each area Wave 3: n = 2,008 a cross- 2-year follow-up section of all adult women (ages 18 and older) n = 2,000 an over sample of younger women between the ages of 18 and 34 SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992). NATIONAL WOMEN’S STUDY The National Women’s Study, supported by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, was conducted in 1989-1990 (see Chapter 5). Table D-3 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-4 shows the survey’s concept and its description. They are followed by the questions used in the survey.

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APPENDIX D 213 Forms of Sexual Victimization Operationalization Measurement Process Screen Incident Type(s) (reference frame) Question(s) Question(s) Estimate Forceful rape Single stage Four single Percentage items Behaviorally Estimated specific counts (Lifetime prevalence of rape) (The past year prevalence of rape) TABLE D-4 National Women’s Study: Concept and Description Concept Description Forcible rape Rape was defined as “an event that occurred without the woman’s consent which involved the use of force or threat of force, and involved sexual penetration of victim’s vagina, mouth or rectum.” The critical elements of forcible rape: 1. use of force or threat of force 2. lack of consent, and 3. sexual penetration. SOURCE: Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992).

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214 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992). SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick, Edmunds, and Seymour (1992).

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APPENDIX D 215 NATIONAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN STUDY The National Violence Against Women Study was mandated by Con- gress in the 1994 Violence Against Women Act (see Chapter 5). It was conducted in 1995 under the joint sponsorship of the National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Table D-5 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-6 shows the survey’s concept and its description. They are followed by the questions used in the survey.

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216 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT TABLE D-5  National Violence Against Women Study: Design and Estimates Design Data Collection Population/ Sampling Design, Research Sample Size, Framing of Survey Design Age Range Mode of Administration Context Cross-section Probability sample Telephone interview Personal safety Two stages: using computer-assisted telephone interviewing; (1) census regions; used all female (2) random digit dialing interviewers to select households within each area n = 8,000 a cross- section of all adult women (ages 18 and older) n = 8,005 a cross- section of all adult men (ages 18 and older) SOURCE: Data from Tjaden and Thoennes (2000). TABLE D-6  National Violence Against Women Study: Concept and Description Concept Description Forcible rape Rape was defined as “an event that occurred without the victim’s consent, which involved the use of force or threat of force, and involved sexual penetration of victim’s vagina, or anus by penis, tongue, fingers, or object, or the victim’s mouth by penis. The definition included both attempted and completed rape.” The critical elements of forcible rape:   1. use of force or threat of force,   2. lack of consent, and   3. sexual penetration. SOURCE: Data from Tjaden and Thoennes (2000).

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APPENDIX D 217 Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization Measurement Process Screen Incident Type (reference frame) Question(s) Question(s) Estimate Completed Single stage Five single Single-stage Percentage and attempted items classification forcible rape Behaviorally process, with no Estimated specific separate incident counts report (Lifetime prevalence of rape) (The past year prevalence of rape) (12-month incidence rates) SURVEY QUESTIONS: • [  Female respondents only] Has a man or boy ever made you have sex by using force or threatening to harm you or someone close
 to you? Just so there is no mistake, by sex 
we mean putting a penis in your vagina. •  as anyone, male or female, ever made you have oral sex by using H force or threat of force? Just so there is no mistake, by oral sex we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your mouth or someone, male or female, penetrated your vagina or anus with their mouth. •  as anyone ever made you have anal sex by using force or threat H of harm? Just so there is no mistake, by anal sex we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your anus. •  as anyone, male or female, ever put fingers or objects in your H vagina or anus against your will or by using force or threats? •  as anyone, male or female, ever attempted to make you have H vaginal, oral, or anal
 sex against your will but intercourse or pen- etration did not occur?

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236 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT TABLE D-13  National Women’s Study-Replication: Concept and Description Concept Description* Drug- and alcohol- Drug- and alcohol-facilitated rape (DAFR) is when the perpetrator facilitated rape deliberately gives the victim drugs without her permission or tries to get her drunk, and then commits an unwanted sexual act against her involving oral, anal, or vaginal penetration. The victim is passed out or awake but too drunk or high to know what she is doing or to control her behavior. Incapacitated rape Incapacitated rape (IR) is unwanted sexual act involving oral, anal, or vaginal penetration that occurs after the victim voluntarily uses drugs or alcohol. The victim is passed out or awake but too drunk or high to know what she is doing or to control her behavior. Forcible rape Forcible rape (FR) is unwanted sexual act involving oral, anal or vaginal penetration. The victim also experiences force, threat of force, or sustains an injury during the assault. In cases where FR includes elements of DAFR, incident categorized as DAFR. *By definition, DAFR and IR are mutually exclusive. SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick et al. (2007).

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APPENDIX D 237 LIST OF RAPE SCREENING QUESTIONS USED IN THE INTERVIEW Our interviewers read, “Many women tell us they have experienced unwanted sexual advances at some point during their lives. Women do not always report such experiences to police or discuss them with family or friends. Such experiences can happen anytime in a woman’s life—even as a child. The person making these unwanted advances can be friends, boyfriends, co-workers, teaching assistants, supervisors, family members, strangers, or someone they just met. The person making the unwanted sexual advances can be male or female. . . . Regardless of how long ago it happened or who made the unwanted sexual advances: 1. Has a man or boy ever made you have sex by using force or threat- ening to harm you or someone close to you? Just so there is no mistake, by having sex, we mean putting a penis in your vagina. 2. Has anyone, male or female, ever made you have oral sex by force or threatening to harm you? So there is no mistake, by oral sex, we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your mouth or someone penetrated your vagina or anus with their mouth or tongue? 3. Has anyone ever made you have anal sex by force or threatening to harm you? By anal sex, we mean putting their penis in your anus or rectum. 4. Has anyone ever put fingers or objects in your vagina or anus against your will by using force or threatening to harm you? Some women tell us they have had sex when they didn’t want to because they were very high, intoxicated, or even passed out because of alcohol or drugs. We would like to ask you about these types of experi- ences you might have had. Again, we are interested in these experiences regardless of how long ago it happened, who did it, or whether or not it was reported to police. 1. Has anyone ever had sex with you when you didn’t want to after you drank so much alcohol that you were very high, drunk, or passed out? By having sex, we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your vagina, your anus, or your mouth? 2. Has anyone ever had sex with you when you didn’t want to after they gave you, or you had taken enough drugs to make you very high, intoxicated, or passed out? By having sex we mean that a man or boy put his penis in your vagina, your anus, or your mouth?

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238 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT Sample of follow-up questions asked upon endorsement of one or more screeners: • Were you physically forced to engage in these acts? • Did the person or persons who did this to you threaten to hurt you or someone else if you did not do what they wanted? • Had you ever seen the person who did this to you before? • Did you know the person fairly well or not? • Had you consumed any drugs or alcohol at the time of the incident(s)? • When this happened, did the incident involve only alcohol use on your part, only drug use on your part, or some use of both alcohol and drugs? • When this happened, did you drink the alcohol because you wanted to, did the person(s) who had sex with you deliberately try to get you drunk, or both? • When this happened, did you take the drugs because you wanted to, did the person(s) who had sex with you deliberately give you drugs without your permission, or both? • When this incident happened were you passed out from drinking or taking drugs? • When this incident happened were you awake but too drunk or high to know what you were doing or control your behavior? • Did you suffer serious physical injuries, minor injuries, or no physi- cal injuries as a result of the incident? • Did this incident involve oral penetration, anal penetration, or vaginal penetration? For full questionnaire, see http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ NACJD/studies/20626. SOURCE: Data from Kilpatrick et al. (2007).

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APPENDIX D 239 CAMPUS SEXUAL ASSAULT STUDY The Campus Sexual Assault Study was conducted in 2006 with support from the National Institute of Justice. The results were published in Krebs et al. (2007). Table D-14 presents details about its design and estimates and Table D-15 shows the survey’s concept and its description. These data are followed by the questions used in the survey and the classification procedure.

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240 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT TABLE D-14  Campus Sexual Assault Study: Design and Estimates Design Data Collection Population/ Sampling Design, Research Sample Size, Mode of Framing of Survey Design Age Range Administration Context Cross-section Undergraduate students Web-based survey Nonconsensual or enrolled at least three unwanted sexual quarters time during contact experience 2005-2006 academic year at two large public universities Probability sample Total n = 5,446 Males: n = 1,375 Females: n = 5,446 (ages 18-25) SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

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APPENDIX D 241 Form of Sexual Victimization Operationalization Measurement Process Screen Incident Type(s) (reference frame) Question(s) Question(s) Estimate Physically forced One stage: Responses Single-stage Percentages sexual assault behaviorally from classification specific items multiple with no Frequencies Incapacitated sexual items used separate assault (Before you began incident college) report (Since you began college)

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242 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT TABLE D-15  Campus Sexual Assault Study: Concept and Descriptions Concept Description(s) Physically forced Physically forced sexual assault includes assaults occurring when the sexual assault victim was forced or threatened with force into sexual contact. Forced touching of a sexual nature (forced kissing, touching of private parts, grabbing, fondling, rubbing up against you in a sexual way, even if it is over your clothes). Oral sex (someone’s mouth or tongue making contact with your genitals or your mouth or tongue making contact with someone else’s genitals). Sexual intercourse (someone’s penis being put in your vagina). Anal sex (someone’s penis being put in your anus). Sexual penetration with a finger or object (someone putting their finger or an object like a bottle or a candle in your vagina or anus). Incapacitated sexual Assaults occurring when a victim is unable to provide consent or assault stop what is happening because she is passed out, drugged, drunk, incapacitated, or asleep. Alcohol or other drug–enabled sexual assault, a subset of incapacitated assault, occurs when the victim is incapacitated after voluntarily consuming alcohol and/or drugs. Drug-facilitated sexual assault, another subset of incapacitated assault, occurs when the victim is incapacitated after being given a drug without her knowledge or consent. SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

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APPENDIX D 243 SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007). Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

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244 ESTIMATING THE INCIDENCE OF RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007). SOURCE: Data from Krebs et al. (2007).

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APPENDIX D 245 SOURCE: Data from Krebs etet al.(2007). SOURCE: Data from Krebs al. (2007).

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