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Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Panel Members and Staff Robert Litan (Cochair) is director of research at Bloomberg Government in Washington, DC. He assumed this position after serving for 9 years as vice president for research and policy at the Kauffman Foundation, where he oversaw the foundation’s program for data collection and research on entrepreneurship and economic growth. For more than two decades, he was a senior fellow in economic studies at the Brookings Institution, where he served from 1996 to 2003 as vice president and as director of the economic studies program. Dr. Litan has published widely in academic journals, as well as in magazines and newspapers. Since the onset of the nation’s recent financial crisis, he has published a number of essays on financial reforms for the Brookings website. Previously, he served in several capacities in the federal government, including associate director of the Office of Management and Budget, deputy assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice, and staff economist at the Council of Economic Advisers. He received a B.S. in economics (summa cum laude) from the Wharton School of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania, a J.D. from Yale Law School, and an M.Phil. and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University Andrew Wyckoff (Cochair) is director of the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry. Previously, he held other positions in OECD, including head of the Information, Computer and Communications Policy Division, which supports the organization’s work on information as well as consumer policy issues, and head of the Economic Analysis and Statistics Division, which has responsibility for developing OECD’s methodology and data on science, technology, and innovation activity. His experience prior to OECD includes serving as program manager of the Information, Telecommunications, and Commerce program of the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress and as an economist at the National Science Foundation. He holds an undergraduate degree from the University of Vermont and a degree in public policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Carter Bloch is research director at the Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policy, Department of Political Science and Government, at Aarhus University in Denmark. His research focuses on impacts of funding on research careers and performance; innovation measurement; knowledge spillovers; and the relationships among research and development (R&D), innovation, and economic performance. He has led a number of international and national projects concerning research evaluation, the development of innovation indicators, the measurement of innovation in public-sector organizations, and micro-based data analysis. He PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS A-1

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A-2 CAPTURING CHANGE IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION: IMPROVING INDICATORS TO INFORM POLICY holds an undergraduate degree in economics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and a Ph.D. in economics from Aarhus University in Denmark. Nicholas Chrisman has been discipline head, geospatial sciences at RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, since January 2103. For the prior 8 years, he was professor of geomatics sciences at the Université Laval, Canada, his principal assignment being scientific director of the GEOIDE Network. His research has concentrated on time in geographic information systems (GIS), data quality testing, and the social and institutional aspects of GIS. From 1987 to 2004, he was professor of geography at the University of Washington. From 1982 to 1987, he was assistant professor in the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. From 1972 to 1982, he was a programmer at the Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics. Dr. Chrisman participated in the design of prototype GIS software. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Bristol (United Kingdom) based on research on error and statistics for categorical maps. For 30 years, his writing has focused on connecting the technical details of GIS to larger issues of philosophy and culture. Carl Dahlman is Henry R. Luce professor of international relations and information technology at Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Previously, he worked at The World Bank, where he served as senior adviser to the World Bank Institute and managed an initiative providing training on the strategic use of knowledge for economic and social development to business leaders and policy makers in developing countries. He also has conducted extensive analytical work in major developing countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, and he is currently working on studies on Mexico, China, Finland, Japan, and Korea. Dr. Dahlman holds a B.A. in international relations from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. Geoff Davis is an analyst in the Quantitative Insights Group at Google. Previously, he held positions in the Mathematics Department at Dartmouth College; in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Rice University; with the Signal Processing Group at Microsoft Research; as a developer at a start-up company; and at Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society. He also was a Wertheim Fellow in the Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School. Dr. Davis’s mathematical research centers on representations of information, with a particular focus on wavelets and related transforms. He is a recipient of the Leon K. Kirchmayer Prize Paper Award of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He has had a long- standing interest in science education and policy issues, and is a past member of the Science and Engineering Workforce Project of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He holds a Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the Courant Institute at New York University. Katharine Frase is vice president, industries research, at IBM. She is responsible for working across IBM Research on behalf of IBM clients to create transformational industry-focused solutions, including the application of “Watson” technologies to business applications and the realization of Smarter Planet solutions. Prior to assuming this role, she was vice president, technical and business strategy, for the IBM Software Group, where she was responsible for technical strategy, business strategy, business development, standards, competitive analysis, and the application of advanced technologies across IBM's software business. Her past roles in IBM PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PANEL MEMBERS AND STAFF A-3 include corporate assignments in technology assessment and strategy, as well as roles in IBM Microelectronics; management of process development; design/modeling methodology; and the production of chip carriers, assemblies, and test. Dr. Frase received an A.B. in chemistry from Bryn Mawr College and a Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from the University of Pennsylvania. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the IBM Academy of Technology and sits on numerous external committees and boards. Barbara Fraumeni is chair of the Public Policy and Management Masters program and the Ph.D. in Public Policy program and professor of public policy at the Muskie School of Public Service, University of Southern Maine. She is also a special-term professor at the China Center for Human Capital and Labor Market Research of the Central University for Finance and Economics in Beijing and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. She previously served as chief economist of the Bureau of Economic Analysis at the U.S. Department of Commerce and was a research fellow of the Program on Technology and Economic Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Her research interests include measurement issues and national income accounting; human and nonhuman capital, productivity, and economic growth; market and nonmarket accounts; investment in education and R&D; and measurement of highway capital stock and the real output of government by function. She holds a B.A. from Wellesley College and a Ph.D. in economics from Boston College. Richard Freeman holds the Herbert Ascherman chair in economics at Harvard University and is currently serving as faculty director of the Labor and Worklife Program at Harvard Law School. He also directs the National Bureau of Economic Research/Sloan Science Engineering Workforce Projects and is senior research fellow in labor markets at the London School of Economics’ Centre for Economic Performance. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and he is currently serving as a member of the Initiative for Science and Technology of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Freeman is a recipient of the Mincer Lifetime Achievement Prize of the Society of Labor Economics and of the IZA Prize in Labor Economics from the Institute for the Study of Labor. He holds a B.A. from Dartmouth College and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Fred Gault is a professorial fellow with the United Nations University-Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT). He is also a professor extraordinaire at the Tshwane University of Technology in South Africa and a member of the university’s Institute for Economic Research on Innovation. He worked with OECD as a member of the management team coordinating the OECD Innovation Strategy. Previously, he held a visiting fellowship at the Canadian International Development Research Centre, spent some years at Statistics Canada, and was a senior lecturer in theoretical physics at the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. At Statistics Canada, Dr. Gault directed the division responsible for the development of statistics on all aspects of research, development, invention, innovation, and the diffusion of technologies, as well as on related human resources. He was chair of the OECD Working Party of National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators and of the Working Party on Indicators for the Information Society. He is a fellow of the Institute of Physics and a member of the British Computer Society. He holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics and a B.Sc. (economics) from the University of London. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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A-4 CAPTURING CHANGE IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION: IMPROVING INDICATORS TO INFORM POLICY David Goldston is director of government affairs at the National Resources Defense Council. He was a visiting lecturer at the Harvard University Center for the Environment and in the Science, Technology and Environment Program at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Previously, he was chief of staff of the U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on Science, which has jurisdiction over much of the federal R&D budget, and legislative director for Representative Sherwood Boehlert of New York. He wrote the monthly column “Party of One” on Congress and science policy for the journal Nature. He graduated from Cornell University and completed the course work for a Ph.D. in U.S. history at the University of Pennsylvania. Kaye Husbands Fealing (Study Director) is a member of the staff of the Committee on National Statistics. She is on leave from the Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs of the University of Minnesota, where she is a professor in the Center for Science, Technology and Public Policy. Previously, she was William Brough professor of economics at Williams College. At the National Science Foundation, she initiated and developed the agency’s Science of Science and Innovation Policy program, cochaired the Science of Science Policy Interagency Task Group, and served as an economics program director. Her research has included a study of the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on the Mexican and Canadian automotive industries and on strategic alliances between aircraft contractors and their subcontractors. She holds a B.A. in mathematics and economics from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Michael Mandel is chief economic strategist at the nonpartisan Progressive Policy Institute in Washington and a senior fellow at the Mack Center for Technological Innovation at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. His main areas of study include the economic impact of the data-driven economy, the impact of regulation on innovation, and measurement issues connected with globalization and innovation. His current research focuses on new methodologies for tracking job creation in innovative industries and on whether new regulatory institutions can improve economic performance. He formerly served as chief economist at Businessweek, where he directed the magazine’s coverage of the domestic and global economies, and he has received multiple awards for his articles on economic growth and innovation. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. John E. Rolph is professor of statistics emeritus at the Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, where he also holds appointments in the mathematics department and the law school. Previously, he was a statistician at the RAND Corporation and served as head of the statistical research and consulting group. His major areas of research include statistics and public policy and empirical Bayes estimation. He is an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, a fellow of the American Statistical Association, a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and a lifetime national associate of the National Academies. He is a past editor of CHANCE magazine and has served in many other editorial capacities. He holds an A.B. and a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of California, Berkeley. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PANEL MEMBERS AND STAFF A-5 Leland Wilkinson is vice president of data visualization at Skytree Inc. and adjunct professor of computer science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Previously, he was executive vice president of SYSTAT Software Inc., a company he founded, and adjunct professor of statistics at Northwestern University. Dr. Wilkinson is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and served as vice-chair of the board of the National Institute of Statistical Sciences. He was also a member of the Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics of the National Academy of Sciences. His innovation indicators include books, journal articles, the original SYSTAT statistics package, and patents in visualization and distributed computing. He holds an A.B. from Harvard University, an S.T.B. from Harvard Divinity School, and a Ph.D. from Yale. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS