the development and experimental use of new sources of data to understand the broad spectrum of innovation activities and to develop new measures of science, technology, and innovation. NCSES should also support the development of new datasets to measure changing public perceptions of science, international trade in technological goods and services, new regions for entrepreneurial activity in science and technology, and precommercialized inventions.

RECOMMENDATION 7-2: The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) should pursue the use of text processing for developing science, technology, and innovation indicators in the following ways:

  • explore synergies with National Science Foundation directorates that fund research on text processing; and
  • enable NCSES staff to attend and develop workshops that bring together researchers working on text processing and on understanding the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ecosystem.

RECOMMENDATION 7-3: The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics should use its grants program to encourage the sharing of new datasets and extracted metadata among researchers working on understanding innovation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

RECOMMENDATION 7-4: The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics should coordinate with directorates at the National Science Foundation in supporting exploratory research designed to validate new sources of data related to innovation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

RECOMMENDATION 7-5: The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics should explore the use of university-industry exchanges as a mechanism for giving researchers access to promising datasets and industry teams access to new research techniques.

RECOMMENDATION 7-6: The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) should collaborate with university researchers on the use of data science techniques to understand the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ecosystem, using a mechanism similar to existing National Science Foundation university-industry partnerships. One or two graduate students or postdoctoral fellows could alternate between working at NCSES and at their home institution for up to 2 years, with the specific goal of contributing new findings to NCSES’s data and indicators programs.

RECOMMENDATION 7-7: The National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) should explore methods of mining the awards database at the National Science Foundation as one means of discovering leading pathways for transformational scientific discoveries. NCSES should engage researchers in this exploratory activity, using its grants program. NCSES should develop mechanisms for using the tools and metadata developed in the course of this activity for the development of leading indicators of budding science and engineering fields.



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