C

The Landscape of Digital Information Resources in Mathematics and Selected Other Fields

The following is a brief overview of some of the many information resources and tools currently available in mathematics and selected other fields, which offer some insight into the diverse ways that mathematics literature can be used.

**GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES**

Library information services have well-established conceptual schemas and database tools for handling the first five classes of bibliographic objects listed in Chapter 2 (documents, people, organizations, events, and subjects) and the most common relations between objects in these classes. These library services are exemplified by the following cross-disciplinary databases and portals:

- WorldCat
^{1}—a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) global cooperative; - Library of Congress—index of books, both academic and nonacademic;
- SciVerse Scopus—index of abstracts and citations for journal articles
^{2};

_______________________

^{1} OCLC, WorldCat, http://www.worldcat.org/,accessed January 16, 2014.

^{2} Elsevier, “Scopus,” http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus,accessed January 16, 2014.

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.

Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter.
Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

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C
The Landscape of
Digital Information Resources in
Mathematics and Selected Other Fields
The following is a brief overview of some of the many information
resources and tools currently available in mathematics and selected other
fields, which offer some insight into the diverse ways that mathematics
literature can be used.
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC RESOURCES
Library information services have well-established conceptual schemas
and database tools for handling the first five classes of bibliographic ob-
jects listed in Chapter 2 (documents, people, organizations, events, and
subjects) and the most common relations between objects in these classes.
These library services are exemplified by the following cross-disciplinary
databases and portals:
• WorldCat1—a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000
libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the On-
line Computer Library Center (OCLC) global cooperative;
• Library of Congress—index of books, both academic and
nonacademic;
• SciVerse Scopus—index of abstracts and citations for journal
articles2;
1 OCLC, WorldCat, http://www.worldcat.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
2 Elsevier,
“Scopus,” http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus, accessed January 16, 2014.
118

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APPENDIX C 119
• Web of Science3—index of abstracts and citations for journal
articles;
• Google Scholar4—a search engine for research literature capable
of examining full text of articles (not just metadata and abstracts),
ranking returns by citation counts and other criteria, and providing
links to related papers and accessible versions;
• Scopus5—a bibliographic data service covering all academic fields,
offering citation analysis tools, owned by Elsevier;
• Web of Science6—a bibliographic data service covering all aca-
demic fields, offering citation analysis tools, owned by Thompson
Reuters; and
• Microsoft Academic Search7—a relatively new, free search engine
for academic papers and resources, with the capability to identify
papers, authors, conferences, journals, and organizations as first
class objects; display relations between these objects; and the dis-
plays of “citation in context” with snippets from citing documents.
Larger, more loosely defined data structures and services use methods of
massive data analysis (NRC, 2013) for search and discovery on the vastly
larger scale of the World Wide Web. These services have become essential
tools for information retrieval in mathematics as in every other field. They
include the following:
• Google Web Search,8
• Bing,9
• Google Scholar10 (an index of an unknown and not easily esti-
mated number of academic books and articles), and
• Microsoft Academic Search11 (an index of 48 million publications
and more than 20 million authors across a variety of domains with
updates added each week).
3 Thomson Reuters, “Web of Science Core Collection,” http://thomsonreuters.com/web-of-
science/, accessed January 16, 2014.
4 Google Scholar, http://scholar.google.com/, accessed January 16, 2014.
5 Elsevier, Scopus, http://www.scopus.com/home.url, accessed January 16, 2014.
6 Thomson Reuters, “Web of Science,” http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/
science_products/a-z/web_of_science/, accessed January 16, 2014.
7 Microsoft Academic Search, http://academic.research.microsoft.com/, accessed January 16,
2014.
8 Google, https://www.google.com/, accessed January 16, 2014.
9 “Bing,” Wikipedia, last modified January 9, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bing.
10 Google Scholar, http://scholar.google.com/, accessed January 16, 2014.
11 “Microsoft Academic Search,” Wikipedia, last modified January 12, 2014, http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Academic_Search.

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120 DEVELOPING A 21ST CENTURY MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
Other, more specialized indexes provide essential Web services to par-
ticipating partners. These services provide data that are consumed to vary-
ing extents in machine processing by the above services in preparation of
data for display to human users. These indexes include the following:
• CrossRef12 index of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs),13 available
only to participating publishers; and
• ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) index of non-
proprietary alphanumeric codes that uniquely identify academic
authors with annual open data dumps.
RESOURCES FOR THE MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
Specialized Mathematical Databases
Specialized mathematical databases are examples of “bottom up” at-
tempts by the mathematics community to create relatively open, accessible
databases of mathematical facts. There are many specialized databases of
formal information that are of interest to specific communities, such as
those described below.
• On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS)14—This search-
able database of integer sequences provides a brief description for
each sequence, including how that sequence is defined and how it
arises in various contexts, and related formulas, generating func-
tions, code, links, and references (Sloan, 1973; Sloan and Plouffe,
1995). This resource is extremely valuable for researchers in num-
ber theory and combinatorics, where sequences arise naturally. It
is very useful for a researcher encountering an unfamiliar sequence
to check quickly if this sequence has been encountered before and,
if so, what is known about it. OEIS has an active user community,
which it relies on heavily for user contributions. It is licensed under
the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license.15
• EZFace interface for evaluation of Euler sums16—This specialized
computational tool provides for the evaluation of multiple Euler
sums, also known as multiple zeta values. Multiple zeta values are
12 CrossRef, http://www.crossref.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
13 DOI Foundation, DOI, http://www.doi.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
14 On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences® (OEIS®), http://oeis.org/, accessed Janu-
ary 16, 2014.
15 Creative Commons, “Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC 3.0),”
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/, accessed January 16, 2014.
16 EZ-Face, http://oldweb.cecm.sfu.ca/projects/EZFace/, accessed January 16, 2014.

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APPENDIX C 121
functions of a finite sequence of positive integers and are known to
satisfy a myriad of tricky identities. They can sometimes be reduced
to polynomial functions of evaluations of the Riemann zeta function
at integer values. This tool helps researchers who may ncounter
e
such sums to evaluate them using known reduction algorithms.
——Distributome: An Interactive Web-based Resource for Prob-
ability Distributions17—This is an open-source, open content-
development project for exploring, discovering, navigating,
learning, and computationally utilizing diverse probability dis-
tributions. Probability distributions are highly structured math-
ematical objects with fairly universal features, depending on
the space over which a given probability distribution is defined
(discrete, continuous, univariate, multivariate, Euclidian, non-
Euclidean, etc.), such as a probability mass or density func-
tion, distribution function, quantile function, probability and
moment generating function, etc. The interactive Distributome
graphical user Navigator and the Distributome-Editor provide
the following core functions:
oo Visually traverse the space of all well-defined (named)
distributions;
oo Explore the relations between different distributions;
oo Distribution search by keyword, property, and type;
oo Obtain qualitative (e.g., analytic form of density function)
and quantitative (e.g., critical and probability values) in-
formation about each distribution;
oo Discover references and additional distribution resources;
and
oo Revise, add, and edit the properties, interrelations, and
meta-data for various distributions.
Complete Java source code is available with the LGPL license.
• Modular Forms Database18—This database consists of tables re-
lated to modular forms, elliptic curves, and abelian varieties, which
are specialized data of interest to number theorists.
• Multiple Zeta Value Data Mine19—These pages contain tables with
multiple zeta values and Euler sums to allow people to look for
relations, systematics, and patterns. They are expressed in terms
of a basis.
17 Distributome, http://www.distributome.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
18 William A. Stein, The Modular Forms Database, http://modular.math.washington.edu/
Tables/, accessed January 16, 2014.
19 Multiple Zeta Value Data Mine, http://www.nikhef.nl/~form/datamine/datamine.html,
accessed January 16, 2014.

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122 DEVELOPING A 21ST CENTURY MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
• NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions (DLMF)20—This
is the Web version of the authoritative 1,046-page Handbook of
Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathemati-
cal Tables (Abramowitz and Stegun, 1972). The DLMF has been
constructed specifically for effective Web usage and contains fea-
tures unique to Web presentation. The webpages contain many
active links, for example, to the definitions of symbols within the
DLMF, and to external sources of reviews, full texts of articles, and
items of mathematical software. Advanced capabilities have been
developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology
for the DLMF and also as part of a larger research effort intended
to promote the use of the Web as a tool for doing mathematics.
Among these capabilities are the following: a facility to allow us-
ers to download LaTeX and MathML encodings of every formula
into document processors and software packages; a search engine
that allows users to locate formulas based on queries expressed in
mathematical notation; and user-manipulatable three-dimensional
color graphics.
• Information on Enumerative Combinatorics 21—This website
contains a number of supplements to the two-volume textbook
Enumerative Combinatorics,22 including a Catalan Addendum,
a 94-page PDF listing 204 combinatorial interpretations of the
sequence of Catalan numbers. This site structures and curates the
information and makes it available in machine-readable formats to
allow various means of searching, browsing, and reuse.
• Wolfram Functions Site23—This website provides a substantial
collection of formulas and graphics about mathematical func-
tions. The information is fragmented into small packages (which
makes it difficult to browse) and does not include references to
original sources, and it is available only in proprietary formats
(Mathematica® Notebook and PDF).
Currently, there is no unified way to exchange information between
these specialized databases, and it is not clear that there are any incentives
to make these databases talk to each other. Libraries have approached the
interoperability issues at multiple levels. The highest-level and simplest ap-
20 NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions, 2013, http://dlmf.nist.gov/.
21 Information on Enumerative Combinatorics, http://www-math.mit.edu/~rstan/ec/, ac-
cessed January 16, 2014.
22 Stanley, R.P., Enumerative Combinatorics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Vol-
ume 1 (2nd edition, 2011) and Volume 2 (2001).
23 Wolfram Research, Inc., The Wolfram Functions Site, http://functions.wolfram.com/, ac-
cessed on January 16, 2014.

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APPENDIX C 123
proach is the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), which provides for metadata
exchange and federated search. The Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
(OAI-PMH) enables spiders to gather up the cataloging information from
multiple websites and then build a central search engine. The best known
such service is OAISTER, now run by OCLC, which provides a search
of more than 25 million records contributed by more than 1,100 institu-
tions. For example, a search for a map of Polynesia from the 19th century
turns up an 1839 map from the U.S. Hydrographic Office in the Harvard
Map Collection (corrected to 1872). Entries in OAISTER typically have
detailed but conventional library cataloging and refer to whole documents
or objects.
More detailed interoperability methods include the linked open data
movement, which tries to connect individual pieces of data using RDF
(resource description format). RDF entries name two items and a relation
between them, and are thus called “triples.” So, to take an example from
“data.gov.uk”: the triple “John works for Ordnance Survey” would look
something like:
http://www.johngoodwin.me.uk/me →
http://www.intelleo.eu/ontologies/organization/ns/worksFor →
http://data.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/id/ordnancesurvey
(John Goodwin, http://data.gov.uk/blog/what-is-linked-data)
In this example, the triple contains two items which identify John Goodwin
and the Ordnance Survey, and a link between them labeled with “works
for” as a relational concept. In this case, URLs are used for each item, with
the relation taken from an ontology of organizational relations defined
by a European project on learning. Other relations are defined by groups
like the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, which has cataloging-type rela-
tions such as publication date, author, and so on. The ontology for music
( usicontology.com) describes relations such as conductor or artist.
m
Linked data are an example of the general concept of the Semantic Web
introduced by Tim Berners-Lee and are in use in some very large organiza-
tions such as the British Museum. In general, these cooperative catalogs are
based on volunteer contributions and run by some kind of nonprofit group.
Bibliographic Resources
There are currently many bibliographic resources available within
the mathematical sciences as well as the larger scientific community.
Some examples of these mathematical bibliographic resources include the
following:

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124 DEVELOPING A 21ST CENTURY MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
• MathSciNet24 is the online interface to the database of Mathe
matical Reviews maintained by the American Mathematical Society
(AMS) since 1940. It is a carefully maintained and easily searchable
database of reviews, abstracts, and bibliographic information for
much of the mathematical sciences literature. More than 100,000
new items are added each year, most of them classified accord-
ing to the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC). Authors are
uniquely identified, enabling a search for publications by individual
author rather than by name string. Expert reviewers are selected by
a staff of professional mathematicians to write reviews of the cur-
rent published literature; more than 80,000 reviews are added to
the database each year. MathSciNet contains more than 2.8 million
items and more than 1.6 million direct links to original articles.
Bibliographic data from retro-digitized articles dates back to the
early 1800s. Reference lists are collected and matched internally
from approximately 500 journals, and citation data for journals,
authors, articles, and reviews is provided. This Web of citations
allows users to track the history and influence of research publica-
tions in the mathematical sciences. MathSciNet is a major revenue
generator for AMS, for which reason the database contents are
closely protected by copyright and licensing.
• Zentralblatt MATH (zbMATH)25 is a thorough and long-running
abstracting and reviewing service in pure and applied mathemat-
ics. The zbMATH database contains more than 3 million biblio-
graphic entries with reviews or abstracts drawn from more than
3,500 journals and 1,100 serials and covers the period from 1826
to the present. Reviews are written by more than 10,000 inter-
national experts, and the entries are classified according to the
MSC scheme (MSC 2010). zbMATH covers published and refereed
articles, books, and conferences as well as other publication for-
mats (CD-ROM, DVD, videotapes, Web documents). Within cur-
rent electronic library activities retrospective data of journals are
made available even prior to 1868. The bibliographic information
and links to the full text are stored within zbMATH if available.
The current number of new items added to zbMATH is about
120,000 per year. More than 50 percent of the items core areas
are independent reviews by experts, the remainder are abstracts
and summaries of comparable quality. zbMATH is run jointly by
the European Mathematical ociety, FIZ Karlsruhe, and Springer-
S
24 American Mathematical Society, MathSciNet, http://www.ams.org/mathscinet/, accessed
January 16, 2014.
25 zbMATH, http://zbmath.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.

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APPENDIX C 125
Verlag. zbMATH is a subscription service but allows nonsubscrib-
ers to ask queries and access the zbMATH author profile pages,26
which are freely accessible.
• Ulf Rehmann’s DML page27 lists retro-digitized mathematics
links to nearly 5,000 digitized books and to nearly 600 digitized
j
ournals/seminars. This is a major resource for discovering infor-
mation that has already been digitized. The webpage also lists more
than 2,800 journals that have been digitized whole or in part and
notes whether they are free or require a paid subscription.
• AMS Digital Mathematics Registry28 provides centralized access
to certain collections of digitized publications in the mathematical
sciences. The registry is primarily focused on older material from
journals and journal-like book series that originally appeared in
print but now are available in digital form.
• AMS eBooks29 includes retrospective digitization of Contemporary
Mathematics back to the beginning of the series in 1980.
• European Digital Mathematics Library (EuDML)30 makes a sig-
nificant portion of European mathematics literature available on-
line: more than 200,000 publications, in the form of an enduring
digital collection, developed and maintained by a network of in-
stitutions. A unified metadata schema was developed and adopted
by all providers. The library offers a number of features including
the following:
——Metadata search over the entire corpus,
——Reference and citation lists,
——Capability for users to make lists and annotations,
——An API for metadata search over the entire corpus, and
——Some capability for formula search.
Encyclopedia Resources
Some encyclopedia resources are listed below.
26 zbMATH, Authors search, http://zbmath.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
27 DML: Digital Mathematics Library, http://www.mathematik.uni-bielefeld.de/~rehmann/
DML/dml_links.html, accessed January 16, 2014.
28 American Mathematical Society, Digital Mathematics Registry, update date December 16,
2013, http://www.ams.org/dmr/index.html.
29 American Mathematical Society, eBooks Program, http://www.ams.org/publications/
ebooks/ebooks.
30 European Digital Mathematics Library, EuDML, https://project.eudml.org/, accessed
January 16, 2014.

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126 DEVELOPING A 21ST CENTURY MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
• MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive31 contains biographies
of several thousand historical and contemporary mathematicians
as well as an index of famous curves and histories of various math-
ematical topics. The full text is freely available, with no formal
copyright or licensing restrictions.
• On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences is described above in
the “Specialized Mathematical Databases” discussion.
• Mathematics Genealogy Project32 aims to list all individuals who
have received a doctorate in mathematics, providing the following
information:
——The complete name of the degree recipient,
——The name of the university that awarded the degree,
——The year in which the degree was awarded,
——The complete title of the dissertation, and
——The complete name(s) of the advisor(s).
The Mathematics Genealogy Project contains more than 170,000
r
ecords. Individual pages can be freely copied without explicit
licensing or copyright restriction, but data are not made available
in bulk, and there is no API.
• Wolfram’s MathWorld33 is a comprehensive and interactive encyclo-
pedia of mathematical equations, terms, derivations, and more, for
students, educators, math enthusiasts, and researchers.
• Wikipedia34 is perhaps the most well known of all online encyclo
pedia resources. It also houses a wide array of mathematical con-
tent, generally very useful as a first place to look for the definition
of a mathematical concept. Wikipedia uses Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA) license.
• Encyclopedia of Mathematics35 is an open access wiki that in-
cludes original articles from the online Encyclopedia of Mathemat-
ics (2002) as well as user-added articles, totaling more than 8,000
entries and nearly 50,000 notions in mathematics. Springer, in
cooperation with the European Mathematical Society, has made the
content of this encyclopedia freely open to the public. The original
31 University of St Andrews, Scotland, The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive,
October 2013, http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/.
32 North Dakota State University, Mathematics Genealogy Project, http://genealogy.math.
ndsu.nodak.edu/, accessed January 16, 2014.
33 Wolfram MathWorld, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/, accessed January 16, 2014.
34 Wikipedia, http://www.wikipedia.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
35 Encyclopedia of Mathematics, http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php/, accessed
January 16, 2014.

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APPENDIX C 127
articles from the Encyclopedia of Mathematics remain copyrighted
to Springer, but any new articles added and any changes made to
existing articles within encyclopediaofmath.org will come under
the CC-BY-SA license. An editorial board, under the management
of the European Mathematical Society, monitors any changes to ar-
ticles and has full scientific authority over alterations and deletions.
This wiki is a MediaWiki that uses the MathJax extension, making
it possible to insert mathematical equations in TeX and LaTeX.
• The Stacks Project36 website is an open source textbook and refer-
ence work on algebraic stacks and the algebraic geometry needed
to define them. The Stacks Project aims to build up enough basic
algebraic geometry to serve as foundations for algebraic stacks.
Specialized Mathematical Resources
Several specialized mathematical resources are available to the math-
ematics community. Some of these resources include the following:
• MathOverflow37 is an online resource that allows users to ask and
answer research-level mathematics questions such as arise when
writing or reading articles or graduate-level books. Users gain writ-
ing authority on the site by building up reputation points. Math-
ematics display support is provided with MathJaX from LaTeX
source. MathOverflow runs on Stack Exchange, the hosted service
that provides the same software as the popular programming Q&A
site Stack Overflow. The hosting cost is paid from the research funds
of Ravi Vakil at Stanford University. User-ontributed content is
c
licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.
• Wolfram|Alpha38 is a “computational knowledge engine” devel-
oped as an online service by Wolfram Research. It answers factual
queries by computation of the answer from an internal database of
mathematical and factual data acquired from diverse data sources.
Both free and premium services are available. Underlying software
combines natural language processing of queries with symbolic
computation using Mathematica. Numerous mathematical con-
cepts, such as sequences, functions, and probability distributions
are recognized and displayed in ways that respect their mathemati-
cal structure.
36 The Stacks Project, http://stacks.math.columbia.edu/, accessed January 16, 2014.
37 MathOverflow, http://mathoverflow.net/, accessed January 16, 2014.
38 Wolfram|Alpha, search engine, http://www.wolframalpha.com/, accessed January 16,
2014.

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128 DEVELOPING A 21ST CENTURY MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
• Selected Papers Network39,40 is a free, open-source project aimed at
improving the way people find, read, and share academic papers.
This project is not a website with a system for reviewing, evaluat-
ing, rewarding, etc. Rather, it is an environment that makes it easy
to build one’s own systems, which allows for more flexibility when
needed.
• Tricki41 is a Wiki-style site intended to develop into a large store
of useful mathematical problem-solving techniques. Some of these
techniques are very general, and others concern particular subareas
of mathematics spanning all levels of experience. This project is
largely inactive now after failing to acquire critical mass of users.
SELECTED RELATED EFFORTS
Many disciplines have ongoing efforts that aim to bring diverse
d
iscipline-specific information together, and many of these hold valuable
lessons for the mathematics community. The following are a few illustra-
tions of such efforts.
• Digital Library Federation Aquifer (DLF Aquifer)42 promotes
effective use of distributed digital library content for teaching,
learning, and research in the area of American culture and life. It
supports scholarly discovery and access by developing schemas,
protocols, and communities of practice to make digital content
available to scholars and students where they do their work, and
by developing the best possible systems for finding, identifying, and
using digital resources in context.
• Project Bamboo43 is a partnership of 10 research universities build-
ing shared infrastructure for humanities research. Led by the Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, one of the goals of this project is to
design research environments where scholars may discover, ana-
lyze, and curate digital texts across the 450 years of print culture
in English from 1473 until 1923, along with the texts from the
Classical world upon which that print culture is based.
• Research Papers in Economics44 is a collaborative effort of hun-
dreds of volunteers in 75 countries to enhance the dissemination
39 SelectedPapers, https://selectedpapers.net/, accessed January 16, 2014.
40 “The Selected-Papers Network,” Gower’s Weblog, June 16, 2013, http://gowers. ordpress.
w
com/2013/06/16/the-selected-papers-network/.
41 Tricki, http://www.tricki.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
42 DLF Aquifer, http://old.diglib.org/aquifer/ (no longer maintained as of June 2010).
43 Project Bamboo, http://www.projectbamboo.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.
44 RePEc, http://repec.org/, accessed January 16, 2014.

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APPENDIX C 129
of research in economics and related sciences. The heart of the
project is a decentralized bibliographic database of working papers,
journal articles, books, books chapters, and software components,
all maintained by volunteers. The collected data are then used in
various services.
• Digital Library of Chemistry Education45 provides an integrated
guide to chemistry textbooks and allows both students and edu-
cators to explore chemistry. The ChemEd DL repository can be
searched for resource groups within particular domains of chemis-
try, such as organic or physical. Resource groups relate to specific
topics, such as bonding or kinetics, and are associated with specific
elements. ChemEd also allows users to search by topics and look
up definitions of terms. The provided glossary is extensive.
• Digital Library of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
B
ioMoleculesAlive.org is a collection of digital resources sponsored
by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It
is part of a larger effort called the BioSciEdNet (BEN) initiative.46
The collection includes resources in five areas: software, visual
resources, curriculum resources, reviews, and articles from the
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education journal. Efforts
on the Web interface, database design, and tools and guidelines
for submission to BioMoleculesAlive.org began in 2003 and are
still ongoing.
• Astrophysics Data Service (ADS).47 Also known as the Digital
Library for Physics and Astronomy, this library is maintained by
the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, working with NASA
and the community of astronomers and astrophysicists, and links
to more than 10 million papers in astronomy and related areas. An
unusual aspect of this system is that it not only catalogs papers, but
also tries to link papers to the astronomical objects to which they
refer. A user can see papers that refer to a specific star or galaxy,
via volunteer tagging of all papers with star catalog entries. NASA
provides the base funding for ADS.
• U.S. Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Astronomers have access
to a variety of sky images, including some interfaces designed for
the general public, such as Google Sky or the WorldWide Telescope
(Microsoft). Digital imagery exists at multiple wavelengths, includ-
45 ChemEd DL: Chemical Education Digital Library, http://www.chemeddl.org/, accessed
January 16, 2014.
46 National Science Digital Library, Ben: BiosciEdNet, http://www.biosciednet.org, accessed
January 16, 2014.
47 SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), http://www.adsabs.harvard.edu/, accessed
January 16, 2014.

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130 DEVELOPING A 21ST CENTURY MATHEMATICS LIBRARY
ing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey showing visible light, the Two
Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Chandra X-ray Observatory,
and so on. These databases are unified via the Virtual Observatory
program, including the Euro-VO in Europe and others. Funding for
the U.S. Virtual Observatory has been provided by NSF and NASA,
but the organization is attempting to find a new support model.
• National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The
N
ational Library of Medicine maintains many important bio
medical data resources. Full articles are stored in PubMed
Central,48 which receives medical articles deposited by authors
working on NIH-funded research (after an embargo period). It
currently contains 2.8 million articles. More detailed data is stored
in several specific resources such as GenBank or OMIM (Online
Mendelian Inheritance in Man). NCBI also provides software tools
such as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). All these re-
sources are funded by NIH in the United States. A number of other
organizations support tools for molecular biology. For example,
EMBL (the European Molecular Biology Laboratory) provides bio
informatic services including tools for sequencing, structural analy-
sis, microscopy, and so on. Other groups that provide molecular
biology tools include the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the
Craig Venter Institute, and commercial suppliers. EMBL is funded
by a consortium of nations not exactly overlapping the European
Union, but close. The Wellcome Trust is endowed under the will of
Sir Henry Wellcome, the Venter Institute is supported by J. Craig
Venter and others, and so on.
• Digital Public Library of America. Numerous libraries have pro-
vided cataloging information to the Digital Public Library of
America, which provides links to more than 2 million items in its
member libraries. There are currently more than 400 participating
libraries, including the many libraries aggregated by state library
systems. The organization is a cooperative of its members, aggre-
gated into “hubs.”
• Chemical Abstracts.49 The American Chemical Society operates
one of the largest and oldest scientific information services. Chemi-
cal Abstracts Service indexes and abstracts the chemical literature
and maintains an authority file of chemical compounds, with more
than 70 million entries. It also keeps track of reactions, sup liers,
p
48 NationalLibrary of Medicine, PubMed, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, accessed
January 16, 2014.
49 American Chemical Society, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), http://www.cas.org/, ac-
cessed January 16, 2014.

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APPENDIX C 131
and other chemical information resources. Chemical Abstracts
dates back to 1907 and is one of the most exhaustive services,
with a history of seeking out all important chemical information,
wherever it is published. In its early years, it was largely supported
by major chemical companies, but for decades has been funded
by users, typically university libraries or industrial organizations
in chemistry, chemical engineering, biomedicine, or related areas.
• Internet Public Library. The Internet Public Library is a resource to
provide answers to questions, particularly questions from students
and educators. It also maintains some information collections.
Originally operated at the University of Michigan with funding
from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, it is now run by Drexel Uni-
versity with support from a group of about 20 universities.
REFERENCES
Abramowitz, M., and I.A. Stegun, eds. 1972. Handbook of Mathematical Functions with
Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. Dover Publications, New York.
National Research Council. 2013. Frontiers in Massive Data Analysis. The National Acad-
emies Press, Washington, D.C.
Sloane, N.J.A. 1973. A Handbook of Integer Sequences. Academic Press, Boston, Mass.
Sloane, N.J.A., and S. Plouffe. 1995. The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. Academic Press,
San Diego, Calif.

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