Page 439

INDEX

A

Abortion, 307

Acetylcholine, 115

Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 387, 389

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 34, 138, 345

Adolescents

alcohol abuse in, 13, 332

as community risk factor, 133-134, 147

continuity of aggression in, 103

drug use in, 197

female, sexual violence against, 241

gangs and, 17

homicide victims, 62, 256-259

individual risk factor to, 146

pubertal development, 118-119, 371-372

robbery in, 187

violence potential in, 360, 363-364, 384

violence prevention curriculum for, 317-319

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 164n.3

Age

adjustment for, 93-94n.13

and child abuse victimization, 235

and development of violence potential, 360, 361, 362-363, 364

and homicide victimization, 62-63, 64, 94n.15, 256-257

National Crime Survey limits, 2, 43, 45, 418

and reporting of victimization, 422-423

as victimization risk factor, 4, 68-69

and violent criminality, 72, 377, 393

Aggressiveness

alcohol effects on, 189-190, 195-196, 197, 199-200, 333

animal studies of, 118, 119, 121-122, 125, 128, 189-190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196

biological influences on, 115-116

biomedical theories of, 128

childhood, antecedents of, 105-106, 108, 156, 358, 364, 365-366, 367, 369

childhood, correlation with adult violence, 7, 35-36, 103-104, 196, 197, 358

childhood, in development of violence potential, 358, 359, 360, 361-362, 363-364, 379-380

childhood, genetic influences, 117



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Page 439 INDEX A Abortion, 307 Acetylcholine, 115 Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, 387, 389 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 34, 138, 345 Adolescents alcohol abuse in, 13, 332 as community risk factor, 133-134, 147 continuity of aggression in, 103 drug use in, 197 female, sexual violence against, 241 gangs and, 17 homicide victims, 62, 256-259 individual risk factor to, 146 pubertal development, 118-119, 371-372 robbery in, 187 violence potential in, 360, 363-364, 384 violence prevention curriculum for, 317-319 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 164n.3 Age adjustment for, 93-94n.13 and child abuse victimization, 235 and development of violence potential, 360, 361, 362-363, 364 and homicide victimization, 62-63, 64, 94n.15, 256-257 National Crime Survey limits, 2, 43, 45, 418 and reporting of victimization, 422-423 as victimization risk factor, 4, 68-69 and violent criminality, 72, 377, 393 Aggressiveness alcohol effects on, 189-190, 195-196, 197, 199-200, 333 animal studies of, 118, 119, 121-122, 125, 128, 189-190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196 biological influences on, 115-116 biomedical theories of, 128 childhood, antecedents of, 105-106, 108, 156, 358, 364, 365-366, 367, 369 childhood, correlation with adult violence, 7, 35-36, 103-104, 196, 197, 358 childhood, in development of violence potential, 358, 359, 360, 361-362, 363-364, 379-380 childhood, genetic influences, 117

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Page 440 childhood, and peer rejection, 105, 107, 369-370 childhood, preventive interventions, 8, 22, 107-109, 124, 125-126, 163, 319, 328, 329-330, 384-394 childhood, research needs, 380-381, 382 cognitive-behavioral theories, 379-380, 385 continuity across ages, 107, 157, 319, 358, 361-363, 368 data collection on, 104-105 definitions of, 35, 103 dietary influences on, 124 drug effects on, 183, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197 frustration-aggression theory, 378 genetic influences on, 117, 118 hormonal influences on, 118-119, 372 IQ and, 367 and marital violence, 227 mass media influences, xii-xiv measurement of, 103-104 multicommunity longitudinal study recommendation, 25, 156, 157, 158-159, 160, 162, 163, 341, 342, 344 neurochemical influences on, 119, 120, 121 neurological abnormalities and, 12, 121-122, 123-124 nicotine reduction of, 125 in opiate withdrawal, 22, 192, 329 parent and teacher training and, 389 pharmacological treatments, 120, 121, 205, 206, 211, 329, 333, 340 protective factors for, 107, 373, 381, 382 public policy issues, 394 research needs, 211, 344, 366, 380-381, 382, 391, 392 as risk factor for violence, 103, 105-106 risk factors for, 7, 156, 299, 329, 365, 366 school-based interventions, 391 and sexual violence, 9, 113 social learning of, 7, 104, 106, 379, 384 social-learning interventions, 8, 107-108, 384-385, 386 social skills training and, 386-388 television and, 106, 371, 384 treatment interventions, 113 Alaska natives, 70, 71 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 345 Alcoholism childhood aggressiveness and, 196, 207 genetic predisposition to, 117, 191 and neurochemical functions, 121, 190 and violent crime, 185, 189, 368 Alcohol use, 147, 160 abuse treatment, 11, 22-23, 246, 248, 329 and aggressive behavior, 189-190, 195-196, 197, 199-200, 206, 333 animal studies of, 189-190, 196 in committed crimes, 184, 185, 189 cultural influences and, 14, 198-200 emotional interactions, 197 endocrinological interactions, 189-190 and family violence, 10-11, 237 gender differences and, 196 genetic interactions, 191 in homicides, 184, 185 and hypoglycemia, 124 and multiple drug use, 187 National Youth Survey reports, 345 and neurological functioning, 12, 182-183, 190-191, 302 pharmacological interventions, 205, 206, 333, 340 in pregnancy, 13, 124, 158 preventive interventions, 22, 207, 329, 332, 333 Prohibition, xii, 202 research needs, 211, 332-333, 348 risk factor for violence, 307, 330, 333 and sexual violence, 9, 110, 126, 189, 330, 340 social-level interactions, 197-198 taxation interventions, 206, 209, 333 and testosterone levels, 118, 189-190 and violent behavior, 13-14, 182, 183, 184-185, 190, 196, 198, 357, 363

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Page 441 Alpha-blockers, 120 American Society of Criminology, 350 Amines, 339 Amphetamines, 120 correlation with violence, 13, 182, 191, 193-194, 197-198 Anger management training, 9, 11, 113, 126, 340 Animals, cruelty to, 103-104, 364 Animal studies aggressive and violent behavior, 116, 118, 119, 121-122, 125, 128-129, 189-190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 339 alcohol use, 189-190, 196 drug use, 191, 192, 193, 195, 206 hormonal mechanisms, 119, 189-190 neurobiological, 12-13, 190 neurochemical, 120, 121, 164n.2 Antiandrogen drugs, 340 Antianxiety drugs, 340 Antipsychotic drugs, 120, 194 Antisocial behavior age at maturation and, 372 aggressiveness in, 370 cognitive/behavioral intervention, 385-386, 387 in development of violence potential, 359, 360, 361 genetic influences, 11, 116, 191, 207 parent training and, 388-389 research needs, 25, 341, 348, 381, 392 temperament and, 7, 366, 394 Antisocial personality disorder, 11, 113, 196, 333, 359 Anxiety, 379 Anxiolytics, 330, 340 Arrest age distribution, 72, 73, 74 childhood abuse and, 239, 368 data collection, 49, 71, 373, 415-416 and deterrence of violent crime, 11, 244-245, 313, 314, 407 ethnic distribution, 71, 72 evidentiary restrictions and, 294 and family violence, 11, 246, 247, 248, 249n.7, 311-314, 329, 407 mandatory arrest policies, 247, 407 probability of, 292, 294 rearrest, 208, 209, 212n.4, 311, 314 research needs, 22, 247, 329, 335 and spouse assault, 11, 244-245, 246, 247, 248 urinalysis testing, 212n.1 violent crime rates, 76 Arson, 54, 61 Asian Americans, 48-49, 90 Assault, 2 aggravated, 3, 43-45, 68, 85-87, 92-93n.5, 407 arrest rates for, 74 attempted and completed, 57, 58 on children, 3, 48, 227, 228, 409 co-offenders, 5 costs of, 4, 60, 345 data collection, 3, 43-45, 48, 67-68, 249n.6, 315, 413-414, 418, 426 development of violence potential and, 359, 375 drug use and, 186-187 on elderly, 229 in families, 231-234, 247, 407, 419 family, arrest policies and, 311, 407 federal research funding, 349-350 felony, 247, 407 gun control laws and, 268, 275, 276, 277, 278 injuries in, 57, 58, 59, 62, 69, 422 international comparisons, 53 offender characteristics, 71, 72, 74 offender self-reporting, 373 offender-victim relationships, 5, 77, 231, 421 in prisons, 154-155, 185, 350 proportion of violent crime, 3, 54, 55, 70, 411 rates of, 47, 56, 57, 58, 83, 85-87, 234 reporting rates, 47, 48, 68, 88-90, 249n.6, 407, 413-414, 419-420, 421-422, 426-427 research needs, 24, 279, 337, 338 in schools, 155, 370 self-defense in, 266, 282-283n.7 series victimizations, 424, 425 sexual, 53, 55, 77, 88-90, 154-155 sexual motivation in, 109 simple, 3, 45, 54, 68, 92-93n.5, 93n.7 on spouses, 22, 231, 234, 329 victimization risks, 69, 70, 146

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Page 442 weapons and lethality of, 24, 57, 61, 337 weapon use in, 263, 267, 269 on women, 3, 10, 69, 77, 231, 407 women's shelters and, 22-23 Assault weapons, 18, 260, 332 regulation of, 274, 277-278, 281 research needs, 279, 280 Assertiveness training, 9, 113, 126, 340 Atlanta, Ga., homicide rate study, 130, 131 Attention deficit, 7, 105, 106, 366-367 Attitudes Toward Women Scale, 164n.1 Australia, sexual assault rate, 53 B Bahamas, homicide mortality rate, 53 Baltimore, Md., violence rate studies, 134, 419 Barbiturates, 197 Bartley-Fox Amendment (Massachusetts, 1974), 275 Behavioral management intervention, 113, 384 Benzodiazepines, 121 GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex blocking medication, 190, 206, 333, 340 Beta-blockers, 120, 121, 340 Bias crimes, 2-3 in criminal law, 77-78, 91, 407-408 data collection, 3, 23, 78, 336, 408 federal research funding, 349-350 intervention recommendations, 22, 329, 334 research needs, 91 Biological factors, 102, 103, 115-116 alcohol and drug influences, 182-183, 191, 195 brain dysfunctions, 123-124 in development of violence potential, 295, 357, 360 genetic influences, 11-12, 116-118 hormonal mechanisms, 118-119 hypoglycemia and diet, 124-125 intervention recommendations, 22, 205, 206, 328, 329, 330 in multicommunity longitudinal study, 156, 157-158, 160, 161 neurobiologic processes, 12-14 neurochemistry, 119-121 neurological abnormalities, 121-123 puberty, 371-372 research needs, 125, 127-128, 206-207 risk factors, 20, 159, 296, 297 in violence matrix, 296, 297, 300, 302-303 Biological markers, 116, 339 neurobiological, 12, 24, 161, 337, 339 neurophysiological, 123 Birmingham, Ala., undercover drug busts, 209-210 Birthweight, 22, 105, 135, 328, 383, 384 Blacks alcohol use, 199 child abuse risks, 10, 235, 368 and community crime rates, 132, 133 community cultures, 16, 136 data collection and, 418, 422 development of violence potential in, 357-358, 369, 380 firearm mortality rates, 18, 256, 257-259, 269, 279, 281-282n.1 gang activities, 199 homicide victimization risks, 4, 14, 50, 51, 62, 63, 64, 65, 70, 130, 135-136 intervention programs and, 385, 389-390 life expectancies, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 middle class, 135 offender-victim relationships, 77 in poverty, 132, 133, 369 proportion of arrestees, 71 single-parent households, 222, 223 social alienation, 138, 268 socioeconomic status, 14, 130 violent crime victimization risks, 4, 61, 69-70, 90, 129, 146 violent offenders, 71, 137 young males, 4, 18, 61, 63, 64, 256, 257-259, 269, 279, 418 B'nai B'rith, 408 Boston, Mass. gang activities, 143-144 gun crimes in, 269, 275, 277 homicide victimization study, 130

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Page 443 Violence Prevention Curriculum, 108, 317-319 Brain dysfunctions, 13, 116, 122, 123-124, 125, 163, 329, 339 Brain imaging techniques, 123, 127-128, 161 Brain trauma, 22, 115, 125, 328 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), 260, 269-270, 273 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 46, 59, 62, 93n.10, 264, 428n.8 Burglary, 377 antisocial tendency and, 360 data collection, 55, 92n.4, 414 drug-use motivation in, 200, 201, 210, 410 firearm self-defense in, 266, 267, 282-283n.7 gun control laws and, 268, 276 reporting rates, 55 sexual motivation in, 109 victimization risks, 62 violence risks in, 212n.3 C California Civil Addict Program, 209 mandatory sentencing, 153 Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project, 164n.4, 353n.2 Canada elder abuse survey, 229 homicide rates, 54 Native Americans in, 199 Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution, 111 violent crime rates, 3, 53-54, 146-147 Cancer as cause of death, 65, 67 research, 34-35, 345, 346 Capital punishment, 36 Cats, 125, 192 Census Bureau, 46, 48, 248-249n.1, 249n.2, 426 Centers for Disease Control, 1, 337 Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, 351 Injury Control Division, xi Charlotte, N.C., domestic violence experiment, 311 Chicago, Ill. gun assaults, 262 homicides, 184 poverty in, 134 robbery incidence, 85 Child abuse and adult violence, 239, 367-368 age and victimization risk, 10, 235 antecedents of, 367, 368 data collection on, 45, 48, 49, 224, 249n.5, 405-406 in day care centers, 235, 237 emotional abuse, 228-229 ethnic status and victimization risk, 235 family, 10, 48, 227-229, 234, 235-236 gender and victimization risk, 10, 69, 235 homicide, 10, 227-228, 234 injuries from, 235-236 neglect, 228, 368 parental depression and, 239 personality characteristics of offenders, 367 prevalence of, 226, 227-229, 235-236 preventive interventions, 11, 242-244, 249-250n.9 repeated offenses, 237 research needs, 236 sexual, 3, 8, 69, 109, 110, 111, 223, 228-229, 231, 235, 240 sexual, and adult violence, 9, 110, 112, 409 sexual, consequences of, 236 sexual, interventions, 113, 330 sexual, research needs, 126, 340 sibling assault, 221, 223, 230 social constructions of, 3, 221, 223, 406, 409 socioeconomic status and, 7, 10, 106, 235-236, 366, 384, 385 therapeutic services, 245, 248, 249n.8 Child Abuse and Prevention and Treatment Act (1988), 227 Child care, 135

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Page 444 Children. See also Adolescents; Child abuse aggressiveness, antecedents of, 105-106, 108, 156, 358, 364, 365-366, 367, 369 aggressiveness, correlation with adult violence, 7, 35-36, 103-104, 196, 197, 358 aggressiveness, in development of violence potential, 358, 359, 360, 361-362, 363-364, 379-380 aggressiveness, genetic influences, 117 aggressiveness, and peer rejection, 105, 107, 369-370 aggressiveness, preventive interventions, 8, 22, 107-109, 124, 125-126, 163, 319, 328, 329-330, 384-394 aggressiveness, research needs, 380-381, 382 antisocial personality in, 359 brain dysfunctions, 12, 13, 22, 125 delinquency, 106, 116 development of violence potential, 101, 298, 302, 304, 305 drug-abuse preventive interventions, 205, 207 firearm deaths, 267 foster care, 241, 243 head injuries, 12, 13, 22, 102, 127, 304, 328 hyperactivity, 124-125 lead poisoning, 12, 13, 124, 127, 329 maternal substance abuse and, 13, 102, 124, 127, 329 multicommunity longitudinal study proposal, 156, 157, 158, 160, 162, 163 parental rearing of, 106, 107, 157, 367 pharmacological interventions, 127 predictors of adult violence in, 7-8, 103-104, 105-106, 112 protective factors against violence, 7, 8, 107, 365, 366, 372-373, 382 pubertal development, 118-119, 371-372 school failure, 12, 14, 105, 304, 358, 370, 384 school-failure prevention, 125-126, 163, 330, 384, 390, 394 school violence, 1, 57, 370 sex-role socialization, 110-111, 164n.1 in single-parent households, 222, 223 social learning, 104, 106, 302 social-level influences on, 136 violence, intergenerational transmission, 10-11, 239, 368 violence toward parents, 230 violence prevention interventions in, 13, 22, 114, 127, 149, 300, 307, 343-344, 384-391 Chinese gangs, 143 Cholesterol levels, 125 Chromosomal syndromes, 9, 110, 117, 118 Cirrhosis deaths, 209 Cities, 382. See also individual cities effects of violence on, 16, 135 gang activities in, 139, 140, 143, 144 homicide rates in, 3, 50, 51, 83, 305 poverty in, 132, 134-135, 136 riots in, ix victimization risks in, 61, 147-148 violent crime rates in, 4, 17, 79, 81-83, 84-88 Clonidine, 120, 192, 206, 333 Cocaine use. See also Crack cocaine abuse treatment, 208 behavioral effects, 197-198 and economic crimes, 201 emotional effects, 197 in family violence, 237 in homicide offenders, 188 illegal markets, 204, 305 neurochemical effects, 120 in pregnancy, 13, 124 and violent behavior, 13, 22, 182, 187, 191, 194, 329 Cognitive-behavioral interventions, 8, 22, 125, 163, 328, 329-330, 384, 385-386 Cognitive-behavioral theories, 379-380 Cognitive deficits, 364-365 Collective violence, ix, xii, 2, 36 Community-level factors city size and violent crime, 79-88 community transition, 14, 22, 329, 334

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Page 445 cultural, 16, 136-138, 143-144, 145 ethnic status and, 15, 133 firearm policies, 270, 280-281 gang activity, 137, 143-145 illegal markets and, 15, 16, 137, 143, 204-205 influences on violent behavior, 14-15, 101-102, 133-134, 305-306, 357 poverty, 15, 131-133 research needs, 139, 145, 157, 162-163, 211-212, 338 victimization risks, 147 violence prevention interventions, 206, 209-210 Concentration, 7, 105, 358 Conditional probabilities, 416-418 Conduct disorder, 13, 103, 359, 361, 366, 389 Conflict Tactics Scale, 227 Connecticut bias crimes law, 407 mandatory arrest law, 407 Convenience stores, 151, 315-317, 323n.10 Costs of firearm violence, 256, 279 of research, 344, 345-346, 353n.4 social, 345-346, 348 of violent crime, 4-5, 59-60, 90-91, 92, 345 Counseling programs, 333 Crack cocaine and economic crimes, 201-202 and gang violence, 17, 204 and homicide rates, 187-188, 305 illegal markets, 201-202, 204, 205 research needs, 13, 207, 211 and violent behavior, 194, 204, 205, 333 Crime, nonviolent alcohol use and, 184 attempted and completed, 55-57 black-on-black, 138 career criminals, 76 environmental interventions and, 148-149 firearms used in, 18-19, 260, 269, 282n.2, 331, 337-338 gangs and, 143 genetic influences, 116-117 measurements of, 2-3, 45-46 neurochemical influences, 121 perinatal trauma and, 364, 365 poverty and, 131 protective factors and, 372-373 records of sex offenders, 110 research needs, 139, 337-338, 348-349 in schools, 155, 370 series victimizations, 46-47, 423-425 social constructions of, 36, 43, 47 social processes and, 129 and violent behavior, 106 violent offenders and, 359, 376, 381 weapon use in, 55-57 Crime, violent alcohol use and, 185, 189 city size and, 79-88 community characteristics and, 15, 133-134, 162 community culture and, 16, 136-138, 305-306 costs of, 4-5, 59-61, 92 in criminal careers, 5-6, 76, 373-378 data collection on, 43-50, 90-92, 92nn.2 and 4, 93n.8, 418-423, 426-427 drug market interventions and, 209-210, 333-334 drug use and, 185-187, 208, 410 economic violence, 201-202 in families, 221, 407 firearm interventions and, 267-268, 270-271, 275-280 firearm self-defense in, 265-266, 276 firearm use in, 255-256, 262, 265 foster care placement and, 243 gangs and, 16-17 historical trends, 50-51 injuries from, 59, 60 international comparisons, 52-54 interventions, evaluation of, 307-308 lethality of, 60-61 mass media and, xii, 42 measurements of, 2-3, 404-406, 411-414 National Youth Survey reports, 344-345 nonfatal, 4, 49, 53, 67-68

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Page 446 offender demographics, 5, 71-76, 414-416 offender-victim relationships, 76-79 pornography and, xii-xiii poverty and, 131-132, 133 prison terms for, 6, 289, 291-296, 343 proportion of all crime, 3, 54 research needs, 57, 279-280 series victimizations, 423-425 sexual, 8-9, 53, 55, 408-409 social constructions of, 2-3, 47, 221-222, 406-410 social processes and, 14-17, 129 socioeconomic structure and, 15-16 U.S. rates of, 3-4, 50, 52-55 victimization risks, 4, 67-71, 416-418 Crime Control Theory Program, 313 Criminal justice system, 6 data collection, 35, 37 domestic violence interventions, 22-23, 247, 329, 335 incarceration policies, 295 research needs, 381 Criminal law, 36-37, 222, 406, 409, 418 Criminals. See also Offenders brain abnormalities, 123 career, 5-6, 76, 342, 373-378, 415-416 childhood sexual victimization, 112 children of, 368 in community culture, 16 deterrence and, 313 firearm use, 22, 264-265, 332 Criminology, 17, 145, 363 Cultural influences, 14, 143-144, 198-200, 303-304 Custodian/ward violence, xii, 17, 24, 331, 337, 341, 407 D Dallas, Tex., 85 Data collection, 104-105 costs of, 344 on development of violence potential, 381, 382 on family violence, 224, 405 limitations of, 36-37, 46-48, 129, 404-405, 417 multicommunity longitudinal study proposal, 157-160, 342-343, 344 national systems, 43-46, 49-50 recommendations, 88-92, 335-336 reverse-record checks, 48, 419-420, 426, 427n.4 subnational, 49 Date rape, 47, 407, 408-409 Day care centers, 235, 237 Death, 2 accidental, 4 demographic mortality rates, 259 natural causes, 4 violent behavior and, 125 years of potential life lost, 65, 94n.14 Death, violent, 1, 33. See also Homicide accidental, 64-65 alcohol abuse and, 199 of children, 227-228, 267 costs of, 60, 353n.4 data collection on, 43 firearms and lethality, 18, 256, 259, 260, 263, 268, 274, 279 gender and victimization risk, 234-235 guns in the home and, 267 homicide as cause of, 64-65, 66 justifiable homicides, 67, 282n.6 lethality of crimes, 60-61 manslaughter, 32, 72, 73, 82 military, 67, 94n.15, 135-136 mortality statistics, 43, 45, 46 motor vehicle accidents, 65, 66, 67, 209, 271 of police officers, 267 research needs, 24, 337 suicide as cause of, 64-65, 66, 267 unintentional, 36, 267 ''Defensible space," 148 Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 119, 164n.3 Deinstitutionalization, 241 Delinquency, 348-349. See also Adolescents interventions and, 388 juvenile, 37, 345 perinatal trauma and, 364 poverty and, 131 protective factors, 372-373 and violent behavior, 106, 381

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Page 447 Denmark, 364 Depression, 10-11, 197, 238-239, 362 Deterrence, 307, 322n.1 of family violence, 313-314, 407 incarceration and, 291, 293-294, 343 of spouse assault, 11, 244-245, 246 two-clerk ordinance and, 315-316, 317 Detroit, Mich. homicide rates, 188 poverty in, 134 robbery incidence, 85 Developmental interventions, 205, 207 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), 103, 348 Diet, 116, 124-125 Divorce, 135, 147, 223 Domestic violence. See Family violence Dopamine and aggressive behavior, 115, 119, 120, 339 receptor blocking drugs, 192, 194, 206, 334, 340 Drug abuse. See also Pharmacological interventions and aggressive behavior, 183, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197 animal studies of, 191, 192, 193, 195, 206 biological interventions, 205, 206-207, 329, 333, 334 biological links with violence, 182-183, 191-195 blacks and, 138 developmental interventions, 205, 207, 332 in development of violence potential, 363 dopamine receptor stimulation, 120, 192, 194 and economic crimes, 200-202 emotional effects of, 197 family influences of, 160, 197, 237 federal policy, 182 federal research funding, 348, 350 and homicide rates, 185, 187-188, 200, 201 incarceration interventions, 205-206, 208 inhibition of aggression and violence, 13, 191, 192, 195 National Youth Survey reports, 345 in pregnancy, 13, 127, 158 psychosocial links with violence, 195, 196, 197 research needs, 206-207, 211-212 social-level links with violence, 197-198, 203-205, 304 treatment interventions, 208-209, 211-212, 246, 248, 307, 334 urinalysis testing, 208, 212n.1 and victimization risks, 13, 191 and violent behavior, 11, 12, 13-14, 332-333 and violent crime, 185-187, 208, 410 Drug Enforcement Agency, xii Drug markets, illegal and economic crimes, 201-202, 410 and gang violence, 17, 137, 143, 204 police intervention in, 22, 206, 209-210, 211-212, 328-329, 331, 334 preventive interventions, 148 violence in, xii, 14, 17, 18, 200, 202-203, 205, 207, 333-334, 410 Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program, 184, 186, 188 Due process rights, 294 E Earlscourt Social Skills Group Program, 386 Economic opportunity, 15-16, 134-135, 144-145, 303, 305 Economic violence, 201-202 Ecuador, homicide rates, 53 Education Development Center, Inc., 318 Eisenhower Commission, xii Elder abuse, 221, 229-230, 240 Electric shock therapies, 9, 113 Emergency medical treatment, 426-427 Emotional abuse, 228-229 Emotional trauma, 59, 60 Employment opportunity, 14, 15-16, 144, 244 Endocrine mechanisms, 183, 189-190, 363 Environmental influences, 117, 147-151, 305-306, 365, 379

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Page 448 "Environmental management," 149 Environmental toxins, 329 Epilepsy, 9, 110, 122 Ethnic status and community disruption, 131, 133 cultural norms, 143-144, 303 data collection on, 48, 90 and development of violence potential, 357, 369 and gang violence, 143 and homicide victimization risk, 4, 14, 50-51, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 129-130, 132, 257-259 offender-victim relations, 77 and poverty, 15-16, 132-133, 134, 144, 369 and violence victimization risks, 4, 14, 68, 69-70, 90, 352 of violent offenders, 5, 64, 71, 72, 77, 93-94n.13, 338 Ethology, xii-xiii Eugenics, 127 Evaluation research, 6-7, 19, 23-24, 289, 296-298, 306-310, 319-322, 336 case studies, 310-319 Evidentiary restrictions, 294 F Families. See also Family violence contribution to community characteristics, 132, 133, 135 definitions of, 222, 248-249n.1 and development of individual violence potential, 10-11, 357, 358, 367-369, 380-381 and development of sex offenders, 110 income, 7-8, 107, 358, 372 in multicommunity longitudinal study proposal, 160, 162 in poverty, 14, 15-16 predictors of violence in, 7-8, 105, 358 preventive interventions in, 127, 384 protective factors, 8, 107, 372, 373 research needs, 380-381 responses to aggressive behavior, 117 single-parent households, 133-134, 135, 222, 223 social learning of violence in, 101, 104, 106-107 socioeconomic conditions and, 106, 304, 384 urban exodus, 16 Family law, 222 Family violence. See also Child abuse; Spouse assault alcohol and drug use and, 10-11, 14, 197, 237, 332-333, 419 assaults, 10, 228, 231-234, 249n.6 data collection, 23, 47, 48, 88, 92, 222, 224, 225-230, 249n.7, 336, 419 depression and, 10-11, 238-239 elder abuse, 221, 229-230, 240 emotional abuse, 228-229 explanations of, 239-242 family income and, 235-236 federal research support, 351, 352 firearm use in, 261-262, 267 homicides, 10, 226, 231, 234-235 injuries in, 225, 235-236, 237-238 intergenerational transmission of, 10-11, 60, 239, 368, 369 locations of, 249n.4 preventive interventions, 11, 242-248, 311-314, 315, 407 psychological consequences of, 10, 37, 238-239 racial differences in, 10, 235 recommendations, 22-23, 231, 236, 237, 335, 336 repeated attacks, 223-224, 236-237, 250n.13 reporting of, 10, 47, 224-225, 229, 249n.5, 249-250n.9 research needs, 225, 236, 237 sexual abuse, 10, 221, 223, 224, 229, 231, 235, 236, 241 sibling assaults, 221, 223, 230 social constructions of, 47, 48, 221-223, 407 social isolation and, 10, 241-242 social learning and, 240-241 and suicide risks, 238 victimization risks, 223, 230-237 women as victims of, 10, 225, 230, 231, 234-235, 237-238

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Page 449 Federal agencies, research support, 25-26, 345-352 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 408, 412. See also Uniform Crime Reports Federal Gun Control Act (1968), 271, 273, 277 Felony murder, 268, 427n.1 Females adolescent development, 371-372 alcohol use, 196 arrestee drug use, 186 child abuse victimization risks, 10, 235 drug use, 203 elder abuse of, 230 fetal development of, 118-119 firearm self-defense, 264, 276 homicide victimization risks, 10, 64, 65, 69, 79, 234-235, 261 life expectancy, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 male attitudes toward, 9-10, 110-111, 114, 164n.1, 240, 340 pregnancy, substance abuse in, 13, 102, 124, 125, 158 pregnancy interventions, 127, 329, 365, 394 prostitution, 186 reporting of crimes, 47, 69, 85, 408, 409, 420, 421, 422-423 sexual abuse victimization risks, 10, 69, 77, 203, 235, 240 social constructions of assault against, 3, 47, 303, 340, 407, 408-409, 420 spousal abuse of, 10, 47, 69, 225, 231, 234-235, 237-238, 244, 261, 369 violence prevention interventions, 9-10, 114, 245-246, 276, 330, 340, 389, 407 violent crime arrests, 72 violent victimization risks, 10, 68-69, 80, 231, 262 Feminist theory, 240 Fetal development, 115 damage-prevention interventions, 125, 163, 383-384, 394 nervous system, 101, 298, 364-365 prenatal care, 12, 307, 338, 365, 383, 394 testosterone levels and, 9, 118-119, 330 and violence potential, 298, 330, 364-365 Firearms, 17. See also Assault weapons; Handguns availability and violence, 267-268, 278-279, 304 crack epidemics and, 305 data collection on, 256, 263, 264, 265-266, 279 in domestic disputes, 261-262, 267 in drug-trade violence, 410 gun control laws, 255, 268, 269, 271-274, 275, 278-279, 280 homicide mortality risks, 256, 267 household ownership of, 53, 256, 264, 266-267, 268, 283n.8 illegal markets, 18, 22, 203, 255, 269-270 illegal markets, intervention in, 19, 22, 255, 270, 271, 274-275, 278, 280-281, 328-329, 331 lethality of injuries from, 18, 260-264, 277-278, 280, 332 mandatory sentencing laws, 275-276, 292-293, 314-315 recommendations, 22, 328-329 research needs, 279-281, 332, 337-338 theft of, 18-19, 269 use in homicides, 255, 256-259, 260, 268, 269, 277, 281-282n.1 use in self-defense, 263, 264-267, 276, 279, 281, 282nn.5 and 6, 282-283n.7 use in suicide, 24, 259, 267-268, 278, 337 use in violent crime, 18-19, 255-256, 260, 261, 262-263, 264-265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 276, 279, 282n.2 violence prevention interventions, 19, 151, 255, 270-279, 328-329, 417 Firearms Control Act (Washington, D.C., 1977), 274, 278 "Flight or fight" syndrome, 120 Florida, 316 mandatory sentencing law, 314-315 Food and Drug Administration, 306

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Page 454 National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (Eisenhower Commission), xii, 221 National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission), xii National Crime Survey (NCS) age limit, 2, 43, 45, 418 assault counts, 45, 48, 55, 59, 68, 231, 234, 249n.6, 413, 426 bias crimes counts, 78 costs of data collection, 353n.4 discrepancies with UCR data, 45, 46, 48, 54-55, 67-68, 93n.9, 413-414 ethnic status data, 48-49, 77, 90, 422 family violence counts, 10, 47, 48, 226, 231, 234, 236, 246, 335, 405, 419, 420 firearm use data, 264, 265-266, 279, 282n.4 injury data, 59, 91, 92-93n.5, 93n.10, 264 methodology, 2, 43, 44, 45, 46, 92nn.2 and 4, 93n.9, 265, 412-413, 418-420, 423, 427-428n.7 offender data, 48, 414, 415 recommendations, 90, 91, 246, 335 robbery counts, 57, 59, 68, 155, 413 series-victimization counts, 46-47, 250n.13, 423-425 sexual violence counts, 47-48, 68, 92n.1, 94n.16, 409, 419, 427n.3 socioeconomic status measurements, 70, 94n.17 violent crime counts, 3, 43-45, 54, 55, 56, 61-62, 67-68, 420 National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute, 408 National Hospital Discharge Survey, 412 National Incidence Survey (NIS), 228-229, 235, 242 National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 412, 413, 415 National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA), 347 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 347 National Institute of Education (NIE), 155-156 National Institute of Justice (NIJ), xi, 1, 318, 337, 347, 349-350 Crime Control Theory Program, 313 domestic violence experiments, 244, 311, 313 Drug Market Analysis Program, 210 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 229, 351-352 National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 151 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 346 National Prisoner Statistics, 414 National Research Council (NRC), xi, 207, 209 Committee on National Urban Policy, 134 National Science Foundation (NSF), xi, 1, 345, 349, 350-351 National Youth Survey (NYS), 187, 344-345 Native Americans, 129 alcohol use and violence, 198-199 assault arrests, 71 data collection on, 48-49, 90 homicide victimization risks, 4, 62-63, 70 Nervous system, 302 alcohol and, 190 autonomic, 128, 161 central, 190, 364-365 development of, 101, 102, 364-365 drug use and, 13, 191, 192, 193 markers for violent behavior, 12, 123, 339 Netherlands, assault rates in, 53 Neuroanatomical abnormalities, 115, 121-122 Neurobiologic processes alcohol and drug influences, 12, 182-183, 190-191, 302 animal studies, 12-13, 128 interactions in violent behavior, 11, 12-13, 101, 102, 304 markers for violent behavior, 12, 24, 161, 337, 339 pharmacological interventions, 12, 340 preventable abnormalities, 12, 115 research needs, 12, 24, 25, 211, 337, 339, 343 Neurochemical mechanisms, 12, 183, 194 Neuroendocrine functioning, 12, 158

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Page 455 Neuropeptides, 115 Neurophysiological processes, 12, 128 abnormalities, 110, 115, 122-123 markers for violent behavior, 123 Neuropsychological deficits, 123 Neuroticism, 367 Neurotoxins, 12, 102 Neurotransmitters and receptors, 115, 119-121, 128, 164n.2, 192, 339 Newark, N.J., 134 New Orleans, La., homicide victimization study, 130 New York, N.Y. drug interventions in, 207, 210 drug-related crime in, 200, 201, 202, 205 drug use in, 188 gangs in, 17 gun control and handgun murders, 269, 277 homicides in, 31-32, 188, 200, 201, 411 poverty in, 134 robbery in, 85, 149 Victim Services Agency, 245 New York Times, 31 Nicotine, 125 Noradrenergic receptors, 192 Norepinephrine and aggressive and violent behavior, 115, 119, 120, 339 receptor blocking drugs, 120, 192, 194, 206, 334 Norway, anti-bullying program, 391 O Oakland, Calif. drug market intervention, 210 school-failure reduction program, 108, 390 Offenders. See also Criminals age of, 72, 377, 393 alcohol use, 198 arrest population and, 71 behavioral treatment of, 9 bias crimes, 77-78 child abuse, 48, 368 childhood personalities of, 7, 366-367 co-offenders, 5, 75-76 criminal careers, 5, 76, 373-378 data collection on, 45, 48, 49, 71, 411, 414-416 demographic characteristics of, 61, 71-72 development of violence potential, 359-360, 362, 366-367, 368, 370 ethnic status of, 5, 64, 71, 72, 77, 93-94n.13, 338 family violence, 10, 223-224, 225, 237, 367 firearm use, 261, 262, 263 gender of, 5, 72, 77, 93-94n.13 homicide, 64, 69, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 80 incarceration and, 6 juvenile, 377 multiple offenders, 5, 45 perinatal trauma in, 364-365 relationships with victims, 5, 48, 76-79, 80, 421 serial killers, 5, 64, 261 sexual, 9-10, 109-115, 126 spouse abuse, 368-369 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 349 Office of Vital Statistics, 412 Ohio, homicide victimization study, 130 Omaha, Neb., domestic violence experiment, 245, 311 Operation Triggerlock, 276 Operation Weed and Seed, 281 Opiate use, 182 inhibition of aggression, 13, 191, 192-193, 197 in pregnancy, 124 and violent victimization risk, 13 withdrawal medications, 22, 192, 329 Opioid peptides, 115, 192 Oregon State Hospital, 209 Organized crime, xii, 305 Orlando, Fla., antirape program, 276 P "Paradoxical rage," 121 Parent training, 108, 125, 329-330, 388-390 Participate and Learn Skills project, 387 Partner assault. See Spouse assault

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Page 456 Peer rejection, 105, 107, 108, 119, 369-370 Pennsylvania bias crimes law, 407 mandatory sentencing law, 314 Peptides, 339 Perpetrators. See Offenders Personality disorders, 112-113, 196, 197, 238, 366-367 antisocial personality disorder, 11, 113, 196, 333, 359 Phallometric measurement, 109-110, 111 Pharmaceutical industry, 306 Pharmacological interventions, 127. See also Drug abuse aggressive behavior, 120, 121, 205, 206, 211, 329, 333, 340 alcohol and drug abuse, 205, 206, 211, 333, 340 sex drive, 126, 340 violent behavior, 12, 24, 300, 337 Phencyclidine (PCP), 13, 182, 191, 195, 197-198 Philadelphia, Pa. drug market intervention, 210 robbery in, 85 social structures, 134, 135, 136 Physiological index of arousal, 366 Pittsburgh, Pa., drug market intervention, 210 ''Plan, the," 138 Police, xii, 17, 265, 341 bias crime reports, 334, 408 blacks and, 138, 268 bullet-proofing, 151 child abuse reports to, 405 drug market interventions, 22, 206, 209-210, 211-212, 255, 328-329, 410 drug-related incident reporting, 200 family violence interventions, 311-314, 407 firearm market interventions, 22, 328-329, 337-338 and household gun ownership, 19, 275, 281 international reporting, 53 killed by gunfire, 267 NIBRS reports, 412 property crime reports to, 54-55, 421 responses to spouse assault, 11, 244-245, 247, 248, 335 sexual violence reports to, 85, 224, 421, 422-423 spouse assault reports to, 224, 420 UCR reports, 43, 45, 46, 47-48, 49, 54, 67-68, 413, 423 use of excessive force, 350 violent crime reports to, 81, 413-414, 418-423, 426, 427n.5 Police brutality, 138 Population density, 14, 132, 133-134, 147-148 Population turnover, 14, 131, 136, 147 Pornography, xii-xiii, 101, 111-112, 126, 307, 340 Positron emission tomography (PET), 123, 366 Poverty. See also Socioeconomic status and development of violence potential, 296, 304, 369 ethnic status and, 15-16, 132-133, 134, 144, 369 and gang activity, 137, 139, 143, 144, 145 as risk factor for violence, 70-71, 129, 131-139, 296 and violent victimization risks, 70-71, 129, 131-139 Predisposing factors, 20, 296, 297, 301-302 Pregnancy alcohol and drug use in, 13, 102, 124, 125, 158 complications, 105, 364, 365, 381 drug-abuse interventions, 127, 329 hormonal development in, 118-119 prenatal care, 12, 338, 365, 383-384, 394 Premature birth, 304, 365 Prenatal care, 12, 338, 365, 383-384, 394 Prenatal development. See Fetal development Preventive interventions, 6, 39, 328 adolescent violence prevention curriculum, 317-319 alcohol abuse, 22, 207, 329, 332, 333 child abuse, 11, 242-244, 249-250n.9 childhood aggression, 8, 22, 107-109,

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Page 457 124, 125-126, 163, 319, 328, 329-330, 384-394 children, violence in, 13, 22, 114, 127, 149, 300, 307, 343-344, 384-391 community-level, 206, 209-210 drug abuse, 205, 207, 211-212 drug markets, 22, 148, 206, 209-210, 211-212, 328-329, 331, 334 drug-related violence, 205-206 environmental, 149-151 evaluation of, 6-7, 19, 23-24, 289, 296-298, 306-310, 319-322, 336 family violence, 11, 242-248, 311-314, 315, 407 fetal development, 125, 163, 383-384, 394 firearms markets, 19, 22, 255, 270, 271, 274-275, 278, 280-281, 328-329, 331 firearm violence, 19, 151, 255, 270-279, 328-329, 417 gang violence, 22, 329, 334 head injury, 22, 127, 160, 328 incarceration, 291-296 multicommunity longitudinal study proposal, 25, 159, 163 parent training, 108, 125, 329-330, 388-390 pharmacological, 24, 127, 300, 340 prison violence, 22, 328 psychosocial, 8, 11, 22, 107-109, 114-115, 125-126, 295, 328, 329-330 research needs, 21, 23-24, 352 robbery, 149, 151, 210, 315-317, 323n.10 school-based, 22, 23, 149, 317-319, 328, 390-391 school failure, 125-126, 330, 384, 390, 394 sexual violence, 9, 114-115, 126, 330, 331 social-level, 334, 391 spouse assault, 22-23, 237, 244-248, 329, 334-335 Primates, 119, 128, 189-190, 192 Prisons. See also Incarceration construction costs, 344 drug-abuse treatment, 334 inmate studies of alcohol use, 184, 185 population increases, and violent crime rates, 6, 208, 289, 292, 295, 323n.3, 343 sex offender relapse prevention, 353n.2 violence in, 17, 102, 124, 152-155, 407 violence prevention interventions, 22, 328 violence research needs, 23, 331, 336, 341 Program on Causes and Correlates of Delinquency, 349 Program on Human Development and Criminal Behavior, 349, 350 Prohibition, xii, 202 Property crimes alcohol and drug use and, 185, 186, 201-202 in criminal careers, 5, 76 ethnic status and, 71 reduction interventions, 149 reporting of, 54-55, 414, 421 victimization risks, 61 Prosocial behavior, 8, 22, 384-385, 394 Prostitution, 18, 186, 202, 203 Protective factors, 8, 107, 372-373, 381, 382 Psychological consequences, 59, 60, 91, 92, 351, 352 Psychological trauma, 10, 37, 114 Psychopathology, 154, 155, 367 Psychopathy, 112-113, 123, 359-360 Psychophysiological factors, 339, 360, 363 Psychosis, 192, 194, 195 Psychosocial influences aggression and violence, 7, 35, 103-107, 125 childhood sexual abuse, 112 and development of violence potential, 7, 101, 102, 295, 302-303 drug use and violence, 195-197 and family violence, 10-11 interactions with biological influences, 102, 119 mental illness and personality disorders, 112-113 in multicommunity longitudinal study proposal, 103, 156, 157, 160

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Page 458 pornography, 111-112 preventive interventions, 8, 11, 22, 107-109, 114-115, 125-126, 295, 328, 329-330 protective factors, 8 research needs, 12, 24, 337 risk factors, 7-8, 20, 103, 105-106, 107, 159, 296, 297, 300 sex-role socialization, 110-111 and sexual violence, 8-9, 24, 109-113 sexual violence interventions, 9-10, 113-115, 126, 340-341 social learning, 104, 106 socioeconomic status and, 7 treatment interventions, 113-114 Psychotherapy, 246, 369 Puberty, 110, 371-372 Public education, 271, 275, 281, 332 Public health system, 17, 38, 108, 145, 149, 150, 308, 351 Public housing, 139, 147-148, 307 Public policy, 38 data deficiencies and, 92 and development of violence potential, 394 drug abuse, 182 evaluation of interventions, 306-307, 309-310, 322 recommendations, 343-344 Public transportation, 146-147 R Race. See Ethnic status Rape, 2. See also Sexual violence age of offenders, 72, 73 attempted and completed, 57, 58 city size and, 82, 83-85 co-offenders, 5, 75 costs of, 4, 60, 345 in criminal careers, 375 data collection, 43-45, 47-48, 55, 68, 92n.1, 265, 411, 419, 427n.3 date rape, 47, 407, 408-409 death in, 61 ethnic status of offenders, 71 firearm self-defense, 265, 276 gender of offenders, 72, 94n.16 international rates of, 53, 54 male attitudes toward, 9, 164n.1, 240 marital rape, 223, 407 offender-victim relationships, 5, 79 reporting of, 47-48, 68, 85, 408, 414, 419-420, 421, 422-423 research needs, 126, 340, 350 in schools, 155 series victimizations, 424, 425, 428n.8 sexual preferences and activities of offenders, 111, 112 social construction of, 408 U.S. rates of, 3, 53, 54, 68, 69 victim interventions, 115 victimization risks, 69, 146 Rats, 189, 194, 196 Recidivism, 311-313, 314 Recommendations alcohol and drug abuse, 22-23, 329, 332-334 bias crime intervention, 22, 329, 334 biological and psychosocial development, 22, 205, 206, 328, 329-330 data collection, 21, 23-24, 88-92, 327-328, 335-336 family violence, 22-23, 231, 236, 237, 335, 336 firearm violence, 22, 329, 332 gang activities, 22, 329, 334 illegal market disruption, 22, 328-329, 331 multicommunity longitudinal study, 21, 25, 40, 103, 156-164, 327-328, 341-345 problem-solving initiatives, 21-23, 327, 328-329 research, 21, 24-27, 62, 236, 237, 327, 337-345, 352 robbery interventions, 22, 328, 331 sexual violence, 22, 23, 24, 328, 331, 336 spouse assault, 22-23, 237, 246-248, 329, 334-335 Recreational violence, 261 Relapse prevention therapy, 9, 113, 126, 340, 353n.2 Research needs aggressive behavior, 125-126, 211, 344, 364, 366, 380-381, 382, 391, 392 alcohol use, 211, 332-333, 348 antisocial behavior, 25, 341, 348, 381, 392

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Page 459 arrest policies, 22, 329, 335 assaults, 24, 279, 337, 338 assault weapons, 279, 280 bias crimes, 91 biological factors, 125, 127-129, 206-207, 339 child abuse, 236 child sexual abuse, 126, 340 cocaine use, 13, 207, 211 community-level factors, 139, 145, 157, 162-163, 211-212, 338 costs of research, 344, 345-346, 353n.4 criminal justice system, 381 custodian-ward violence, 24, 337, 341 drug abuse, 206-207, 211-212 evaluation research, 306, 322 family violence, 225, 236, 237, 369 federal funding, 25-26, 345-352 firearm violence, 279-281, 332, 337-338 genetic influences, 211 lethality of weapons, 24, 332, 337 multicommunity longitudinal study, 21, 25, 40, 103, 156-164, 327-328, 341-345 neurobiologic processes, 12, 24, 25, 211, 337, 339, 343 nonviolent crime, 139, 337-338, 348-349 pharmacological restraint, 24, 340 prison violence, 23, 331, 336, 341 psychosocial influences, 12, 24, 337 risk factors, 24, 306, 337 robbery, 24, 57, 279, 336, 337, 338 sexual violence, 24, 112, 126-127, 340-341, 350 social-level influences, 12, 24, 145, 337, 338 spouse assault, 369 victims, 57, 91-92, 225 violence potential, 380-382 violent behavior, xii, 2, 327, 352, 380-382, 391 violent crime, 57, 279-280 violent death, 24, 337 Residential mobility, 131, 132, 133 Reverse-record check studies, 48, 419-420, 426, 427n.4 Riots, ix Risk factors, 39, 289, 343 age, 4, 68-69 for aggressive behavior, 7, 156, 299, 329, 365, 366 aggressiveness as, 103, 105-106 alcohol use, 307, 330, 333 for bias crime, 91 biological, 20, 159, 296, 297 biological markers of, 339 community characteristics, 14-15, 133-134, 146, 147 conditional probabilities, 416-417 for custodian-ward violence, 341 drug use, 13, 191 environmental, 146-149 ethnic status, 4, 14, 50, 65, 66, 68, 69-70, 90, 129-130, 132 gender, 4, 50, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69 interventions in, 23-24, 146, 296-299, 306, 307, 319, 330-331, 344 IQ, 372 matrix of, 20, 296-299, 306 poverty, 70-71, 129, 131-139, 296 predisposing factors, 20, 296, 297, 301-302 psychosocial, 7-8, 20, 103, 105-106, 107, 159, 296, 297, 300 research needs, 23-24, 159, 306, 336, 337 school failure, 14, 105, 304, 358, 370, 384 for sexual violence, 330 situational elements, 20, 296, 297, 300-301, 330-331 social-level, 14-15, 20, 296, 297, 300, 301 socioeconomic status, 14, 61, 68, 70-71, 129-130, 131, 132, 338 temperament, 7, 365, 366 triggering events, 20, 296, 297, 299-300 Robbery, 2, 323n.4, 411 age of offenders, 72, 74 alcohol use and, 185 attempted and completed, 57, 58 of children, 57 city size and, 83, 85, 86 concentration by address, 145 convenience store, 151, 315-317, 323n.10 co-offenders, 75-76 costs of, 4, 60, 345 in criminal careers, 375

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Page 460 data collection, 23, 43-45, 47, 68, 88, 92, 315, 413 deaths in, 61, 92, 151, 263, 413, 416-417, 427n.1 development of violence potential and, 359, 371 drug use and, 186-187, 200, 201-202, 203-204, 210, 410 ethnic status of offenders, 71, 72 firearm interventions and, 268, 275, 276, 278, 283n.8, 417 firearm self-defense in, 261, 266, 282-283n.7 firearm use in, 261, 262, 263, 265, 267, 279, 315 gender of offenders, 72 injuries in, 58, 59, 370, 422 intervention recommendations, 22, 328, 331 offender-victim relationships, 5, 79 preventive interventions, 149, 151, 210, 315-317, 323n.10 reporting of, 47, 68, 413, 414, 419-420, 421, 422 research needs, 24, 57, 279, 336, 337, 338 risk of violence in, 17 in schools, 155, 370 series victimizations, 424, 425 television violence and, 371 U.S. rates of, 3, 53, 54, 55 victimization risks, 69, 146 Rodents, 118, 125, 189-190, 192 Ruiz v. Estelle (Texas, 1980), 153 S St. Vincent's General Hospital Accident and Emergency Center (Sydney), 426-427 San Antonio, Tex., school-failure reduction program, 108, 390 San Diego, Calif., 85 violent crime in, 88, 89 San Jose, Calif., 48 reverse-record check study, 419, 420, 426 Schizophrenia, 362 Schools aggression-reduction interventions in, 108, 125, 307, 329-330, 391 bullying in, 107, 370, 391 desegregation of, 156 and development of violence potential, 357, 370, 371-372, 380-381 failure in, as risk factor, 12, 14, 105, 304, 358, 370, 384 failure-reduction interventions, 125-126, 163, 330, 384, 390, 394 as risk factor, 147-148 substance-abuse prevention, 207, 211-212 violence prevention interventions, 22, 23, 149, 317-319, 328, 390-391 violent crime in, 1, 57, 102, 152, 155-156, 331, 336, 341 Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior, xi Scottsdale, Ariz., 83 Seattle, Wash., homicides in, 268 Self-defense data collection on, 265-266, 282nn.5 and 6, 282-283n.7 firearm use in, 261, 263, 264-267 research on, 275, 276, 279, 281, 338 risks of firearm use in, 266-267, 279 Self-esteem, 367 Self-mutilation, xii Serial homicides, 5, 64, 261 "Series victimizations," 46-47, 423-425 Serotonergic system, 121, 330, 340 alcohol use and, 190, 302 Serotonin and aggressive and violent behavior, 115, 119, 120-121, 127, 128, 158, 339 receptor blocking medications, 120, 121 Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project (SOTEP), 164n.4, 353n.2 Sexual violence. See also Rape alcohol use and, 9, 110, 126, 189, 330, 340 behavioral interventions, 9-10, 22, 113-114, 126, 164n.4, 328, 330, 340 biological influences behind, 110 brain abnormalities and, 122-123

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Page 461 childhood victimization and development, 112, 236 child molestation, 10, 69, 109, 112, 223, 228-229, 231, 235 chromosomal syndromes, 9, 110, 118 data collection, 23, 24, 92, 224, 231, 265, 336, 427n.3 date rape, 47, 407, 408-409 defined, 8, 109 development of individual potential for, 102, 330, 359 drug use and, 185, 186, 203 in family violence, 224, 241 gender and victimization risks, 69, 77, 94n.16, 235 homicide in, 23, 109, 112-113, 336 hormonal mechanisms, 9, 118, 119 male attitudes and, 9, 110-111, 164n.1 marital rape, 223, 407 mental illness and personality disorders, 112-113 motivation in other crimes, 109 offenders, other criminal behavior, 110 pharmacological interventions, 126, 340 pornography and, 9, 111-112 preventive interventions, 9, 114-115, 126, 330, 331 in prison, 152, 154-155 psychological consequences of, 37, 114-115, 236 psychosocial influences behind, 102, 109-115 recommendations, 22, 23, 24, 328, 336 reporting of, 88-90, 94n. 16, 109, 409 research needs, 24, 112, 126-127, 340-341 in schools, 155 self-defense in, 265 sexual preferences and, 9, 109-110, 111 social constructions of, 8, 47, 407, 408-409 U.S. rates of, 53, 55 Shoplifting, 360 Sibling violence, 221, 223, 230 Single-parent households, 133-134, 135, 222, 223 Situational elements, 20, 296, 297, 300-301, 330-331 Skills training, 381 Skyjacking, 149 Social capital, 136, 137, 303, 306 Social controls, 204-205 Social costs, 345-346, 348 Social environment, 148, 305-306 Social information processing model, 379-380 Social isolation, 10-11, 134-135, 241-242, 373 Social learning of aggression and violence, 7, 104, 106, 379, 384 aggressiveness-reduction interventions, 8, 107-108, 384-385, 386 and male-female roles, 240 Social-level influences, 102 in alcohol use and violence, 198-200 community characteristics, 14-15, 133-134 community cultures, 16, 136-138, 143-144, 145 and development of violence potential, 303-306 in drug use and violence, 197-198, 200-205 ethnic status and poverty, 14, 15, 129-130 gang violence, 16-17, 139-145 in multicommunity longitudinal study proposal, 103, 156, 157, 342 poverty and, 129-139, 145, 296 and protective factors, 372 research needs, 12, 24, 145, 337, 338 risk factors, 14-15, 20, 296, 297, 300, 301 socioeconomic structures, 15-16, 134-136, 144-145, 305-306 violence prevention interventions, 334, 391 Social relationships, victim-offender, 77 Social services, 37-38 Social skills training, 8, 125, 329-330, 384, 386-388, 389 Socioeconomic status (SES). See also Income; Poverty

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Page 462 and childhood aggression, 7, 106, 366, 384, 385 and domestic violence, 244 and gang activity, 141-142 and homicide victimization risks, 14, 70, 129-130 and violent victimization risks, 61, 68, 70-71, 131, 132, 338 Sociopathy, 196, 207 Southland Corporation, 316 Spain, homicide rates, 53 Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution in Canada, 111 Spouse assault arrest policies and, 11, 244-245, 246, 247, 248 development of violence potential in offenders, 359, 360, 368-369 federal research support, 349-350 gender and victimization risks, 10, 69, 231, 234-235 homicide, 10, 69, 234-235, 368 injuries from, 225, 237-238 marital rape, 223 prevalence of, 226, 227 recommendations, 22-23, 237, 246-248, 329, 334-335 repeated offenses, 236-237 reporting of, 69, 224, 225, 420 social constructions of, 36, 47, 221, 223, 420 social isolation and, 241 women's shelters and, 244, 245-246, 369 States, 406 alcohol tax rates, 209 bias crimes laws, 407-408 electric shock treatment prohibitions, 9, 113 family laws, 222, 247 gun control laws, 274 mandatory arrest laws, 407 rape laws, 409 "Stay 'N Out" program, 334 Steroids, 339 Suicide, xii, 36 death rates from, 64-65, 67 domestic violence and, 238 ethnic status and, 65 firearm use in, 24, 259, 267-268, 278, 337 monoamine metabolism and, 121 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, 412 Switzerland, gun ownership in, 53 T Taxation, alcohol, 206, 209, 333 Teachers, 405 Teacher training, 389 Television prosocial behavioral promotion, 8, 107-108, 125, 329-330, 384-385 violence, effects on children, 7-8, 101, 106, 371 Temperament and development of violence potential, 7, 105, 357, 358, 364, 365-366, 370 interventions in, 384, 394 as protective factor, 7, 8, 107, 373 research needs, 381 Testosterone levels and aggressive behavior, 115, 119, 189-190, 339, 372 alcohol use and, 118, 189-190 in fetal development, 9, 118, 330 and sexual violence, 9, 118, 330 Texas, prison reform, 153, 154 Theft, 54, 93n.6, 377 attempted and completed, 58 of firearms, 18-19, 269 motor vehicle, 55, 62, 92n.4 Tobacco use, 13, 124, 125, 207 Treatment interventions drug abuse, 208-209, 211-212, 246, 248, 307, 334 sexual violence, 113-114, 115 Triggering events, 20, 296, 297, 299-300 U Unemployment, 138, 146 Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) alcohol-use data, 184 assault counts, 45, 68, 92-93n.5, 427 bias crimes counts, 3, 78, 91, 408 costs of data collection, 353n.4 discrepancies with NCS data, 45,

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Page 463 46, 48, 54-55, 67-68, 93n.9, 413-414 ethnic status data, 90 family violence data, 47, 48, 226, 249n.7, 250n.12, 405, 418, 419 homicide counts, 43, 45, 46, 50, 54, 61, 83, 282n.6, 412 incident-based reporting, 91, 92n.3, 226, 412, 419 injury data, 92-93n.5, 427 methodology, 2, 43, 44, 45-46, 92n.2, 412-413, 423 offender data, 49, 414-415 rape counts, 47-48, 68, 83, 92n.1 recommendations, 90, 91, 226 robbery counts, 45, 68, 315 series-victimization counts, 47 Supplementary Homicide Reports, 49, 64, 266, 282n.6, 413, 415, 427n.2 violent crime counts, 43-45, 49, 54, 55, 56, 67-68, 79, 93n.8 United Kingdom home nurse visitation, 243, 249n.8 violent victimization risks, 146-147 women's shelters, 245 United States causes of death in, 64-65 federal research funding, 25-26, 345-352 firearm mortality rates, 18, 255 firearm ownership in, 256, 260 homicide rates, 1, 3-4, 50, 52-53, 54, 64-65, 83 suicide rates, 238 violent crime injury rates, 59 violent crime rates, 3-4, 50, 52-55 violent victimization risks, 33, 36, 117, 147 women's shelters in, 245 U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 227-228 U.S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, 111 U.S. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography, xi, 111 U.S. Conference of Mayors, 278 U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, xi U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 26, 345 U.S. Department of Justice, 281, 349-350, 408 Office of Justice Programs, 345 Urinalysis, 208, 211-212, 212n.1, 237, 334 V Vancouver, B.C., gun control laws, 268 Vandalism, 103-104 Victims, 411 age of, 4, 68-69 alcohol use in, 198 bias crimes, 77-78 children, 10, 242, 243, 409 conditional probabilities and, 416-417 costs of violence to, 4-5, 59-60, 90-91, 351, 352 data collection on, 2, 23, 45, 46, 48-49, 90, 93n.10, 336, 415 environmental characteristics and, 147 ethnic status of, 5, 10, 14, 50, 69-70, 77, 129, 130 family violence, 10, 11, 223-224, 225, 248, 420 firearm homicide, 257-258 firearm violence, 262 gender of, 5, 50, 69, 77, 80, 262 homicide, 10, 14, 50, 62-67, 130, 142, 368, 415 injuries, 59 relationships with offenders, 5, 76-79, 80 reporting of crimes, 2, 54-55, 225, 248, 413-414, 418-423, 425, 426-427, 427n.5 research needs, 57, 91-92, 225 risks of victimization, 61-71 self-defense, 266-267 series victimizations, 423-425 sexual assault, 409, 422-423 as situational factor, 357 socioeconomic status of, 70-71, 130 tertiary prevention and, 151 women's shelters and, 245-246 Vietnam War, 67 Violence definition of, 2, 35, 36, 37

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Page 464 matrix for understanding and control, 20, 296-299, 306 measurements of, 2-3, 35, 42-43, 335-336, 411 Violence potential, 357-358, 360, 361-363 family influences, 367-369 interventions, 383-394 life transitions and, 371-372 perinatal influences, 364-365 personality influences, 366-367 protective factors, 372-373 research needs, 380-382 school influences, 369-370 television violence and, 371 temperament and, 365-366 theories of, 378-380 Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents (Prothrow-Stith), 317-319 Violent crime. See Crime, violent Violent death. See Death, violent W Washington, D.C. arrestee drug use, 186, 208 drug market intervention, 210 drug-related crime in, 201-202 gun control law, 269, 274, 277, 278 homicide rates in, 188, 269, 277, 278 reverse-record check study, 419 Weapons. See also Firearms; Knives, in violent crime availability of, 117 data collection on, 55-57 lethality of, 24, 149-151, 260-264, 337-338 Welfare programs, 307, 323n.5 West Germany, assaults in, 53 Whites arrest rates, 71 data collection on, 90 firearm homicide risks, 257-258 firearm ownership rates, 256 in gangs, 143 homicide victimization risks, 14, 50, 51, 53, 62, 63, 64, 65, 130 labor-force dominance, 144 life expectancy, 93-94n.13, 94n.14 offender-victim relationships, 77 in poverty, 132, 133 reporting of crimes, 422 single-parent families, 222 suicide risks, 65 violent crime victimization risks, 69-70, 146 Wickersham Commission, xii Women. See Females Women's shelters, 22-23, 244, 245, 246, 307, 329 World Health Organization, 52-53