Return on Expenditure: Growth accounting models are also used to describe the STI indicators system. STI indicators are often used to relate knowledge inputs to outputs, outcomes, or impacts. At a very basic level, knowledge inputs include years of schooling, level of degree, and the amount of training an employee receives on the job. Outputs are specific products, processes, or services. Outcomes and impacts are the near-term and long-term effects and ramifications to the economy or society in which the technological ecosystem operates. Productivity and returns on expenditures are often used to measure economic outcomes of STI activities. Other social outcomes, such as improvements in health outcomes associated with cleaner water or more effective medical treatments, are important to assess. For example, scientific advancement in detecting and removal of pathogenic microorganisms leads to technological mechanisms that in turn lead to cleaner water, thereby increasing productivity (through a healthier workforce) and hence increasing inputs in the production of goods and services, as well as increased welfare of citizens. Indicators are relied on for both post-activity evaluations and analysis prior to an activity, although there are major limitations in using STI indicators for predictive exercises. [See Abramovitz (1956); Carson et al. (1994); Fraumeni and Okubo (2005); Jorgenson and Griliches (1967); Solow (1957).] Other models focus on returns to R&D, where the framework is similar to the traditional production function/total factor productivity model. It is important to note that the second diagram calls out obsolescence of knowledge, making it important to measure not only the depreciation of capital stock but also the depreciation of knowledge and human capital. [See Crépon et al. (1998), see Figure Box 2-1D below; David (2010); Furman et al. (2002); Griliches (1958, 1998); Hall-Jaffe (2012); OECD (2009); Jorgenson and Gollop (1992); Mairesse and Mohnen (2010); Nelson (1993); Rogoff (2012); Shanks and Zheng (2006), see Figure Box 2-1E below; Solow (1994); and Soete (2012).]
FIGURE BOX 2-1D
SOURCE: Crépon et al. (1998).
FIGURE BOX 2-1E
SOURCE: Shanks and Zheng (2006).