Specific Outcomes: There are models that look at specific outcomes of scientific and innovation activities, such as Acemoglu et al. (2012), David (1990), David et al. (2011), Mowery (2010), Popp (2010), Rogoff (2011), and Sampat (2011). Sampat’s logic model of publicly funding R&D shows the pathways to new medical products and eventually health outcomes resulting from initial R&D expenditures. This model (see Figure Box 2-1F) shows the importance of measuring nodes and connections between nodes, which show the influence on health outcomes of various elements in the system.
FIGURE BOX 2-1F
SOURCE: Sampat (2011).
Linkages: There are frameworks that identify specific relationships between actors in the STI system (see Figure Box 2-1G). Tassey (2011) highlights the coexistence of government and private funding for technological development. The blue shows contributions from government agencies while the red shows funding from private firms and organizations. This is a relational model but not necessarily predictive.
FIGURE BOX 2-1G
SOURCE: Tassey (2011).