Strategy (SIBS) in 2010. Information was collected from enterprises for the period 2007-2009, and survey estimates were published in 2011. SIBS data are not available in CANSIM.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
WIPO is a specialized UN agency focused on intellectual property—patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design. It collects data by sending questionnaires to the intellectual property offices of 185 member states. It produces annual statistics on patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and plant varieties, thus creating a comprehensive national database of intellectual property. Some of the data series for particular nations go back to 1885.
Innovation Data from Other U.S. Agencies
Apart from NCSES, other U.S. agencies collect innovation statistics, ranging from patents and trademarks to grants and federal awards (see Table F-2):
- USPTO—Three datasets are available from USPTO—the Patent Assignments Dataset, Trademark Casefile Dataset, and Trademark Assignments Dataset. As their names suggest, these datasets comprise ownership and changes in ownership for USPTO-granted patents and trademarks.
- Economic Research Service (ERS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)—In 2013, ERS began fielding its first Rural Establishment Innovation Survey, which is aimed at business establishments funded through USDA’s Rural Development Mission Area. The purpose of the survey is threefold: to collect information on the adoption of innovative practices and their contribution to firm productivity; to discover how participation in federal, state, and local programs aids the growth of rural business units; and to determine usage of available local and regional assets, such as workforce education and local business associations, by rural business units.
- NIH, NSF, and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy—Science and Technology for America’s Reinvestment: Measuring the Effect of Research on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Science (STAR METRICS) is a multiagency venture that relies on the voluntary participation of science agencies and research institutions to document the outcomes of science investments for the public. Currently, more than 90 institutions are participating in the program. The STAR METRICS data infrastructure contains recipient-based data that include information on contract, grant, and loan awards made under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
- NSF—The U.S. government’s research spending and results webpage provides information on active NSF and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) awards, such as awardees, funds obligated, and principal investigator.
- National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Department of Commerce (Anderson, 2011)—NIST has been responsible for preparing the Department of Commerce’s report on technology transfer utilization. The Federal Laboratory (Interagency) Technology Transfer Summary Reports cover federal laboratories and FFRDCs. They contain data tables on patent applications, invention licenses, cooperative R&D agreements, and R&D obligations, both extramural and intramural.
- Small Business Administration (SBA)—The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program fall under the administration of the SBA’s Technology Program Office. These programs award more than $2 billion each year to small high-tech businesses.7 The SBA-Tech.net website includes a searchable database on federal R&D funds/awards by agency, category, and state.
- Department of Energy (DOE)—DOE’s visual patent search tool allows users to collect information on issued U.S. patents and published patent applications that result from DOE funding.
Data collected by federal statistical agencies, either through surveys or from administrative databases, contain rich information on various economic and social issues. Most of this information is used by private corporations and educational institutions (sometimes the agencies themselves) that either present the data in a comprehensive fashion or develop tools for dissemination and analysis. Some of those efforts are outlined below:
- Google—On its website, Google hosts a bulk download tool that allows users to download data tables on patents and trademarks issued by USPTO.
- NIH, NSF, and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy—Applications of the STAR METRICS data platform include the Portfolio Explorer Project, a tool for examining public research award information by topic, region, institution, and researcher. STAR METRICS currently uses four tools to view scientific portfolios (Feldman, 2013b):
— The Portfolio Viewer provides information on proposals, awards, researchers, and institutions by program level and scientific topic.
7For details, see http://www.sba.gov/about-sba-services/7050 [July 2013].